The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present. As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are uncertain; the name Oligocene was coined in 1854 by the German paleontologist Heinrich Ernst Beyrich. The Oligocene is followed by the Miocene Epoch; the Oligocene is the final epoch of the Paleogene Period. The Oligocene is considered an important time of transition, a link between the archaic world of the tropical Eocene and the more modern ecosystems of the Miocene. Major changes during the Oligocene included a global expansion of grasslands, a regression of tropical broad leaf forests to the equatorial belt; the start of the Oligocene is marked by a notable extinction event called the Grande Coupure. By contrast, the Oligocene–Miocene boundary is not set at an identified worldwide event but rather at regional boundaries between the warmer late Oligocene and the cooler Miocene.
Oligocene faunal stages from youngest to oldest are: The Paleogene Period general temperature decline is interrupted by an Oligocene 7-million-year stepwise climate change. A deeper 8.2 °C, 400,000-year temperature depression leads the 2 °C, seven-million-year stepwise climate change 33.5 Ma. The stepwise climate change began 32.5 Ma and lasted through to 25.5 Ma, as depicted in the PaleoTemps chart. The Oligocene climate change was a global increase in ice volume and a 55 m decrease in sea level with a related temperature depression; the 7-million-year depression abruptly terminated within 1–2 million years of the La Garita Caldera eruption at 28–26 Ma. A deep 400,000-year glaciated Oligocene Miocene boundary event is recorded at McMurdo Sound and King George Island. During this epoch, the continents continued to drift toward their present positions. Antarctica became more isolated and developed an ice cap. Mountain building in western North America continued, the Alps started to rise in Europe as the African plate continued to push north into the Eurasian plate, isolating the remnants of the Tethys Sea.
A brief marine incursion marks the early Oligocene in Europe. Marine fossils from the Oligocene are rare in North America. There appears to have been a land bridge in the early Oligocene between North America and Europe, since the faunas of the two regions are similar. Sometime during the Oligocene, South America was detached from Antarctica and drifted north towards North America, it allowed the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to flow cooling the Antarctic continent. Angiosperms continued their expansion throughout the world as tropical and sub-tropical forests were replaced by temperate deciduous forests. Open plains and deserts became more common and grasses expanded from their water-bank habitat in the Eocene moving out into open tracts; however at the end of the period, grass was not quite common enough for modern savannas. In North America, subtropical species dominated with cashews and lychee trees present, temperate trees such as roses and pines were common; the legumes spread, while sedges and ferns continued their ascent.
More open landscapes allowed animals to grow to larger sizes than they had earlier in the Paleocene epoch 30 million years earlier. Marine faunas became modern, as did terrestrial vertebrate fauna on the northern continents; this was more as a result of older forms dying out than as a result of more modern forms evolving. Many groups, such as equids, rhinos and camelids, became more able to run during this time, adapting to the plains that were spreading as the Eocene rainforests receded; the first felid, originated in Asia during the late Oligocene and spread to Europe. South America was isolated from the other continents and evolved a quite distinct fauna during the Oligocene; the South American continent became home to strange animals such as pyrotheres and astrapotheres, as well as litopterns and notoungulates. Sebecosuchians, terror birds, carnivorous metatheres, like the borhyaenids remained the dominant predators. Brontotheres died out in the Earliest Oligocene, creodonts died out outside Africa and the Middle East at the end of the period.
