Royal Shakespeare Company
The Royal Shakespeare Company is a major British theatre company, based in Stratford-upon-Avon, England. The company produces around 20 productions a year; the RSC plays in London, Newcastle upon Tyne and on tour across the UK and internationally. The company's home is in Stratford-upon-Avon, where it has redeveloped its Royal Shakespeare and Swan theatres as part of a £112.8-million "Transformation" project. The theatres re-opened in November 2010, having closed in 2007; the new buildings attracted 18,000 visitors within the first week and received a positive media response both upon opening, following the first full Shakespeare performances. Performances in Stratford-upon-Avon continued throughout the Transformation project at the temporary Courtyard Theatre; as well as the plays of Shakespeare and his contemporaries, the RSC produces new work from living artists and develops creative links with theatre-makers from around the world, as well as working with teachers to inspire a lifelong love of William Shakespeare in young people and running events for everyone to explore and participate in its work.
The RSC celebrated its fiftieth birthday season from April–December 2011, with two companies of actors presenting the first productions designed for the new Royal Shakespeare and Swan Theatre stages. The 2011-season began with performances of Macbeth and a re-imagined lost play The History of Cardenio; the fiftieth birthday season featured The Merchant of Venice with Sir Patrick Stewart and revivals of some of the RSC's greatest plays, including a new staging of Marat/Sade. For the London 2012 Festival as part of the Cultural Olympiad, the RSC produced the World Shakespeare Festival, featuring artists from across the world performing in venues around the UK. In 2013, the company began live screenings of its Shakespeare productions – called Live from Stratford-upon-Avon – which are screened around the world. In 2016, the company collaborated with Intel and The Imaginarium Studios to stage The Tempest, bringing performance capture to the Royal Shakespeare Theatre for the first time. There have been theatrical performances in Stratford-upon-Avon since at least Shakespeare's day, though the first recorded performance of a play written by Shakespeare himself was in 1746 when Parson Joseph Greene, master of Stratford Grammar School, organised a charitable production to fund the restoration of Shakespeare's funerary monument.
John Ward's Birmingham-based company, the Warwickshire Company of Comedians, agreed to perform it. A surviving copy of the playbill records; the first building erected to commemorate Shakespeare was David Garrick's Jubilee Pavilion in 1769, there have been at least 17 buildings used to perform Shakespeare's plays since. The first permanent commemorative building to Shakespeare's works in the town was a theatre built in 1827, in the gardens of New Place, but has long since been demolished; the RSC's history began with the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre, the brainchild of a local brewer, Charles Edward Flower. He donated a two-acre site by the River Avon and in 1875 launched an international campaign to build a theatre in the town of Shakespeare's birth; the theatre, a Victorian-Gothic building seating just over 700 people, opened on 23 April 1879, with a performance of Much Ado About Nothing, a title which gave ammunition to several critics. The Memorial, a red brick Gothic cathedral, designed by Dodgshun and Unsworth of Westminster, was unkindly described by Bernard Shaw as "an admirable building, adaptable to every purpose except that of a theatre."
From 1919, under the direction of William Bridges-Adams and after a slow start, its resident New Shakespeare Company became one of the most prestigious in Britain. The theatre received a Royal Charter of Incorporation in 1925. On the afternoon of 6 March 1926, when a new season was about to commence rehearsals, smoke was seen. Fire broke out, the mass of half-timbering chosen to ornament the interior provided dry tinder. By the following morning the theatre was a blackened shell; the company transferred its Shakespeare festivals to a converted local cinema. Fund-raising began for the rebuilding of the theatre, with generous donations arriving from philanthropists in America. In January 1928, following an open competition, 29-year-old Elisabeth Scott was unanimously appointed architect for the new theatre which became the first important work erected in the United Kingdom from the designs of a woman architect. George Bernard Shaw commented, her modernist plans for an art deco structure came under fire from many directions but the new building was opened triumphantly on William Shakespeare's birthday, 23 April 1932.
