Dancehall is a genre of Jamaican popular music that originated in the late 1970s. Dancehall was a more sparse version of reggae than the roots style, which had dominated much of the 1970s. In the mid-1980s, digital instrumentation became more prevalent, changing the sound with digital dancehall becoming characterized by faster rhythms. Key elements of dancehall music include its extensive use of Jamaican Patois rather than Jamaican standard English and a focus on the track instrumentals. Dancehall saw initial mainstream success in Jamaica in the 1980s, by the 1990s, it became popular in Jamaican diaspora communities. In the 2000s, dancehall experienced worldwide mainstream success, by the 2010s, it began to influence the work of established Western artists and producers, which has helped to further bring the genre into the Western music mainstream. Dancehall is named after Jamaican dance halls in which popular Jamaican recordings were played by local sound systems, they began in the late 1940s among people from the inner city of Kingston, who were not able to participate in dances uptown.
Social and political changes in late-1970s Jamaica, including the change from the socialist government of Michael Manley to Edward Seaga, were reflected in the shift away from the more internationally oriented roots reggae towards a style geared more towards local consumption and in tune with the music that Jamaicans had experienced when sound systems performed live. Themes of social injustice and the Rastafari movement were overtaken by lyrics about dancing and sexuality. Musically, older rhythms from the late 1960s were recycled, with Sugar Minott credited as the originator of this trend when he voiced new lyrics over old Studio One rhythms between sessions at the studio, where he was working as a session musician. In 1970s, Big Youth, U Roy, I Roy were famous DJs. Around the same time, producer Don Mais was reworking old rhythms at Channel One Studios, using the Roots Radics band; the Roots Radics would go on to work with Henry "Junjo" Lawes on some of the key early dancehall recordings, including those that established Barrington Levy, Frankie Paul, Junior Reid as major reggae stars.
Other singers to emerge in the early dancehall era as major stars included Don Carlos, Al Campbell, Triston Palma, while more established names such as Gregory Isaacs and Bunny Wailer adapted. Sound systems such as Killimanjaro, Black Scorpio, Gemini Disco, Virgo Hi-Fi, Volcano Hi-Power and Aces International soon capitalized on the new sound and introduced a new wave of deejays; the older toasters were overtaken by new stars such as Captain Sinbad, Ranking Joe, Clint Eastwood, Lone Ranger, Josey Wales, Charlie Chaplin, General Echo and Yellowman — a change reflected by the 1981 Junjo Lawes-produced album A Whole New Generation of DJs, although many went back to U-Roy for inspiration. Deejay records became, more important than records featuring singers. Another trend was sound clash albums, featuring rival deejays /or sound systems competing head-to-head for the appreciation of a live audience, with underground sound clash cassettes documenting the violence that came with such rivalries. Yellowman, one of the most successful early dancehall artists, became the first Jamaican deejay to be signed to a major American record label, for a time enjoyed a level of popularity in Jamaica to rival Bob Marley's peak.
The early 1980s saw the emergence of female deejays in dancehall music, such as Lady G, Lady Saw, Sister Nancy. Other female dancehall stars include artistes like Diana King and in the late 1990s to the 2000s Ce'cile, Macka Diamond and more. Beenie Man, Bounty Killer, Mad Cobra, Buju Banton, Super Cat becoming major DJs in Jamaica. With a little help from deejay sound, "sweet sing" singers such as Pinchers, Cocoa Tea, Admiral Tibet, Frankie Paul, Half Pint, Courtney Melody, Barrington Levy were popular in Jamaica. Sound systems and the development of other musical technology influenced dancehall music; the music needed to "get where the radio didn't reach" because Jamaicans oftentimes were outside without radios. Because the audience of dancehall sessions were lower-class people, it was important that they be able to hear music. Sound systems allowed people to listen to music without having to buy a radio. Therefore, the dancehall culture grew as the use of sound systems got better; the Jamaican dancehall scene was one created out of creativity and a desire for accessibility, one, inseparable from sound system culture.
