Department of Environment and Conservation (Western Australia)
The Department of Environment and Conservation was a department of the Government of Western Australia, responsible for implementing the state's conservation and environment legislation and regulations. It was formed on 1 July 2006 by the amalgamation of the Department of Environment and the Department of Conservation and Land Management; the DEC was separated on 30 June 2013 forming the Department of Parks and Wildlife and the Department of Environment Regulation, which both commenced operations on 1 July 2013. DPaW focuses on nature conservation and the community’s enjoyment and appreciation of Western Australia’s world-class network of national and marine parks. DER focuses on environmental regulation and appeals processes, pollution prevention; the department was managing more than 285,000 km², including more than nine per cent of WA's land area: its national parks, marine parks, conservation parks, regional parks, state forests and timber reserves, nature reserves, roadside reserves and marine nature reserves.
It provided recreation facilities at a sustainable level for many of these. It supported or worked with the following authorities: Environmental Protection Authority Conservation Commission of WA Keep Australia Beautiful Marine Parks and Reserves Authority Swan River Trust Waste AuthorityThe total reportable visitation to DEC-managed lands and waters during the 2012-13 financial year was 16.02 million, with visitor satisfaction levels of 88%. 4,717 people were registered volunteers with the Department in 2012-13 that helped in a range of projects across the state with 564,350 hours contributed. DEC was responsible from 2007 to 2013 for protecting and conserving the state of Western Australia’s environment; the department’s key responsibilities included roles in managing and assessing aspects of the use of the State’s natural resources and biodiversity, including the regulation of native vegetation clearing and pollution control. The department initiated 14 environmental prosecutions during 2012–13, involving a broad range of charges including pollution, unauthorised clearing of native vegetation and illegal dumping.
At 30 June 2013, eight environmental prosecutions remained before the courts. There were an additional 18 pending cases that, subject to the evidentiary standard being met, could result in prosecution or other sanction. DEC was responsible for the wildlife conservation project Western Shield; the Department was in charge of wildfire prevention and suppression on its land as well as fire prevention in unallocated Crown land. The indicative burn target for 2012–13 in the south-west forest regions was 200,000 hectares. In 2012–13, DEC achieved 23,468 hectares in the south-west forest regions, including about 6,410 hectares that were burnt for pine plantation protection; the combination of unsuitable weather conditions, fuels remaining dry due to summer conditions extending into autumn, enhanced requirements in prescribed burn planning and risk management as a result of the 2011 Margaret River bushfire contributed to a significant reduction of the area able to be prescribed burnt this year. The average area of burning achieved over the past 10 years has been about 163,019 hectares per annum.
A further 6,023,884 hectares was burnt in the Kimberley, Goldfields, Midwest and South Coast regions. The burns were carried out on DEC-managed lands as well as on unallocated Crown lands and unmanaged reserves within these regions. DEC staff attended and monitored 676 bushfires throughout the state in 2012–13, which burnt about 5,477,394 hectares; the causes of these fires were: lightning—28 per cent deliberately lit or arson-caused fires—37 per cent accidental fires—16 per cent escapes from private burns—4 per cent escapes from DEC burns—0 per cent other causes—4 per cent unknown—11 per cent. Some of the most severe bushfires the Department had to suppress, in chronological order, included: National parks in Western Australia were under: Department of Lands and Surveys: 1 January 1890 – 31 December 1895 Wood and Forests Department: 1 January 1896 – 31 December 1918 Forests Department: 1 January 1919 – 21 March 1985 State Gardens Board: 15 December 1920 – 30 April 1957 National Parks Board: 1 May 1957 – 30 July 1977 Department of Fisheries and Fauna: 1 October 1964 – 31 December 1973 National Parks Authority: 1 August 1977 – 15 April 1985 Wildlife section of the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife: 1 January 1974 – 21 March 1985 Department of Environment: 1 July 2004 - 30 June 2006 Department of Conservation and Land Management: 22 March 1985 – 30 June 2006 The Department maintained and coordinated a range of specialist equipment and emergency response vehicles.