It came under the direction of Sir Barry Jackson in 1945, Anthony Quayle from 1948 to 1956 and Glen Byam Shaw 1957–1959, with an impressive roll-call of actors. Scott's building, with some minor adjustments to the stage, remained in constant use until 2007 when it was closed for a major refit of the interior. Timeline: 1932 – new Shakespeare Memorial Theatre opens, abutting the remains of the old. 1961 – chartered name of the corporation and the Stratford theatre becomes ‘Royal Shakespeare.’ 1974 – The Other Place opened, created from a prefabricated former store/rehearsal room in Stratford. 1986 – the Swan Theatre opened, created from the shell of the 1879 Memorial Theatre. 1991 – Purpose-built new Other Place, designed by Michael Reardon, opens. September 2004 – The vision for the renewal of the Royal Shakespeare Theatre transformation is announced. July 2006 – The Courtyard Theatre opens with a staging of Michael Boyd’s Histories. November 2010 – The Royal Shakespeare and Swan T
Keanu Charles Reeves is a Canadian actor, director and musician. He gained fame for his starring role performances in several blockbuster films, including comedies from the Bill and Ted franchise, he has appeared in dramatic films, such as Dangerous Liaisons, My Own Private Idaho, Little Buddha, as well as the romantic horror Bram Stoker's Dracula. Reeves has earned critical acclaim for his acting. One New York Times critic praised Reeves' versatility, saying that he "displays considerable discipline and range... he moves between the buttoned-down demeanor that suits a police procedural story and the loose-jointed manner of his comic roles". However, Reeves has spent much of his career being typecast. A recurring character arc in many roles he has portrayed is one of saving the world, as can be seen in the characters of Ted Logan, Neo, Johnny Mnemonic, John Constantine, Klaatu, his acting has garnered several awards, including a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. During his film career, Reeves has engaged in several forms of artistic expression.
He played bass guitar for the bands Dogstar and Becky. Acting onstage, he performed as Prince Hamlet for the Manitoba Theatre Centre's production of Hamlet, he wrote the text for a picture book, illustrated by Alexandra Grant. He has produced a documentary, Side by Side, directed the martial arts film Man of Tai Chi. Keanu Charles Reeves was born in Beirut on September 2, 1964, the son of Patricia, a costume designer and performer, Samuel Nowlin Reeves, Jr, his mother hails from Essex. His father, an American from Hawaii, is of Chinese-Hawaiian, English and Portuguese descent. Reeves has said, "My grandmother is Chinese and Hawaiian so I was around Chinese art and cuisine when I was growing up." He has spoken of his English ancestry, mentioning watching comedy shows such as The Two Ronnies during his childhood, how his mother imparted English manners that he has maintained into adulthood. Reeves' mother was working in Beirut. Reeves' father earned his GED while imprisoned in Hawaii for selling heroin at Hilo International Airport.
He abandoned his wife and family when Reeves was three years old, but Reeves knew him until he was six. They last met on the island of Kauai when Reeves was 13. Reeves moved around the world as a child, lived with various stepfathers. After his parents divorced in 1966, his mother became a costume designer and moved the family to Sydney, to New York City, where she married Paul Aaron, a Broadway and Hollywood director, in 1970; the couple moved to Toronto and divorced in 1971. When Reeves was 15, he worked as a production assistant on Aaron's films. Reeves' mother married Robert Miller, a rock music promoter, in 1976, she subsequently married her fourth husband, a hairdresser named Jack Bond. The marriage ended in 1994. Grandparents and nannies babysat Reeves and his sisters, Reeves grew up in the Yorkville neighbourhood of Toronto. Within five years, Reeves attended four high schools, including the Etobicoke School of the Arts, from which he was expelled. Reeves stated he was expelled because he was "just a little too rambunctious and shot mouth off once too often... was not the most well-oiled machine in the school".