Multituberculates, an ancient lineage of primitive mammals that originated back in the Jurassic became extinct in the Oligocene, aside from the gondwanatheres. The Oligocene was home to a wide variety of strange mammals. A good example of this would be the White River Fauna of central North America, which were a semiarid prairie home to many different types of endemic mammals, including entelodonts like Archaeotherium, running rhinoceratoids, three-toed equids, nimravids and early canids like Hesperocyon. Merycoidodonts, an endemic American group, were diverse during this time. In Asia during the Oligocene, a group of running rhinoceratoids gave rise to the indricotheres, like Paraceratherium, which were the largest land mammals to walk the Earth; the marine animals of Oligocene oceans resembled today's fauna, such as the bivalves. Calcareous cirratulids appeared in the Oligocene; the fossil record of marine mammals is a little spotty during this time, not as well known as the Eocene o
The Tachinidae are a large and variable family of true flies within the insect order Diptera, with more than 8,200 known species and many more to be discovered. Over 1300 species have been described in North America alone. Insects in this family are called tachina flies or tachinids; as far as is known, they all are protelean parasitoids, or parasites, of arthropods other insects. The family is known from many habitats in all zoogeographical regions and is diverse in South America. Reproductive strategies vary between Tachinid species but not always according to their respective life cycles; this means. Comparatively few are restricted to a single host species, so there is little tendency towards the close co-evolution one finds in the adaptations of many specialist species to their hosts, such as are typical of protelean parasitoids among the Hymenoptera. Larvae of most members of this family are parasitoids. In contrast a few are parasitic. Tachinid larvae feed on the host tissues, either after having been injected into the host by the parent, or penetrating the host from outside.
Various species have different modes of oviposition and of host invasion. Tachinid larvae are endoparasites of caterpillars of butterflies and moths, or the eruciform larvae of sawflies. For example, they have been found to lay eggs in African sugarcane borer larva, a species of moth common in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the more northerly Arctic woolly bear moth. However, some species attack some attack beetle larvae. Others attack various types of true bugs, others attack grasshoppers. Parasitised are bees and sawflies; the majority of female Tachinids lay white, ovoid eggs with flat undersides onto the skin of the host insect. Imms mentions the genera Gymnosoma, Thrixion and Eutachina as examples. In a related strategy some genera are ovoviviparous and deposit a hatching larva onto the host. For example, this occurs in Tachinidae species which parasitize the butterfly Danaus chrysippus in Ghana; the free larvae bore into the host's body. Illustrative genera include: Exorista and Plagia. Many Tachinid eggs hatch having developed inside the mother's uterus, long and coiled for retaining developing eggs.
However, it is suggested that the primitive state is to stick unembryonated eggs to the surface of the host. Many other species inject eggs into the host's body, using the extensible, penetrating part of their ovipositor, sometimes called the oviscapt, which translates to "egg digger". Species in the genera Ocyptera and Compsilura are examples. Only one egg is laid on or in any individual host, accordingly such an egg tends to be large, as is typical for eggs laid in small numbers, they are large enough to be visible if stuck onto the outside of the host, they are so stuck that eggs cannot be removed from the skin of the host without killing them. Furthermore, scientists have observed in studies with the host cabbage looper that being glued to the host insect helps maggots burrow into the larva, where they remain until developed, yet another strategy of oviposition among some Tachinidae is to lay large numbers of small, darkly coloured eggs on the food plants of the host species. Sturmia and Gonia are such genera.
Many Tachinids are important natural enemies of major insect pests, some species are used in biological pest control. Conversely, certain tachinid flies. One notorious silkworm pest is the Uzi fly. Another reproductive strategy is to leave the eggs in the host's environment, for example the female might lay on leaves, where the host is to ingest them; some tachinids that are parasitoids of stem-boring caterpillars deposit eggs outside the host's burrow, letting the first instar larvae do the work of finding the host for themselves. In other species, the maggots use an ambush technique, waiting for the host to pass and attacking it and burrowing into its body. Adult Tachinids are not parasitic, but either do not feed at all or visit flowers, decaying matter, or similar sources of energy to sustain themselves until they have concluded their procreative activities, their non-parasitic behaviour after eclosion from the pupa is what justifies the application of the term "protelean". Tachinid flies are varied in appearance.
Some adult flies may be brilliantly colored and resemble blow-flies. Most however are rather drab, some resembling house flies. However, Tachinid flies are more bristly and more robust, they have a characteristic appearance. They have three-segmented antennae, a diagnostically prominent postscutellum bulging beneath the scutellum, they are aristate flies, the arista is bare, though sometimes plumose. The calypters are very large, their fourth long vein bends away sharply. Adult flies feed on flowers and nectar from aphids and scale insects; as many species feed on pollen, they can be important pollinators of some p
Danaus genutia, the common tiger, is one of the common butterflies of India. It belongs to the "crows and tigers", that is, the Danainae group of the brush-footed butterflies family; the butterfly is called striped tiger in India to differentiate it from the common plain tiger, Danaus chrysippus. The species was first described by Pieter Cramer in 1779; the butterfly resembles the monarch butterfly of the Americas. The wingspan is 7 to 95 millimetres. Both sexes of the butterfly have tawny wings with veins marked with broad black bands; the male has a pouch on the hindwing. The margins of the wings are black with two rows of white spots; the underside of the wings is paler in colouration. The male common tiger has a prominent black-and-white spot on the underside of the hindwing. In drier regions the tawny part of the hindwing pales and approaches white in colour making it similar to the white tiger. D. genutia is distributed throughout India, Sri Lanka and extending to South-East Asia and Australia.