The term ‘Dancehall’, while now used in reference to the specific and uniquely Jamaican genre of music referred to a physical location. This location was always an open-air venue from which DJs and “Toasters”, a precursor to MCs, could perform their original mixes and songs for their audience via their sound systems; the openness of the venue paired with the innately mobile nature of the sound system, allowed performers to come to the people. At the onset of the dancehall scene, sound systems were the only way that some Jamaican audiences might hear the latest songs from popular artist. Through time, it transformed to where the purveyors of the sound systems were the artists themselves and they became whom the people came to see along with their own original sounds. With the extreme volume and low bass frequencies of the sound systems local people might well feel the vibrations of the sounds before they could hear them, though the sound itself did travel for miles. Jamaica was one of the first cultures to pioneer the concept of remixing
The Bishop of Liverpool is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Liverpool in the Province of York. The diocese stretches from Southport in the north, to Widnes in the south, from the River Mersey to Wigan in the east, its see. The Bishop's residence is Woolton -- east of Liverpool city centre; the office has existed since the founding of the diocese in 1880 under Queen Victoria. The current bishop is Paul Bayes, bishop since the confirmation of his election on 23 July 2014. Among those who have served as Assistant Bishop of Liverpool were: 1968–1987: William Baker, lecturer at St Katharine's College until 1975 and former Bishop of Zanzibar Crockford's Clerical Directory - Listings
Gabriel von Salamanca was a Spanish nobleman who served as general treasurer and archchancellor of the Habsburg archduke Ferdinand I of Austria from 1521 to 1526. He was elevated to a Count of Ortenburg in 1524. Descending from a wealthy merchant family in Burgos, Gabriel von Salamanca in 1514 was chancellor under the Habsburg emperor Maximilian I, who had forged an alliance with King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile by marrying his son Philip the Handsome off to their daughter Joanna. In this period Salamanca made friends with Maximilian's grandson Archduke Ferdinand I, who after the emperor's death in 1519 received the Habsburg hereditary lands of Austria with the duchies of Styria and Carniola as well as Tyrol and Further Austria from his elder brother Emperor Charles V in 1521. Gabriel acted as Ferdinand's archchancellor, his economic measures, however failed as his purported self-serving manners met with fierce opposition by the Austrian and Tyrolean aristocracy, who called him an "archarian jew" and "stinking heretic".
In 1523 he was elevated to the rank of an Imperial Freiherr and Lord of Ehrenberg Castle in Tyrol as well as of Freyenstein and Karlsbach in Austria. On 10 March 1524 he further received the possessions of the extinct Counts of Ortenburg in Carinthia, which were last held by Count Ulrich II of Celje, together with the Ortenburg comital title, which earned him the enmity of the Bavarian Ortenburg dynasty; as early as in 1526, he was forced to resign from his positions, was succeeded by Bishop Bernardo Clesio. Salamanca remained a close advisor of the archduke and was able to maintain his fiefs. Salamanca, did not live to see it completed. In compensation for the loss of his offices he had received the Habsburg bailiwick of Ensisheim in Alsace, where he died in 1539. Gabriel von Salamanca was the son of Gonzalo de Salamanca, a wealthy merchant from Burgos, Isabel de Ayala and had two brothers: Alonso de Salamanca, who married Ana de Polanco Maluenda and was father to Miguel de Salamanca Polanco, a successful merchant and mayor of Burgos, Jeronimo de Salamanca Polanco, a banker and treasurer of Isabella of Austria, Francisco de Salamanca Polanco, a captain and a knight, who married Josine Pardo.
All of his nephews went into business together and formed the Salamanca-Polanco trading company, which became at the time one of the most powerful and richest international trading companies in Europe. His uncle Pedro de Salamanca, was an ambassador of the Catholic Monarchs in London, prior of the Spanish Council or Nation in Bruges, his family relatives in Bruges resided in the XVI century in the Palace "La Casa Negra" in the street Spanjaardstraat and built their Chapel of the Pieta in the Church of the Augustinians in Bruges, which disappeared at the end of the XVI century and only the artwork survives. In Burgos, the Salamanca-Polanco family had the Chapel of the Salamancas in the Church of San Lesmes as well as the Chapel of Santo Domingo in the Convent of San Pablo. Gabriel was married twice: first, at the instigation of Archduke Ferdinand, to Countess Elisabeth of Eberstein on 27 July 1523. Both marriages produced no children