Reeves excelled more in sports than in academics, as his educational development was challenged by dyslexia. He was a successful ice hockey goalkeeper at De La Salle College, earning the nickname "The Wall", he dreamed of playing ice hockey for Canada, but an injury forced him to consider other career paths. After leaving De La Salle College, he attended Avondale Secondary Alternative School, which allowed him to obtain an education while working as an actor, he dropped out and did not obtain a high school diploma. Reeves began his acting career at the age of nine, appearing in a theatre production of Damn Yankees. At 15, he played Mercutio in a stage production of Juliet at the Leah Posluns Theatre. Reeves dropped out of high school when he was 17, he moved to Los Angeles three years later. He lived with his ex-stepfather, Paul Aaron, a stage and television director. Reeves made his screen acting debut in an episode of Hangin' In. In the early 1980s, he appeared in commercials, short films including the NFB drama One Step Away and stage work such as Brad Fraser's cult hit Wolfboy in Toronto.
In 1984, he was a correspondent for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation TV youth program Going Great. His first studio movie appearance was Youngblood. Shortly after the movie's release, Reeves drove to Los Angeles in his 1969 Volvo 122, his stepfather had convinced Erwin Stoff in advance to be Reeves's agent. Stoff has remained Reeves's manager, has co-produced many of his films. After a few minor roles, Reeves received a sizable role in the 1986 drama film River's Edge, which depicted how a murder affected a group of teens. Following this film's critical success, he spent the late 1980s appearing in a number of movies aimed at teenage audiences, including the lead roles in Permanent Record and the unexpectedly successful 1989 comedy, Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure, along with its 1991 sequel, Bill & Ted's Bogus Journey; the same year he had a breakout rol
61st Academy Awards
The 61st Academy Awards ceremony, organized by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, honored the best films of 1988, took place on Wednesday, March 29, 1989, at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, beginning at 6:00 p.m. PST / 9:00 p.m. EST. During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 23 categories; the ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Allan Carr and directed by Jeff Margolis. Ten days earlier, in a ceremony held at the Beverly Hills Hotel in Beverly Hills, the Academy Awards for Technical Achievement were presented by host Angie Dickinson. Rain Man won four awards, including the Best Picture. Other winners included Who Framed Roger Rabbit four wins; the telecast garnered 43 million viewers in the United States, the highest since the 56th ceremony in 1984. The nominees for the 61st Academy Awards were announced on February 15, 1989 at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Richard Kahn, president of the Academy, the actress Anne Archer.
Rain Man led all nominees, with eight nominations. The winners were announced at the award ceremony on March 29, 1989. Best Actress winner Jodie Foster became the third person in history to win the aforementioned category for a film with a single nomination; the last person to achieve this feat was Sophia Loren when she won for Two Women in 1961. Best Actor winner Dustin Hoffman was the fifth person to win the aforementioned category twice. Sigourney Weaver became the fifth performer to receive two acting nominations in the same year but did not win in either category. John Lasseter and William Reeves won Best Animated Short Film for Tin Toy, Pixar's first Oscar and was the first CGI film to win an Oscar. [[File:Hampton3.jpg|thumb|150px|Christopher Hampton, Best Adapted Screenplay winner|alt=Photo of Christopher Hampton Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface and indicated with double dagger. At the time of the nominations announcement on February 15, the combined gross of the five Best Picture nominees at the US box office was $188 million, with an average of $37.7 million per film.
Rain Man was the highest earner among the Best Picture nominees, with $97 million in domestic box office receipts. The film was followed by Working Girl, The Accidental Tourist, Mississippi Burning, Dangerous Liaisons. Of the top 50 grossing movies of the year, 52 nominations went to 13 films. Only Big, Rain Man, Working Girl, The Accused, The Accidental Tourist, Gorillas in the Mist, Mississippi Burning, Tucker: The Man and His Dream were nominated for Best Picture, acting, or screenwriting; the other top 50 box office hits that earned nominations were Who Framed Roger Rabbit, Coming to America, Die Hard and Willow. National Film Board of Canada Eastman Kodak Company Richard Williams "For the animation direction of Who Framed Roger Rabbit"; the following individuals, listed in order of appearance, presented awards or performed musical numbers. In an attempt to attract viewers to the telecast and increase interest in the festivities, the Academy hired film producer and veteran Oscar ceremony executive talent coordinator Allan Carr to produce the 1989 ceremony.