At least in the South Asian part of its range it is common, locally common. This butterfly occurs in scrub jungles, fallowland adjacent to habitation and moist deciduous forests, preferring areas of moderate to heavy rainfall. Occurs in degraded hill slopes and ridges, bare or denuded, those covered with secondary growth. While it is a strong flier, it never flies or high, it has faster strokes than the plain tiger. The butterfly ranges forth in search of its nectar plants, it visits gardens where it nectars on the flowers of Adelocaryum, Celosia, Lantana and similar flowers. Members of this genus are tough to kill and fake death. Since they are unpleasant to smell and taste, they are soon released by the predators and fly off soon thereafter; the butterfly sequesters toxins from its food plants of the family Asclepiadaceae. The butterflies congregate with other danaiines to sip from the sap of Crotalaria and other plants which provide the pyrrolizidine alkaloids which they sequester. A study in north-eastern India showed a preference to foraging on Crotalaria juncea compared to Bauhinia purpurea, Barleria cristata rosea and Nerium oleander.
To advertise their unpalatability, the butterfly has prominent markings with a striking colour pattern. The striped tiger is mimicked by both sexes of the Indian Tamil lacewing and the leopard lacewing and females of the common palmfly. ढाण्या कडवा किंवा पट्टेवाला या फुलपाखराचा शोध इ.स. 1779 मध्ये पीटर क्रेमर यांनी लावला. सर्वसामान्यपणे आढळणाऱ्या या फुलपाखरांची एक गंमत आहे ती म्हणजे याला खाणाऱ्या शत्रू पासून बचाव करण्यासाठी हे शिकार झाल्यासारखे किंवा मेल्याचे सोंग खूप चांगल्या प्रकारे करते, जेणेकरून समोरच्या शिकाऱ्यापासून संरक्षण व्हावे या हेतूने. This butterfly lays its egg singly under the leaves of any of its host plants of family Asclepiadaceae; the caterpillar is marked with bluish-white and yellow spots and lines. It has three pairs of tentacles on its body, it first eats the eggshell and proceeds to eat leaves and vegetative parts of the plant. The chrysalis is marked with golden-yellow spots; the caterpillar of the common tiger butterfly obtains a supply of poison by eating poisonous plants, which make the caterpillar and butterfly a distasteful morsel for predators.
The most common food plants of the common tiger in peninsular India are small herbs and creepers from the family Asclepiadaceae, including: Asclepias curassavica Ceropegia intermedia Cynanchum dalhousieae Raphistemma pulchellum Stephanotis species Tylophora tenuis It has some 16 subspecies. D. g. genutia D. g. sumatrana Moore, 1883 D. g. intermedia D. g. conspicua Butler, 1866 D. g. niasicus Fruhstorfer, 1899 D. g. intensa D. g. partita D. g. leucoglene C. & R. Felder, 1865 D. g. tychius Fruhstorfer, 1910 D. g. telmissus Fruhstorfer, 1910 D. g. wetterensis D. g. laratensis D. g. kyllene Fruhstorfer, 1910 D. g. alexis Danainae Nymphalidae List of butterflies of India List of butterflies of India Bhuyan, M.. Nectar host plant selection and floral probing by the Indian butterfly Danaus genutia. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 38: 79-84. PDF fulltext Evans, W. H.. The Identification of Indian Butterflies. Mumbai, India: Bombay Natural History Society.. Kunte, Krushnamegh. Butterflies of Peninsular India.