This included pumpers, water bombers and tankers and other equipment relating to operations involving search and rescue and firefighting. National Parks of Western Australia Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council Department of Environment and Conservation Department of Parks and Wildlife Department of Environment Regulation
A canyon or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales. Rivers have a natural tendency to cut through underlying surfaces wearing away rock layers as sediments are removed downstream. A river bed will reach a baseline elevation, the same elevation as the body of water into which the river drains; the processes of weathering and erosion will form canyons when the river's headwaters and estuary are at different elevations through regions where softer rock layers are intermingled with harder layers more resistant to weathering. A canyon may refer to a rift between two mountain peaks, such as those in ranges including the Rocky Mountains, the Alps, the Himalayas or the Andes. A river or stream and erosion carve out such splits between mountains. Examples of mountain-type canyons are Provo Canyon in Utah or Yosemite Valley in California's Sierra Nevada. Canyons within mountains, or gorges that have an opening on only one side, are called box canyons.
Slot canyons are narrow canyons that have smooth walls. Steep-sided valleys in the seabed of the continental slope are referred to as submarine canyons. Unlike canyons on land, submarine canyons are thought to be formed by turbidity currents and landslides; the word canyon is Spanish in origin, with the same meaning. The word canyon is used in North America while the words gorge and ravine are used in Europe and Oceania, though gorge and ravine are used in some parts of North America. In the United States, place names use canyon in the southwest and gorge in the northeast, with the rest of the country graduating between these two according to geography. In Canada, a gorge is narrow while a ravine is more open and wooded; the military-derived word defile is used in the United Kingdom. Most canyons were formed by a process of long-time erosion from table-land level; the cliffs form because harder rock strata that are resistant to erosion and weathering remain exposed on the valley walls. Canyons are much more common in arid than in wet areas because physical weathering has a more localized effect in arid zones.
The wind and water from the river combine to erode and cut away less resistant materials such as shales. The freezing and expansion of water serves to help form canyons. Water seeps into cracks between the rocks and freezes, pushing the rocks apart and causing large chunks to break off the canyon walls, in a process known as frost wedging. Canyon walls are formed of resistant sandstones or granite. Sometimes large rivers run through canyons as the result of gradual geological uplift; these are called entrenched rivers, because they are unable to alter their course. In the United States, the Colorado River in the Southwest and the Snake River in the Northwest are two examples of tectonic uplift. Canyons form in areas of limestone rock; as limestone is soluble to a certain extent, cave systems form in the rock. When these collapse, a canyon is left, as in the Mendip Hills in Somerset and Yorkshire Dales in Yorkshire, England. A box canyon is a small canyon, shorter and narrower than a river canyon, with steep walls on three sides, allowing access and egress only through the mouth of the canyon.
Box canyons were used in the western United States as convenient corrals, with their entrances fenced. The definition of "largest canyon" is imprecise, because a canyon can be large by its depth, its length, or the total area of the canyon system; the inaccessibility of the major canyons in the Himalaya contributes to their not being regarded as candidates for the biggest canyon. The definition of "deepest canyon" is imprecise if one includes mountain canyons as well as canyons cut through flat plateaus; the Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon, along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet, is regarded by some as the deepest canyon in the world at 5,500 m. It is longer than the Grand Canyon in the United States. Others consider the Kali Gandaki Gorge in midwest Nepal to be the deepest canyon, with a 6400 m difference between the level of the river and the peaks surrounding it. Vying for deepest canyon in the Americas are the Cotahuasi Canyon and Colca Canyon, in southern Peru. Both have been measured at over 3500 m deep.
