Rock and Roll (dance)
Acrobatic Rock'n'Roll is a athletic, competitive form of partner dance that originated from lindy hop. Unlike lindy hop, however, it is a choreographed dance designed for performance, it is danced by either all-female or four to eight couples together. This is a fast and physically demanding dance. During the development of the musical genre rock and roll, dances to go with the music were created. From swing, which came into being around 1950, Lindy Hop emerged, the first partner dance to feature acrobatic elements. Lindy Hop was modified around 1940 to suit faster music. A 1959 dance book describes "Rock'n' Roll" as "performed without undue tension, the body and legs being flexible, so that there may be a physical rhythmic expression of co-ordination with the beats of music." "...a dance which leaves much scope for personal expression and interpretation in style, rhythm, in the manner in which the figures are constructed." The basic rhythm is Quick, Slow, Slow. The Slow steps "will be taken first on to the ball of the foot, the heel lowering".
Like other forms of dance and Roll has evolved around the world over time. Depending on your location, the basic kick step style starts with the Basic 6 step: Leader starts with left foot kick ball change, kick step, kick step Follower starts with right foot kick ball change, kick step, kick step There is another form of tap step basic footwork, quite easy to learn: Leader starts with their left foot and does a back step a tap step, tap step Follower starts with the right foot and does a back step a tap step, tap step The most obvious feature of the Acrobatic rock and roll dance are its kicks and its acrobatic elements like lifts, jumps and flips. Today's rock and roll is focused on show and competition dance and - with the exception of its name - has nearly nothing in common with the former rock and roll movement, it is danced in pairs or in formation and can be danced with one male and two females, called "triples". Over the years rock and roll dancing has experienced several important changes: the former 6-basic step was converted into the modern tournament's 9-basic step with its typical kick ball change.
Other characteristics are techniques such as the man's body wave movement, that he uses to fling his partner from a sitting position upwards, the throwing basic movement, where she steps onto his hands and is catapulted upwards into neck breaking jumps. Because of its demanding technique, high speed, acrobatics and Roll is a straining high-performance dance and is most performed by young dancers; the name of the basic comes from the number of separate actions. With the 6-basic one counts step step kick settle kick settle or kick settle kick settle kick settle, with the 9-basic it is kick ball change kick settle settle kick settle settle; this means that a correct rock and roll kick will have the supporting foot settling on the floor a tiny moment before the kicking foot settles. The World Rock'n'Roll Confederation recognizes the following dance categories for international competitions: Youth: No acrobatics allowed. Couples are younger. Juniors: A maximum of four acrobatic moves are allowed under the category's safety regulations.
Couples are between 17 years of age. B-Class: Two dances per couple and round. One is a dance program with no acrobatics allowed, the other an acrobatic program requiring six acrobatic moves; the male may throw the female into the air. Minimum age is 14 years. Main Class: Two dances, like in B-Class. Only difference to B-Class is that all acrobatics are allowed. Minimum age is 15 years. National associations have additional classes. However, all have the four classes listed above. Rock and roll dance works on the 4/4 measure. One basic comprises therefore one and a half measures. Differently than the offbeat of rock and roll music, the dance puts stress on the first and third beats of each measure; the music is fast, between 176 and 208 bpm. Due to non-offbeat stressing and speed traditional rock and roll music has been replaced by modern disco and pop music. Advanced tournament rock and roll dancers don't wear petticoats and jeans - as the original rock and roll dancers did - but rather multi-coloured costumes that are made of elastic artificial fibre and can only be purchased as individual pieces by special tailors.