India, A Lifescape. Hyderabad, India: Universities Press. ISBN 978-8173713545. Smith, David A. S.. A classification of Danaus butterflies based upon data from morphology and DNA. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 144: 191–212. Doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2005.00169.x Wynter-Blyth, Mark Alexander. Butterflies of the Indian Region. Bombay, India: Bombay Natural History Society. ISBN 978-8170192329. Sri Lanka Wild Information Database
An arthropod is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a segmented body, paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euarthropoda, which includes insects, arachnids and crustaceans; the term Arthropoda as proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora. Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin mineralised with calcium carbonate; the arthropod body plan consists of each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting. Arthopods are bilaterally symmetrical and their body possesses an external skeleton; some species have wings. Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments, they have over a million described species, making up more than 80 per cent of all described living animal species, some of which, unlike most other animals, are successful in dry environments. Arthropods range in size from the microscopic crustacean Stygotantulus up to the Japanese spider crab.
Arthropods' primary internal cavity is a haemocoel, which accommodates their internal organs, through which their haemolymph – analogue of blood – circulates. Like their exteriors, the internal organs of arthropods are built of repeated segments, their nervous system is "ladder-like", with paired ventral nerve cords running through all segments and forming paired ganglia in each segment. Their heads are formed by fusion of varying numbers of segments, their brains are formed by fusion of the ganglia of these segments and encircle the esophagus; the respiratory and excretory systems of arthropods vary, depending as much on their environment as on the subphylum to which they belong. Their vision relies on various combinations of compound eyes and pigment-pit ocelli: in most species the ocelli can only detect the direction from which light is coming, the compound eyes are the main source of information, but the main eyes of spiders are ocelli that can form images and, in a few cases, can swivel to track prey.
Arthropods have a wide range of chemical and mechanical sensors based on modifications of the many setae that project through their cuticles. Arthropods' methods of reproduction and development are diverse; the evolutionary ancestry of arthropods dates back to the Cambrian period. The group is regarded as monophyletic, many analyses support the placement of arthropods with cycloneuralians in a superphylum Ecdysozoa. Overall, the basal relationships of Metazoa are not yet well resolved; the relationships between various arthropod groups are still debated. Aquatic species use either external fertilization. All arthropods lay eggs, but scorpions give birth to live young after the eggs have hatched inside the mother. Arthropod hatchlings vary from miniature adults to grubs and caterpillars that lack jointed limbs and undergo a total metamorphosis to produce the adult form; the level of maternal care for hatchlings varies from nonexistent to the prolonged care provided by scorpions. Arthropods contribute to the human food supply both directly as food, more indirectly as pollinators of crops.
Some species are known to spread severe disease to humans and crops. The word arthropod comes from the Greek ἄρθρον árthron, "joint", πούς pous, i.e. "foot" or "leg", which together mean "jointed leg". Arthropods are invertebrates with jointed limbs; the exoskeleton or cuticles consists of a polymer of glucosamine. The cuticle of many crustaceans, beetle mites, millipedes is biomineralized with calcium carbonate. Calcification of the endosternite, an internal structure used for muscle attachments occur in some opiliones. Estimates of the number of arthropod species vary between 1,170,000 and 5 to 10 million and account for over 80 per cent of all known living animal species; the number of species remains difficult to determine. This is due to the census modeling assumptions projected onto other regions in order to scale up from counts at specific locations applied to the whole world. A study in 1992 estimated that there were 500,000 species of animals and plants in Costa Rica alone, of which 365,000 were arthropods.
They are important members of marine, freshwater and air ecosystems, are one of only two major animal groups that have adapted to life in dry environments. One arthropod sub-group, insects, is the most species-rich member of all ecological guilds in land and freshwater environments; the lightest insects weigh less than 25 micrograms. Some living crustaceans are much larger; the embryos of all arthropods are segmented, built from a series of repeated modules. The last common ancestor of living arthropods consisted of a series of undifferentiated segments, each with a pair of appendages that functioned as limbs. However, all known living and fossil arthropods have grouped segments into tagmata in which segments and their limbs are specialized in various ways; the three-
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths. About 180,000 species of the Lepidoptera are described, in 126 families and 46 superfamilies, 10 per cent of the total described species of living organisms, it is one of the most widespread and recognizable insect orders in the world. The Lepidoptera show many variations of the basic body structure that have evolved to gain advantages in lifestyle and distribution. Recent estimates suggest the order may have more species than earlier thought, is among the four most speciose orders, along with the Hymenoptera and Coleoptera. Lepidopteran species are characterized by more than three derived features; the most apparent is the presence of scales that cover the bodies, a proboscis. The scales are modified, flattened "hairs", give butterflies and moths their wide variety of colors and patterns. All species have some form of membranous wings, except for a few that have reduced wings or are wingless. Mating and the laying of eggs are carried out by adults near or on host plants for the larvae.