The Grand Canyon of northern Arizona in the United States, with an average depth of 1,600 m and a volume of 4.17 trillion cubic metres, is one of the world's largest canyons. It was among the 28 finalists of the New7Wonders of Nature worldwide poll; the largest canyon in Africa is the Fish River Canyon in Namibia. In August 2013, the discovery of Greenland's Grand Canyon was reported, based on the analysis of data from Operation IceBridge, it is located under an ice sheet. At 750 kilometres long, it is believed to be the longest canyon in the world; the Capertee Valley in Australia is reported as being the second largest canyon in the world. Some canyons have notable cultural significance. Evidence of early humanoids has been discovered in Africa's Olduvai Gorge. In the southwestern United States, canyons are important archeologically because of the many cliff-dwellings built in such areas by the ancient Pueblo people who were their first inhabitants; the following list contains only the most notable canyons of the world, arranged by continent and country.
Fish River Canyon Blyde Riv
Fitzgerald River National Park
Fitzgerald River National Park is a national park in the Shires of Ravensthorpe and the Jerramungup in Western Australia, 419 kilometres southeast of Perth. The park includes the Barren Mountains and Eyre Range and the Fitzgerald River as well as incorporating the Fitzgerald Biosphere. There are 62 plant species which are unique to the 329,882 hectares park and a further 48 are found elsewhere. Recording 40,000 visitors in 2008, the park received $20 million in funding from the federal government's economic stimulus plan with the state government contributing an additional $20 million; the investment is to be used to redevelop and seal 80 km of roads within the park, construct a walk trail from Bremer Bay to Hopetoun and upgrade existing recreational facilities. Point Ann is one of the two places along Australia's coast where southern right whales come to calve during their winter migration. Within the National Park is the Quaalup Homestead Wilderness Retreat, built in 1858 by the Wellstead Family.
In 1890, the Hassell family took over the homestead. The park can be accessed from the western side via Bremer Bay, or from the eastern side via Hopetoun; the central area of the park is only accessible on foot. Many of the peaks in the park are off limits to climbers to prevent the spread of dieback or root rot from Phytophthora cinnamomi; the northwest precinct of the park is referred to as Twertup, a name applied to several plants and features of the landscape. The Twertup Field Studies Centre, so named occupied a former residence known as Twertup Cottage until the spongolite construction was destroyed by fire. Twertup is given in formal names associated with the area, for the watercourse Twertup Creek, a road, several plant taxa, the Twertup mallee Eucalyptus arborella, Twertup feather-flower Verticordia crebra, Leucopogon sp. Twertup for an unknown species described by K. R. Newbey, found in the area; the nineteenth century author Ethel Hassell, who lived nearby at Jerramungup station, gives a chapter with this title.
A warning that the young woman should avoid staying in the area, while heeded, was mysterious about the actual threat. This was explained by Hassel's Nyungar friend, who now advised her to sleep with two fires and away from water because of the reputation of groups of'wild dogs' in the area; the park forms the basis of the internationally recognised Biosphere Reserve recognised by the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Program. The site contains over 1800 species of plant with 250 of these being rare and 62 being known to be found only within the confines of the park; some species of interest include the royal hakea, qualup bell, scarlet banksia, showy banksia, bell-fruit mallee, pea flowers, feather flowers, many species of eucalypts and bottlebrushes. Three populations of the crowned mallee all exist within the park and have a total number of 140 trees. An endangered species, Boronia clavata, has five populations totalling only 100 individuals all of which are located in the area. Another two endangered species, the barrens wedding bush and the fan-leaf grevillea, are found within the park although in the case of the barrens wedding bush, not exclusively.