One reason for, that acrobatic elements have grown more and more dangerous, requiring both freedom of movement and enough durability to avoid tearing. The shoes worn is one of the most important elements in Roll dancing, their soles need to possess "grip" characteristics. The most common footwear are light jazz shoes for the dance programs, while the acrobatic programs require more support for the female so sneakers made for aerobics dancers are chosen; the World Rock’n’Roll Confederation is the organization that takes care of national and international rules and guidelines for tournaments. They organize the World Cups, European championships and World championships that occur every year for couples and formations. All international competitors are ranked according to points acquired during competitions; the future for acrobatic Rock ’n’ Roll seems bright, the hope and main goal is to have the dance as a part of the Olympic games within the near
National monument (United States)
In the United States, a national monument is a protected area, similar to a national park, but can be created from any land owned or controlled by the federal government by proclamation of the President of the United States. National monuments can be managed by one of several federal agencies: the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; some national monuments were managed by the War Department. National monuments can be so designated through the power of the Antiquities Act of 1906. President Theodore Roosevelt used the act to declare Devils Tower in Wyoming as the first U. S. national monument. The Antiquities Act of 1906 resulted from concerns about protecting prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts on federal lands in the American West; the Act authorized permits for legitimate archaeological investigations and penalties for taking or destroying antiquities without permission.
Additionally, it authorized the president to proclaim "historic landmarks and prehistoric structures, other objects of historic or scientific interest" on federal lands as national monuments, "the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected."The reference in the act to "objects of...scientific interest" enabled President Theodore Roosevelt to make a natural geological feature, Devils Tower in Wyoming, the first national monument three months later. Among the next three monuments he proclaimed in 1906 was Petrified Forest in Arizona, another natural feature. In 1908, Roosevelt used the act to proclaim more than 800,000 acres of the Grand Canyon as a national monument. In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed Katmai National Monument in Alaska, comprising more than 1,000,000 acres. Katmai was enlarged to nearly 2,800,000 acres by subsequent Antiquities Act proclamations and for many years was the largest national park system unit.
Petrified Forest, Grand Canyon, Great Sand Dunes were originally proclaimed as national monuments and designated as national parks by Congress. In response to Roosevelt's declaration of the Grand Canyon monument, a putative mining claimant sued in federal court, claiming that Roosevelt had overstepped the Antiquities Act authority by protecting an entire canyon. In 1920, the United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the Grand Canyon was indeed "an object of historic or scientific interest" and could be protected by proclamation, setting a precedent for the use of the Antiquities Act to preserve large areas. Federal courts have since rejected every challenge to the president's use of Antiquities Act preservation authority, ruling that the law gives the president exclusive discretion over the determination of the size and nature of the objects protected. Substantial opposition did not materialize until 1943, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed Jackson Hole National Monument in Wyoming.
He did this to accept a donation of lands acquired by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. for addition to Grand Teton National Park after Congress had declined to authorize this park expansion. Roosevelt's proclamation unleashed a storm of criticism about use of the Antiquities Act to circumvent Congress. A bill abolishing Jackson Hole National Monument passed Congress but was vetoed by Roosevelt, Congressional and court challenges to the proclamation authority were mounted. In 1950, Congress incorporated most of the monument into Grand Teton National Park, but the act doing so barred further use of the proclamation authority in Wyoming except for areas of 5,000 acres or less; the most substantial use of the proclamation authority came in 1978, when President Jimmy Carter proclaimed 15 new national monuments in Alaska after Congress had adjourned without passing a major Alaska lands bill opposed in that state. Congress passed a revised version of the bill in 1980 incorporating most of these national monuments into national parks and preserves, but the act curtailed further use of the proclamation authority in Alaska.
The proclamation authority was not used again anywhere until 1996, when President Bill Clinton proclaimed the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah. This action was unpopular in Utah, bills were introduced to further restrict the president's authority. None of which have been enacted. Most of the 16 national monuments created by President Clinton are managed not by the National Park Service, but by the Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. Presidents have used the Antiquities Act's proclamation authority not only to create new national monuments but to enlarge existing ones. For example, Franklin D. Roosevelt enlarged Dinosaur National Monument in 1938. Lyndon B. Johnson added Ellis Island to Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965, Jimmy Carter made major additions to Glacier Bay and Katmai National Monuments in 1978. On June 24, 2016, President Barack Obama designated the Stonewall Inn and surrounding areas in Greenwich Village, New York as the Stonewall National Monument, the first national monument commemorating the struggle for LGBT rights in the United States.