In interviews with various media outlets, he expressed that it was a dream come true to produce the Oscars. Notable changes were introduced in the production of the telecast. For the first time, presenters announced each winner with the phrase "And the Oscar goes to..." rather than "And the winner is...". The green room where Oscar presenters and winners gathered backstage was transformed into a luxurious suite complete with furniture, pictures and other amenities called "Club Oscar". Instead of hiring a host for the proceedings, Carr relied on presenters grouped in pairs that had some connection, either through family or the film industry. Several other people were involved in the production of the ceremony. Jeff Margolis served as director of the telecast. Lyricist and composer Marvin Hamlisch was hired as musical supervisor of the festivities. Comedian and writer Bruce Vilanch was hired as a writer for the broadcast, a role he has had since. Carr had rounded up eighteen young stars, including Patrick Dempsey, Corey Feldman, Ricki Lake, Blair Underwood, to perform in a musical number entitled "I Wanna Be an Oscar Winner".
Unlike in most Oscar ceremonies, Carr announced that none of the three songs nominated for Best Original Song would be performed live. The telecast was remembered for being the final public appearance of actress and comedian Lucille Ball, where she and co-presenter Bob Hope were given a standing ovation. On April 26 a month after the ceremony, she died from a dissecting aortic aneurysm at age 77. In an effort to showcase more glamour and showmanship in the ceremony, producer Carr hired playwright Steve Silver to co-produce an opening numbe
Mildred Natwick was an American stage and television actress. In 1967, she earned an Academy Award nomination for her supporting role in Barefoot in the Park, she was nominated for two Tony Awards in 1957 and 1972 and won a Primetime Emmy Award for her work in the miniseries The Snoop Sisters, opposite Helen Hayes. Natwick was born in Baltimore, the daughter of Joseph and Mildred Marion Natwick, her grandfather, Ole Natwick, was one of the earliest Norwegian immigrants to the United States, arriving in Wisconsin in 1847. Her first cousin was cartoonist Myron "Grim" Natwick, she attended the Bryn Mawr School in Baltimore and graduated from Bennett College. Natwick began performing on the stage at age 21 with "The Vagabonds", a non-professional theatre group in Baltimore, she soon joined the University Players on Cape Cod. Natwick made her Broadway debut in 1932 playing Mrs. Noble in Frank McGrath’s play Carry Nation, about the famous temperance crusader Carrie Nation. Throughout the 1930s she starred in a number of plays collaborating with friend and actor-director-playwright Joshua Logan.
On Broadway, she played "Prossy" in Katharine Cornell's production of Candida. She made her film debut in John Ford's The Long Voyage Home as a Cockney slattern, portrayed the landlady in The Enchanted Cottage. Natwick is remembered for small but memorable roles in several John Ford film classics, including 3 Godfathers, She Wore a Yellow Ribbon, The Quiet Man, she played Miss Ivy Gravely, in Alfred Hitchcock's The Trouble with Harry, a sorceress in The Court Jester. She continued to appear onstage, made regular guest appearances in television series, she was twice nominated for Tony Awards: in 1957 for The Waltz of the Toreadors, the same year she starred in Tammy and the Bachelor with Debbie Reynolds and Leslie Nielsen and in 1972 for the musical 70 Girls 70. She returned to film in Barefoot in the Park as the mother of the character played by Jane Fonda; the role earned Natwick her only Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting actress. One of Natwick's memorable roles was in The House Without a Christmas Tree, which starred Jason Robards and Lisa Lucas.
The program's success spawned three sequels: The Thanksgiving Treasure, The Easter Promise, Addie and The King of Hearts. In 1971, Natwick co-starred with Helen Hayes in the ABC Movie of the Week, Do Not Fold, Spindle, or Mutilate, in which their characters worked together as amateur sleuths; the success of that telefilm resulted in a 1973-74 series called The Snoop Sisters, part of The NBC Wednesday Mystery Movie. For her performance, Natwick won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie. In 1981, Natwick joined Hayes as the first members of the Board of Advisors to the Riverside Shakespeare Company. Both supported several fund raisers for that off-Broadway theatre company, she guest-starred on such television series as McMillan & Wife, Alice, The Love Boat, Hawaii Five-O, The Bob Newhart Show, Murder, She Wrote. She made her final film appearance at the age of 83 in the 1988 historical drama Dangerous Liaisons. Natwick, who never married or had children, lived in a duplex on Park Avenue in Manhattan for the majority of her life.