Like most other insects and moths are holometabolous, meaning they undergo complete metamorphosis. The larvae are called caterpillars, are different from their adult moth or butterfly forms, having a cylindrical body with a well-developed head, mandible mouth parts, three pairs of thoracic legs and from none up to five pairs of prolegs; as they grow, these larvae change in appearance, going through a series of stages called instars. Once matured, the larva develops into a pupa. A few butterflies and many moth species spin a silk case or cocoon prior to pupating, while others do not, instead going underground. A butterfly pupa, called a chrysalis, has a hard skin with no cocoon. Once the pupa has completed its metamorphosis, a sexually mature adult emerges; the Lepidoptera have, over millions of years, evolved a wide range of wing patterns and coloration ranging from drab moths akin to the related order Trichoptera, to the brightly colored and complex-patterned butterflies. Accordingly, this is the most recognized and popular of insect orders with many people involved in the observation, collection, rearing of, commerce in these insects.
A person who collects or studies this order is referred to as a lepidopterist. Butterflies and moths play an important role in the natural ecosystem as pollinators and as food in the food chain. In many species, the female may produce from 200 to 600 eggs, while in others, the number may approach 30,000 eggs in one day; the caterpillars hatching from these eggs can cause damage to large quantities of crops. Many moth and butterfly species are of economic interest by virtue of their role as pollinators, the silk they produce, or as pest species; the term was coined by Linnaeus in 1735 and is derived from Greek λεπίς, gen. λεπίδος and πτερόν. Sometimes, the term Rhopalocera is used for the clade of all butterfly species, derived from the Ancient Greek ῥόπαλον and κέρας meaning "club" and "horn" coming from the shape of the antennae of butterflies; the origins of the common names "butterfly" and "moth" are varied and obscure. The English word butterfly is with many variations in spelling. Other than that, the origin is unknown, although it could be derived from the pale yellow color of many species' wings suggesting the color of butter.
The species of Heterocera are called moths. The origins of the English word moth are more clear, deriving from the Old English moððe" from Common Germanic, its origins are related to Old English maða meaning "maggot" or from the root of "midge", which until the 16th century was used to indicate the larva in reference to devouring clothes. The etymological origins of the word "caterpillar", the larval form of butterflies and moths, are from the early 16th century, from Middle English catirpel, catirpeller an alteration of Old North French catepelose: cate, cat + pelose, hairy; the Lepidoptera are among the most successful groups of insects. They are found on all continents, except Antarctica, inhabit all terrestrial habitats ranging from desert to rainforest, from lowland grasslands to mountain plateaus, but always associated with higher plants angiosperms. Among the most northern dwelling species of butterflies and moths is the Arctic Apollo, found in the Arctic Circle in northeastern Yakutia, at an altitude of 1500 m above sea level.