List of U. S. National Forests List of areas in the United States National Park System List of U. S. wilderness areas Protected areas of the United States List of proposed national monuments of the United States National monument proclamations under the Antiquities Act Congressional Research Service reports regar
Race and ethnicity in the United States
Race and ethnicity in the United States is a complex topic both because the United States has a racially and ethnically diverse population and because the country has a racist past involving slavery and anti-miscegenation laws. At the federal level and ethnicity have been categorized separately; the most recent United States Census recognized five racial categories as well as people of two or more races. The Census Bureau classified respondents as "Hispanic or Latino" or "Not Hispanic or Latino", identifying Hispanic and Latino as an ethnicity, which comprises the largest minority group in the nation; the United States Supreme Court unanimously held that "race" is not limited to Census designations on the "race question" but extends to all ethnicities, thus can include Jewish, Hungarian, Zulu, etc. The Census asked an "Ancestry Question," which covers the broader notion of ethnicity, in the 2000 Census long form and the American Community Survey; as of July 2016, White Americans are the racial majority.
African Americans are the largest racial minority. Hispanic and Latino Americans are the largest ethnic minority, comprising an estimated 17.8% of the population. The White, non-Hispanic or Latino population make up 61.3% of the nation's total, with the total White population being 76.9%. White Americans are the majority in every census-defined region and in every state except Hawaii, but contribute the highest proportion of the population in the Midwestern United States, at 85% per the Population Estimates Program or 83% per the American Community Survey. Non-Hispanic Whites make up 79 % of the highest ratio of any region. However, 35 % of White Americans live in the most of any region. 55% of the African American population lives in the South. A plurality or majority of the other official groups reside in the West; the latter region is home to 42% of Hispanic and Latino Americans, 46% of Asian Americans, 48% of American Indians and Alaska Natives, 68% of Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, 37% of the "two or more races" population, 46% of those self-designated as "some other race".
The first United States Census in 1790 classed residents as "free white" people, "all other free persons", "slaves". The 2000 Census recognized six racial categories including people of two or more races. In the 2000 Census and subsequent Census Bureau surveys, Americans self-described as belonging to these racial groups: White American, European American, or Middle Eastern American: those having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. Following consultations with Middle East and North Africa organizations, the Census Bureau announced in 2014 that it would establish a new MENA ethnic category for populations from the Middle East, North Africa and the Arab world. Black or African American: those having origins in any of the native peoples of Sub-Saharan Africa. Native American or Alaska Native: those having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America, irrespective of whether they maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment.
Asian American: those having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, North Asia, Southeast Asia, the South Asia. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander: those having origins in any of the original peoples of Polynesia, Melanesia, or Micronesia; some other race: respondents wrote how they identified themselves if different from the preceding categories. However, 95% of the people who report in this category are Hispanic Mestizos; this is not a standard OMB race category. Responses have included mixed-race terms such as Métis and Mulatto, which are considered to be categories of multi-racial ancestry, write-in entries reported in the 2000 census included nationalities, such as South African, Belizean, or Puerto Rican, as well as other terms for mixed-race groups like Wesort, mixed and others. Two or more races known as multiracial: those who check off and/or write in more than one race. There is no option labelled "two or more races" or "multiracial" on census and other forms.
Any respondent may identify with any number of the racial categories. Each person has two identifying attributes, racial identity and whether or not they are of Hispanic ethnicity; these categories are sociopolitical constructs and should not be interpreted as being scientific or anthropological in nature. They have been changed from one census to another, the racial categories include both "racial" and national-origin groups. In 2007, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission of the US Department of Labor finalized the update of its EEO-1 report format and guidelines concerning the definitions of racial/ethnic categories; the question on Hispanic or Latino origin is separate from the question on race. Hispanic and Latino Americans have ethnic
History of the United States
The history of the United States, a country in North America began with the settlement of Indigenous people before 15,000 BC. Numerous cultures formed; the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the year of 1492 started the European colonization of the Americas. Most colonies formed after 1600. By the 1760s, thirteen British colonies contained 2.5 million people along the Atlantic coast east of the Appalachian Mountains. After defeating France, the British government imposed a series of new taxes after 1765, rejecting the colonists' argument that new taxes needed their approval. Tax resistance the Boston Tea Party, led to punitive laws by Parliament designed to end self-government in Massachusetts. Armed conflict began in 1775. In 1776 in Philadelphia, the Second Continental Congress declared the independence of the colonies as the United States of America. Led by General George Washington, it won the Revolutionary War with large support from France; the peace treaty of 1783 gave the new nation the land east of the Mississippi River.