She was a devout Christian Scientist. A Republican, she supported the run of Dwight Eisenhower during the 1952 presidential election. On October 25, 1994, Natwick died of cancer at her home in Manhattan at the age of 89, she is interred at Lorraine Park Cemetery in Baltimore. Mildred Natwick at the Internet Broadway Database Mildred Natwick at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Mildred Natwick on IMDb Mildred Natwick papers, 1932-1985, held by the Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts
Essonne is a French department in the region of Île-de-France. It is named after the Essonne River, it was formed on 1 January 1968. The Essonne department was created on 1 January 1968, from the southern portion of the former department of Seine-et-Oise. In June 1963 Carrefour S. A. opened the first hypermarket in the Paris region at Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois. Based on the ideas put forward by the American logistics pioneer Bernardo Trujillo, the centre offered on a single 2,500 m2 site a hitherto unknown combination of wide choice and low prices, supported by 400 car parking spaces. In 1969, the communes of Châteaufort and Toussus-le-Noble were separated from Essonne and added to the department of Yvelines. Essonne belongs to the region of Île-de-France, it has borders with the departments of: Hauts-de-Seine and Val-de-Marne to the north, Seine-et-Marne to the east, Loiret to the south, Eure-et-Loir and Yvelines to the west. All of northern Essonne department belongs to the Parisian agglomeration and is urbanized.
The south remains rural. In descending order, the cities over 25,000 population are: Évry, Corbeil-Essonnes, Savigny-sur-Orge, Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois, Viry-Châtillon, Athis-Mons, Draveil, Les Ulis, Vigneux-sur-Seine. Milly-la-Forêt is an example of its more rural communes. L'École Polytechnique. Founded in 1794, L'Ecole Polytechnique is one of the most prestigious engineering universities in France; this university was ranked 10th in the world by the Times Higher Education Supplement in 2005. Its campus is in the town of Palaiseau. Université de Paris-Sud. One of the best public schools in France, it is ranked 52nd by Academic Ranking of World Universities, it is best known for its physics department. Located in Orsay, about 26,000 students are enrolled; the Headquarters of the Arianespace Company, a major commercial aerospace launcher, servicing companies who wish to launch satellites into space. Château de Montlhéry. Having been an ancient fort during Roman times, the first feudal lords began to inhabit the castle around 1000 AD.
One major battle was fought in the castle during its lifetime. In 1465, Charles the Rash and French King Louis XI fought in the plains in front of the castle. In 1842, the reconstruction of the castle was started, is being maintained by the local town of Montlhery Château de Courances The Forest of Sénart. Covering 3,500 hectares in area, this forest is important to the local population; the local government has kept roads and agricultural companies from cutting down parts of this forest. The forest receives between two and three million visitors annually, the government spends 1.2 million euros a year maintaining it. Telecom Sudparis. Situated in Évry, this is a grande école for engineers The department's most high-profile political representative has been Manuel Valls, Prime Minister of France from 31 March 2014 to 6 December 2016, he visited its main town Évry to deliver remarks following the Charlie Hebdo massacre of January 2015. Cantons of the Essonne department Communes of the Essonne department Arrondissements of the Essonne department Prefecture website General council website Flickr Photography Group for Essonne region Anglo Essonne
Les Liaisons Dangereuses (play)
Les liaisons dangereuses is a play by Christopher Hampton adapted from the 1782 novel of the same title by Pierre Choderlos de Laclos. The plot focuses on the Marquise de Merteuil and the Vicomte de Valmont, rivals who use sex as a weapon of humiliation and degradation, all the while enjoying their cruel games, their targets are the virtuous Madame de Tourvel and Cécile de Volanges, a young girl who has fallen in love with her music tutor, the Chevalier Danceny. In order to gain their trust and Valmont pretend to help the secret lovers so they can use them in their own treacherous schemes. Staged by the Royal Shakespeare Company, the play opened at The Other Place in Stratford-upon-Avon on 24 September 1985. Directed by Howard Davies, the cast included Lindsay Duncan as the Marquise de Merteuil, Alan Rickman as the Vicomte de Valmont, Juliet Stevenson as Madame de Tourvel, Lesley Manville as Cécile de Volanges, Sean Baker as the Chevalier Danceny. On 8 January 1986, the production transferred to The Pit, an intimate studio theatre in the Barbican Centre in London, with its original cast intact.