In the Himalayas, various Apollo species such as Parnassius epaphus have been recorded to occur up to an altitude of 6,000 m above sea level. Some lepidopteran species exhibit symbiotic, phoretic, or parasitic lifestyles, inhabiting the bodies of organisms rather than the environment. Coprophagous pyralid moth species, called sloth moths, such as Bradipodicola hahneli and Cryptoses choloepi, are unusual in that they are found inhabiting the fur of sloths, mammals found in Central and South America. Two species of Tinea moths have been recorded as feeding on horny tissue and have been bred from the horns of cattle; the larva of Zenodochium coccivorella is an internal parasite of the coccid Kermes species. Many species have been recorded as breeding in natural materials or refuse such as owl pellets, bat caves, honeycombs or diseased fruit; as of 2007, there was 174,250 lepi
Many populations of Lepidoptera migrate, sometimes long distances, to and from areas which are only suitable for part of the year. Lepidopterans migrate on all continents except Antarctica, including from or within subtropical and tropical areas. By migrating, these species can avoid unfavorable circumstances, including weather, food shortage, or over-population. In some lepidopteran species, all individuals migrate; the best-known lepidopteran migration is that of the eastern population of the monarch butterfly which migrates from southern Canada to wintering sites in central Mexico. In late winter/early spring, the adult monarchs leave the Transvolcanic mountain range in Mexico for a more northern climate. Mating occurs and the females begin seeking out milkweed to lay their eggs first in northern Mexico and southern Texas; the caterpillars hatch and develop into adults that move north, where more offspring can go as far as central Canada until next migratory cycle. The Danaids in South India are prominent migrants, between the Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats.
Three species will be involved in this, namely Tirumala septentrionis, Euploea core, Euploea sylvester. Sometimes they are joined by common emigrant, tawny coster and blue tiger. Migration in Lepidoptera means a regular, predictable movement of a population from one place to another, determined by the seasons. There is no unambiguous definition of migratory butterfly or migratory moth, this applies to proposals to divide them into classes. Migration means different things to behavioral ecologists; the former emphasize the act of moving whereas the latter discriminate between whether the movement has been ecologically significant or not. Migration may be viewed as "a behavioural process with ecological consequences". Migration in Lepidoptera takes place in two of the three modes of migration identified by Johnson. In the first mode, the Lepidoptera do not return. An example is the pierid butterfly, Ascia monuste, which breeds in Florida but sometimes migrates along the coast up to 160 kilometers to breed in more suitable areas.
In the second mode, migration takes place to a place of hibernation or aestivation where they undergo diapause and the same generation survives to return. The classic example is that of the nymphalid monarch butterfly. Species that are recorded in unexpected areas are not considered to be migratory species, because these did not leave their habitat on their own strength. Examples are species that are imported as egg or caterpillar alongside of their host plants or individuals that were reared by a collector but have escaped. An example of an introduced species is Galleria mellonella, found all over the world, because it is reared as food for captive birds and reptiles. At times it is difficult to decide if a species is migratory. Migratory species like Chrysodeixis chalcites and Helicoverpa armigera would be able to reach western Europe on their own, but are common in greenhouses. Lepidoptera migration is seasonal. With species of which all individuals migrate, the population moves between areas in the summer and winter season or the dry and wet season.
For species of which only part of the population migrates, seasonal migration is hard to determine. They can maintain themselves in part of their habitat but reach areas where they cannot establish a permanent population, they only live there in the season, most favorable for the species. Some of the species have the habit of returning to their permanent residence at the end of the season. An important difference with bird migration is that an individual butterfly or moth migrates in one direction, while birds migrate back and forth multiple times within their lifespan; this is due to the short lifespan as an imago. Amazingly the monarch receives no navigation instruction for the migration from their parents, unlike birds. Species that migrate back and forth do so in different generations. There are however, some exceptions: The famous migration of the monarch butterfly in North America; this species migrates back and forth in one generation, though it completes only part of the journey in both directions in that generation.
No individual completes the entire journey, spread over a number of generations. The imago of the last summer generation is born in North America, migrates to Mexico, Florida, or California and stays there for the winter. After the winter it migrates back to the north to reproduce. In a couple of generations, the monarch migrates north to Canada; the migration of the bogong moth in Australia. This species migrates from south-eastern Australia to the Australian Alps in the summer to avoid the heat. After the summer it returns to reproduce. Migratory Lepidoptera are, in most cases, excellent flyers. Species like Vanessa atalanta are capable of managing a fierce headwind. In case of headwind, they fly low and are more goal-oriented. During migration, some species can be found at high altitudes; this is noteworthy for day-flying species like Vanessa atalanta, since the temperatures on these altitudes are low and day-flying species depend on the outside temperature to stay warm. It is thought that Vanessa atalanta produces enough body warmth during flight since it has been recorded migrating at night.
In the case of transcontinental migration where distances are large, the flying speed of the butterfly is inadequate for timely completion of journey