The Articles of Confederation established a central government, but it was ineffectual at providing stability, as it could not collect taxes and had no executive officer. A convention in 1787 wrote a new Constitution, adopted in 1789. In 1791, a Bill of Rights was added to guarantee inalienable rights. With Washington as the first president and Alexander Hamilton his chief adviser, a strong central government was created. Purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803 doubled the size of the United States. A second and final war with Britain was fought in 1812. Encouraged by the notion of manifest destiny, U. S. territory expanded all the way to the Pacific coast. While the United States was large in terms of area, its population in 1790 was only 4 million. However, it grew reaching 7.2 million in 1810, 32 million in 1860, 76 million in 1900, 132 million in 1940, 321 million in 2015. Economic growth in terms of overall GDP was greater; however compared to European powers, the nation's military strength was limited in peacetime before 1940.
The expansion was driven by a quest for inexpensive land for yeoman farmers and slave owners. The expansion of slavery was controversial and fueled political and constitutional battles, which were resolved by compromises. Slavery was abolished in all states north of the Mason–Dixon line by 1804, but the South continued to profit from the institution from production of cotton. Republican Abraham Lincoln was elected in 1860 on a platform of halting the expansion of slavery. Seven Southern slave states created the foundation of the Confederacy, its attack of Fort Sumter against the Union forces started the Civil War. Confederate defeat led to the abolition of slavery. In the Reconstruction Era and voting rights were extended to freed slaves; the national government emerged much stronger, because of the Fourteenth Amendment in 1868, it gained the explicit duty to protect individual rights. However, when white Democrats regained their power in the South in 1877 by paramilitary suppression of voting, they passed Jim Crow laws to maintain white supremacy, new disfranchising constitutions that prevented most African Americans and many poor whites from voting.
This continued until gains of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s and passage of federal legislation to enforce constitutional rights were made. The United States became the world's leading industrial power at the turn of the 20th century due to an outburst of entrepreneurship in the Northeast and Midwest and the arrival of millions of immigrant workers and farmers from Europe; the national railroad network was completed and large-scale mining and factories industrialized the Northeast and Midwest. Mass dissatisfaction with corruption and traditional politics stimulated the Progressive movement, from the 1890s to 1920s, which led to many reforms including the 16th to 19th constitutional amendments, which brought the federal income tax, direct election of Senators and women's suffrage. Neutral during World War I, the United States declared war on Germany in 1917 and funded the Allied victory the following year. Women obtained the right to vote in 1920, with Native Americans obtaining citizenship and the right to vote in 1924.
After a prosperous decade in the 1920s, the Wall Street Crash of 1929 marked the onset of the decade-long worldwide Great Depression. Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt ended the Republican dominance of the White House and implemented his New Deal programs, which included relief for the unemployed, support for farmers, Social Security and a minimum wage; the New Deal defined modern American liberalism. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, the United States entered World War II and financed the Allied war effort and helped defeat Nazi Germany in the European theater, its involvement culminated in using newly invented nuclear weapons on two Japanese cities to defeat Imperial Japan in the Pacific theater. The United States and the Soviet Union emerged as rival superpowers in the aftermath of World War II. During the Cold War, the two countries confronted each other indirectly in the arms race, the Space Race, proxy wars, propaganda campaigns; the purpose of this was to stop the spread of communism.