The park is home to 22 species of mammal, 200 bird species, 41 species of reptile and 12 species of frog. It is recognised as an Important Bird Area; the endangered malleefowl is known to inhabit the park with seven known and recorded sightings having been made 1998. Some of the mammals found are the rare dibbler and the heath rat, both of which were thought to be extinct at one time or another; the tammar wallaby and woylie, both of which are threatened species, are known to inhabit the mallee and heath areas of the park. Other species such as the quenda and the red-tailed phascogale inhabit the area. Migratory birds find refuge in the wetland and coastal regions and species that temporarily inhabit the area include the white-bellied sea eagle, Pacific swift and the Caspian tern. Protected areas of Western Australia List of biosphere reserves in Australia Fitzgerald River National Park
Melaleuca is a genus of nearly 300 species of plants in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae known as paperbarks, honey-myrtles or tea-trees. They range in size from small shrubs that grow to more than 1 m high, to trees up to 35 m, their flowers occur in groups, forming a “head” or “spike” resembling a brush used for cleaning bottles, containing up to 80 individual flowers. They are superficially like Banksia species, which have their flowers in a spike, but the structures of individual flowers in the two genera are different. Second only to members of the family Proteaceae, melaleucas are an important food source for nectarivorous insects and mammals. Many are popular garden plants, either as dense screens. Most melaleucas are endemic to Australia, with a few occurring in Malesia. Seven are endemic to New Caledonia, one is found only on Lord Howe Island. Melaleucas are found in a wide variety of habitats. Many are adapted for life in swamps and boggy places, while others thrive in the poorest of sandy soils or on the edge of saltpans.
Some have a wide distribution and are common, whilst others are rare and endangered. Land clearing, exotic myrtle rust, draining and clearing of swamps threaten many species. Melaleucas range in size from small shrubs such as M. aspalathoides and M. concinna which grow to more than 1 m high, to trees like M. cajuputi and M. quinquenervia, which can reach 35 m. Many, like M. lineariifolia, are known as paperbarks and have bark that can be peeled in thin sheets, whilst about 20% of the genus, including M. bracteata, have hard, rough bark and another 20% have fibrous bark. Every species in the genus is an evergreen, the leaves vary in size from minute and scale-like to 270 mm long. Most have distinct oil glands dotted in the leaves, making the leaves aromatic when crushed. Melaleuca flowers are arranged in spikes or heads. Within the head or spike, the flowers are in groups of two or three, each flower or group having a papery bract at its base. Five sepals occur, although these are sometimes fused into a ring of tissue and five petals which are small, not showy, fall off as the flower opens or soon after.
The stamens vary in colour, from white to cream or yellow, red, or mauve with their yellow tips contrasting with their "stalks". The fruit are woody, cup-shaped, barrel-shaped, or spherical capsules arranged in clusters along the stems; the seeds are sometimes retained in the fruit for many years, only opening when the plant, or part of it, dies or is heated in a bushfire. In tropical areas, seeds are released annually in the wet season; the first known description of a Melaleuca species was written by Rumphius in 1741, in Herbarium amboinense before the present system of naming plants was written. The plant he called; the name Melaleuca was first used by Linnaeus in 1767. Many species known as Metrosideros were placed in Melaleuca. In Australia, Melaleuca is the third most diverse plant genus with up to 300 species; the genus Callistemon was raised by Robert Brown, who noted its similarity to Melaleuca, distinguishing it only on the basis of whether the stamens are free of each other, or joined in bundles.
Botanists in the past, including Ferdinand von Mueller and Lyndley Craven have proposed uniting the two genera but the matter is not decided. Evidence from DNA studies suggests that either Callistemon and some other genera be incorporated into Melaleuca or that at least 10 new genera be created from the present genus. In 2014, Lyndley Craven and others proposed, on the basis of DNA evidence, that species in the genera Beaufortia, Conothamnus, Lamarchea, Petraeomyrtus and Regelia be transferred to Melaleuca; the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families maintained by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew lists Calothamnus and the other genera as synonyms of the accepted genus Melaleuca. The move has not been adopted by all Australian herbaria with some taxonomists, including Alex George opposing the move; the name Melaleuca is derived from the Ancient Greek μέλας meaning “dark" or "black” and λευκός meaning “white” because one of the first specimens described had fire-blackened white bark. The common name "tea-tree" has been applied to species in the genera Leptospermum, Melaleuca and Baeckea because the sailors on the Endeavour used the leaves of a shrub from one of these groups as a replacement for tea Camellia sinensis during Captain James Cook's 1770 voyage to Australia.