Christopher Hampton won the Evening Standard Award for Best Play and the Laurence Olivier Award for Best New Play, Lindsay Duncan received the Laurence Olivier Award for Best Actress. In October 1986, with only a few cast changes, the production transferred again to the Ambassadors Theatre in the West End. Lindsay Duncan and Alan Rickman reprised their roles for the Broadway production directed by Howard Davies. Following eight previews, it opened at the Music Box Theatre on April 30, 1987 and ran for 149 performances. Christopher Hampton was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Play and the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Play, but lost both to August Wilson for Fences. Duncan won Davies won the Tony Award for Best Direction of a Play; the show won the 1987 New York Drama Critics' Circle Award for Best Foreign Play. Hampton adapted the play for the screen in a 1988 film version directed by Stephen Frears. Following 22 previews, a Broadway revival produced by the Roundabout Theatre Company opened at the American Airlines Theatre on May 1, 2008 and ran for 77 performances.
Directed by Rufus Norris, the cast included Laura Linney as the Marquise de Merteuil, Ben Daniels as the Vicomte de Valmont, Mamie Gummer as Cécile de Volanges, Benjamin Walker as the Chevalier Danceny, with Siân Phillips in the supporting role of Madame de Rosemonde. The production was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Revival of a Play but lost to Boeing-Boeing. Hampton's play was produced by the Sydney Theatre Company and performed at the Wharf Theatre as part of the 2012 season; the production was directed by Sam Strong, with Hugo Weaving playing the Vicomte de Valmont and Pamela Rabe the Marquise de Merteuil. Strong said that he liked the line given to Rosamonde “The only thing which might surprise one is how little the world changes” because it "speaks directly to the timelessness of the piece's exploration of human behaviour, from the less savoury parts like betrayal and manipulation to the best parts like being in love." He said he was "intrigued by the paradoxical nature of the Valmont and Tourvel story – the manner in which Valmont is both redeemed and destroyed by love at the same time".
One reviewer noted that "Director Sam Strong's beautifully paced production emphasises gratification via the wielding of power rather than via lust." The play was revived at the Donmar Warehouse in the winter of 2015-16, the first time it had received a major outing in London since its 1986 premiere. The director was Josie Rourke, with the roles of Valmont and Mme de Merteuil played by Dominic West and Janet McTeer respectively; the production transferred to Broadway in a limited engagement with McTeer joined by Liev Schreiber and Mary Beth Peil as Madame de Rosemonde. The play opened at the Booth Theatre on October 30, 2016; the Broadway production closed earlier than expected, on January 2017 Hampton, Christopher. Les Liaisons Dangereuses. London: Faber & Faber 1985. ISBN 0-571-13724-5 Les liaisons dangereuses at the Internet Broadway Database
Château de Vincennes
The Château de Vincennes is a massive 14th and 17th century French royal fortress in the town of Vincennes, to the east of Paris, now a suburb of the metropolis. Like other more famous châteaux, it had its origins in a hunting lodge, constructed for Louis VII about 1150 in the forest of Vincennes. In the 13th century, Philip Augustus and Louis IX erected a more substantial manor: Louis IX is reputed to have departed from Vincennes on the crusade from which he did not return. Vincennes was more than a grim fortress: Philippe III and Philippe IV were each married there and three 14th-century kings died at Vincennes: Louis X, Philippe V and Charles IV. To strengthen the site, the castle was enlarged replacing the earlier site in the 14th century. A donjon tower, 52 meters high, the tallest medieval fortified structure of Europe, was added by Philip VI of France, a work, started about 1337; the grand rectangular circuit of walls, was completed by the Valois about two generations later. The donjon served as a residence for the royal family, its buildings are known to have once held the library and personal study of Charles V. Henry V of England died in the donjon in 1422 following the siege of Meaux.