In the 1960s, in large part due to the strength of the Civil Rights Movement, another wave of social reforms was enacted by enforcing the constitutional rights of voting and freedom of movement to African-Americans and other racial minorities. The Cold War ended when the Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991, leaving the United States
Theater in the United States
Theatre in the United States is part of the European theatrical tradition that dates back to ancient Greek theatre and is influenced by the British theatre. The central hub of the US theater scene is New York City, with its divisions of Broadway, Off-Broadway, Off-Off-Broadway. Many movie and television stars got their big break working in New York productions. Outside New York, many cities have professional regional or resident theater companies that produce their own seasons, with some works being produced regionally with hopes of moving to New York. US theater has an active community theatre culture, which relies on local volunteers who may not be pursuing a theatrical career. Before the first English colony was established in 1607, there were Spanish dramas and Native American tribes that performed theatrical events. Although a theater was built in Williamsburg, Virginia in 1716, the original Dock Street Theatre opened in Charleston, South Carolina in 1736, the birth of professional theater in America may have begun when Lewis Hallam arrived with his theatrical company in Williamsburg in 1752.
Lewis and his brother William, who arrived in 1754, were the first to organize a complete company of actors in Europe and bring them to the colonies. They brought a repertoire of plays popular in London at the time, including Hamlet, The Recruiting Officer, Richard III; the Merchant of Venice was their first performance, shown on September 15, 1752. Encountering opposition from religious organizations and his company left for Jamaica in 1754 or 1755. Soon after, Lewis Hallam, Jr. founded the American Company, opened a theater in New York, presented the first professionally mounted American play—The Prince of Parthia, by Thomas Godfrey—in 1767. In the 18th century, laws forbidding the performance of plays were passed in Massachusetts in 1750, in Pennsylvania in 1759, in Rhode Island in 1761, plays were banned in most states during the American Revolutionary War at the urging of the Continental Congress. In 1794, president of Yale College, Timothy Dwight IV, in his "Essay on the Stage", declared that "to indulge a taste for playgoing means nothing more or less than the loss of that most valuable treasure: the immortal soul."In spite of such laws, however, a few writers tried their hand at playwriting.
Most the first plays written in America were by European-born authors—we know of original plays being written by Spaniards and Englishmen dating back as early as 1567—although no plays were printed in America until Robert Hunter's Androboros in 1714. Still, in the early years, most of the plays produced came from Europe; the Revolutionary period was a boost for dramatists, for whom the political debates were fertile ground for both satire, as seen in the works of Mercy Otis Warren and Colonel Robert Munford, for plays about heroism, as in the works of Hugh Henry Brackenridge. The post-war period saw the birth of American social comedy in Royall Tyler's The Contrast, which established a much-imitated version of the "Yankee" character, here named "Jonathan", but there were no professional dramatists until William Dunlap, whose work as playwright, translator and theater historian has earned him the title of "Father of American Drama". At 825 Walnut Street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is the Walnut Street Theatre, or, "The Walnut."
Founded in 1809 by the Circus of Pepin and Breschard, "The Walnut" is the oldest theater in America. The Walnut's first theatrical production, The Rivals, was staged in 1812. In attendance were President Thomas Jefferson and the Marquis de Lafayette. Provincial theaters lacked heat and minimal theatrical property and scenery. Apace with the country's westward expansion, some entrepreneurs operated floating theaters on barges or riverboats that would travel from town to town. A large town could afford a long "run"—or period of time during which a touring company would stage consecutive multiple performances—of a production, in 1841, a single play was shown in New York City for an unprecedented three weeks. William Shakespeare's works were performed. American plays of the period were melodramas, a famous example of, Uncle Tom's Cabin, adapted by George Aiken, from the novel of the same name by Harriet Beecher Stowe. In 1821, William Henry Brown established the African Grove Theatre in New York City.