The relics of the Crown of Thorns were temporarily housed there while the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris was being readied to receive them. A fragment that remained behind received its own chapel at Vincennes built by Peter of Montereau, which survives. Henri IV was imprisoned at Vincennes in April 1574, during the Wars of Religion, Charles IX died here the following month. In the 17th century, the architect Louis Le Vau built for Louis XIV a pair of isolated ranges mirroring one another across a parterre to one side of the keep, suited for the Queen Mother and Cardinal Mazarin, but rebuilding was never pursued once Versailles occupied all attentions; some splendid apartments show the earliest phase of Louis XIV style, before the example of Vaux-le-Vicomte presented the Sun King with a worthy model. The unlucky builder of Vaux-le-Vicomte, the minister Nicolas Fouquet, found himself transferred to Vincennes, to much less comfortable lodgings. In 1691, another unwilling lodger was John Vanbrugh, soon to become a playwright and architect, who drew some of his Baroque "gothick" from his experience of Vincennes, it has been argued.
Abandoned in the 18th century, the château still served, first as the site of the Vincennes porcelain manufactory, the precursor to Sèvres as a state prison, which housed the marquis de Sade, Diderot and the famous confidence man, Jean Henri Latude, as well as a community of nuns of the English Benedictine Congregation from Cambrai. At the end of February 1791, a mob of more than a thousand workers from the Faubourg Saint-Antoine, encouraged by members of the Cordeliers Club and led by Antoine Joseph Santerre, marched out to the château, rumour had it, was being readied on the part of the Crown for political prisoners, with crowbars and pickaxes set about demolishing it, as the Bastille had been demolished; the work was interrupted by the marquis de Lafayette who took several ringleaders prisoners, to the jeers of the Parisian workers. It played no part during the remainder of the Revolution. From 1796, it served as an arsenal; the execution of the duc d'Enghien took place in the moat of the château on 21 March 1804.
General Daumesnil who lost a leg, replaced by a wooden prosthesis, at the battle of Wagram, was assigned to the defence of the château de Vincennes in 1812. Vincennes was an arsenal containing 52 000 new rifles, more than 100 field guns and many tons of powder, canonballs... A tempting prize for the Sixth Coalition marching on Paris in 1814 in the aftermath of the Battle of the Nations. However, Daumesnil faced down the allies and replied with the famous words "I shall surrender Vincennes when I get my leg back". With only 300 men under his command, he resisted to the Coalition until king Louis XVIII ordered to leave the fortress; the park was recreated in the English landscape style in the 19th century. In 1860, Napoleon III, having employed Viollet-le-Duc to restore the keep and the chapel, gave the Bois de Vincennes to Paris as a public park. Vincennes served as the military headquarters of the Chief of General Staff, General Maurice Gamelin during the unsuccessful defence of France against the invading German army in 1940.
It is now the main base of France's Defence Historical Service, which maintains a museum in the donjon. On 20 August 1944, during the battle for the liberation of Paris, 26 policemen and members of the Resistance arrested by soldiers of the Waffen-SS were executed in the eastern moat of the fortress, their bodies thrown in a common grave. Only traces remain of the substantial remains date from the 14th century; the castle forms a rectangle. It has six towers and three gates, each 13 meters high, is surrounded by a deep stone lined moat; the keep, 52m high, its enceinte occupy the western side of the fortress and are separated from the rest of the castle by the moat. The keep; the towers of the grande enceinte now stand only to the height of the walls, having been demolished in the 1800s, save the Tour du Village on the north side of the enclosure. The south end consists of two wings facing each other, the Pavillon du Roi and the Pavillon de la Reine, built by Louis Le Vau. Fort Neuf de Vincennes, built to the east