It was the third attempt to have an African-American theater, but this was the most successful of them all. The company put on not only Shakespeare, but staged the first play written by an African-American, The Drama of King Shotaway; the theater was shut down in 1823. African-American theater was dormant, except for the 1858 play The Escape. African-American works would not be regarded again until the 1920s Harlem Renaissance. A popular form of theater during this time was the minstrel show, which featured white actors dressed in "blackface (painting one's face, etc
American poetry is poetry of the United States. It arose first as efforts by colonists to add their voices to English poetry in the 17th century, well before the constitutional unification of the Thirteen Colonies. Unsurprisingly, most of the early colonists' work relied on contemporary British models of poetic form and theme. However, in the 19th century, a distinctive American idiom began to emerge. By the part of that century, when Walt Whitman was winning an enthusiastic audience abroad, poets from the United States had begun to take their place at the forefront of the English-language avant-garde; the history of American poetry is not easy to know. Much of the American poetry published between 1910 and 1945 remains lost in the pages of small circulation political periodicals the ones on the far left, destroyed by librarians during the 1950s McCarthy era; the received narrative of Modernism proposes that Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot were the most influential modernist English-language poets in the period during World War I.
But this narrative leaves out African American and women poets who were published and read in the first half of the twentieth century. By the 1960s, the young poets of the British Poetry Revival looked to their American contemporaries and predecessors as models for the kind of poetry they wanted to write. Toward the end of the millennium, consideration of American poetry had diversified, as scholars placed an increased emphasis on poetry by women, African Americans, Hispanics and other cultural groupings; as England's contact with the Americas increased after the 1490s, explorers sometimes included verse with their descriptions of the "New World" up through 1650, the year of Anne Bradstreet's "The Tenth Muse", written in America, most in Ipswich, Massachusetts or North Andover, Massachusetts) and printed/distributed in London, England by her brother-in-law, Rev. John Woodbridge. There are 14 such writers. Early examples include a 1616 "testimonial poem" on the sterling warlike character of Captain John Smith and Rev. William Morrell's 1625 "Nova Anglia" or "New England,", a rhymed catalog of everything from American weather to glimpses of Native women, framed with a thin poetic "conceit" or "fiction" characterizing the country as a "sad and forlorn" female pining for English domination.
In May 1627 Thomas Morton of Merrymount – an English West Country outdoorsman, attorney at law, man of letters and colonial adventurer – raised a Maypole to celebrate and foster more success at this fur-trading plantation and nailed up a "Poem" and "Song". These were published in book form along with other examples of Morton's American poetry in "New English Canaan". One of the first recorded poets of the British colonies was Anne Bradstreet, who remains one of the earliest known women poets who wrote in English; the poems she published during her lifetime address political themes. She wrote tender evocations of home, family life and of her love for her husband, many of which remained unpublished until the 20th century. Edward Taylor wrote poems expounding Puritan virtues in a wrought metaphysical style that can be seen as typical of the early colonial period; this narrow focus on the Puritan ethic was, the dominant note of most of the poetry written in the colonies during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
The earliest "secular" poetry published in New England was by Samuel Danforth in his "almanacks" for 1647–1649, published at Cambridge. Of course, being a Puritan minister as well as a poet, Danforth never ventured far from a spiritual message. A distinctly American lyric voice of the colonial period was Phillis Wheatley, a slave whose book "Poems on Various Subjects and Moral," was published in 1773, she was one of the best-known poets of her day, at least in the colonies, her poems were typical of New England culture at the time, meditating on religious and classical ideas. The 18th century saw an increasing emphasis on America itself as fit subject matter for its poets; this trend is most evident in the works of Philip Freneau, notable for the unusually sympathetic attitude to Native Americans shown in his writings, sometimes reflective of a skepticism toward Anglo-American culture and civilization. However, as might be expected from what was provincial writing, this late colonial poetry is somewhat old-fashioned in form and syntax, deploying the means and methods of Pope and Gray in the era of Blake and Burns.
The work of Rebecca Hammond Lard, although quite old, still apply to life in today's world. She writes about nature, not only the nature of environment, but the nature of humans. On the whole, the development of poetry in the American colonies mirrors the development of the colonies themselves; the early
Folklore of the United States
Folklore consists of legends, oral history, jokes, popular beliefs, fairy tales, tall tales, customs that are the traditions of a culture, subculture, or group. It is the set of practices through which those expressive genres are shared; the study of folklore is sometimes called folkloristics. In usage, there is a continuum between mythology. American folklore encompasses the folk traditions that have evolved on the North American continent since Europeans arrived in the 16th century. While it contains much in the way of Native American tradition, it should not be confused with the tribal beliefs of any community of native people. Native American cultures are rich in myths and legends that explain natural phenomena and the relationship between humans and the spirit world. According to Barre Toelken, beadwork, dance steps and music, the events in a story, the shape of a dwelling, or items of traditional food can be viewed as icons of cultural meaning. Native American cultures are diverse. Though some neighboring cultures hold similar beliefs, others can be quite different from one another.
The most common myths are the creation myths, that tell a story to explain how the earth was formed, where humans and other beings came from. Others may include explanations about the sun, constellations, specific animals and weather; this is one of the ways that many tribes have kept, continue to keep, their cultures alive. "tories not only entertain but embody Native behavioral and ethical values."There are many different kinds of stories. Some are called "hero stories". There are "trickster stories", about the different trickster figures of the tribes, spirits who may be either helpful or dangerous, depending on the situation. There are tales that are warnings. Many of these tales have morals or some form of belief, being taught; this is. The founding of the United States is surrounded by legends and tall tales. Many stories have developed since the founding long ago to become a part of America's folklore and cultural awareness, non-Native American folklore includes any narrative which has contributed to the shaping of American culture and belief systems.
These narratives may be false or may be a little true and a little false. Christopher Columbus, as a hero and symbol to the immigrants, is an important figure in the pantheon of American myth, his status, not unlike most American icons, is representative not of his own accomplishments, but the self-perception of the society which chose him as a hero. Having effected a separation from England and its cultural icons, America was left without history—or heroes on which to base a shared sense of their social selves. Washington Irving was instrumental in popularizing Columbus, his version of Columbus' life, published in 1829, was more a romance than a biography. The book was popular, contributed to an image of the discoverer as a solitary individual who challenged the unknown sea, as triumphant Americans contemplated the dangers and promise of their own wilderness frontier; as a consequence of his vision and audacity, there was now a land free from kings, a vast continent for new beginnings. In the years following the Revolution the poetic device "Columbia" was used as a symbol of both Columbus and America.
King's College of New York changed its name in 1792 to Columbia, the new capitol in Washington was subtitled District of Columbia. In May 1607, the Susan Constant, the Discovery, the Godspeed sailed through Chesapeake Bay and thirty miles up the James River settlers built Jamestown, England's first permanent colony. Too late in the season to plant crops, many were not accustomed to manual labor. Within a few months, some settlers died of disease. Only thirty-eight made it through their first year in the New World. Captain John Smith, a pirate turned gentleman turned the settlers into foragers and successful traders with the Native Americans, who taught the English how to plant corn and other crops. Smith led expeditions to explore the regions surrounding Jamestown, it was during one of these that the chief of the Powhatan Native Americans captured Smith. According to an account Smith published in 1624, he was going to be put to death until the chief's daughter, saved him. From this the legend of Pocahontas sprang forth, becoming part of American folklore, children's books, movies.
Plymouth Rock is the traditional site of disembarkation of William Bradford and the Mayflower Pilgrims who founded Plymouth Colony in 1620, an important symbol in American history. There are no contemporary references to the Pilgrims' landing on a rock at Plymouth; the first written reference to the Pilgrims landing on a rock is found 121 years. The Rock, or one traditionally identified as it, has long been memorialized on the shore of Plymouth Harbor in Plymouth, Massachusetts; the holiday of Thanksgiving is said to have begun with the Pilgrims in 1621. They had come to America to escape religious persecution, but nearly starved to death; some friendly Native Americans helped. The perseverance of the Pilgrims is celebrated during the annual Thanksgiving festival. George Washington (February 22, 1732 – Decemb