Most melaleucas occur only on the Australian mainland. Eight occur in Tasmania. One is endemic to Lord Howe Island and seven are endemic to Grande Terre, the main island of New Caledonia. A few tropical species occur in Papua New Guinea, the distribution of one subspecies, Melaleuca cajuputi subsp. Cumingiana extends as far north as Myanmar and Vietnam; the southwest of Western Australia has the greatest density of species, in the tropical north of the continent, species such as M. argentea and M. leucadendra are the dominant species over large areas. Melaleucas grow in a range of soil types and many tolerate occasional or permanent waterlogging; some species the South Australian swamp paperbark, M. halmaturorum, thrive in saline soils where few other species survive. Many
The wren is a family of small, passerine birds in the New World family Troglodytidae. The family includes 88 species divided into 19 genera. Only the Eurasian wren occurs in the Old World, where in Anglophone regions, it is known as the "wren", as it is the originator of the name; the name wren has been applied to other, unrelated birds the New Zealand wrens and the Australian wrens. Most wrens are small and rather inconspicuous, except for their loud and complex songs. Notable exceptions are the large members of the genus Campylorhynchus, which can be quite bold in their behavior. Wrens have short wings that are barred in most species, they hold their tails upright; as far as is known, wrens are insectivorous, eating insects and other small arthropods, but many species eat vegetable matter and some take small frogs and lizards. The English name "wren" derives from Middle English wrenne, Old English wrænna, attested early, in an eighth-century gloss, it is cognate to Old High German wrendo and Icelandic rindill.
The Icelandic name is attested in Old Icelandic rindilþvari. This points to a Common Germanic name * wrandjan -; the wren is known as kuningilin "kinglet" in Old High German, a name associated with the fable of the election of the "king of birds". The bird that could fly to the highest altitude would be made king; the eagle outflew all other birds. This fable is known to Aristotle and Pliny, was taken up by medieval authors such as Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg, but it concerns Kinglets and is motivated by the yellow "crown" sported by these birds. In modern German, the name is king of the fence. In Dutch, the name is winterkoninkje; the family name Troglodytidae is derived from troglodyte, which means "cave-dweller", the wrens get their scientific name from the tendency of some species to forage in dark crevices. The name "wren" is ascribed to other families of passerine birds throughout the world. In Europe, kinglets are known as "wrens", the common firecrest and goldcrest as "fire-crested wren" and "golden-crested wren", respectively.
The 27 Australasian "wren" species in the family Maluridae are unrelated, as are the New Zealand wrens in the family Acanthisittidae, the antbirds in the family Thamnophilidae, the Old World babbler of the family Timaliidae. Wrens are medium-small to small birds; the Eurasian wren is among the smallest birds in its range, while the smaller species from the Americas are among the smallest passerines in that part of the world. They range in size from the white-bellied wren, which averages under 10 cm and 9 g, to the giant wren, which averages about 22 cm and weighs 50 g; the dominating colors of their plumage are drab, composed of gray, brown and white, most species show some barring to tail and/or wings. No sexual dimorphism is seen in the plumage of wrens, little difference exists between young birds and adults. All have long, straight to marginally decurved bills. Wrens have loud and complex songs, sometimes given in duet by a pair; the song of members of the genera Cyphorhinus and Microcerculus have been considered pleasant to the human ear, leading to common names such as song wren, musician wren, flutist wren, southern nightingale-wren.
Wrens are principally a New World family, distributed from Alaska and Canada to southern Argentina, with the greatest species richness in the Neotropics. As suggested by its name, the Eurasian wren is the only species of wren found outside the Americas, as restricted to Europe and northern Africa; the insular species include the Clarión wren and Socorro wren from the Revillagigedo Islands in the Pacific Ocean, Cobb's wren in the Falkland Islands, but few Caribbean islands have a species of wren, with only the southern house wren in the Lesser Antilles, the Cozumel wren of Cozumel Island, the restricted Zapata wren in a single swamp in Cuba. The various species occur in a wide range of habitats, ranging from dry, sparsely wooded country to rainforest. Most species are found at low levels, but members of the genus Campylorhynchus are found higher, the two members of Odontorchilus are restricted to the forest canopy. A few species, notably the Eurasian wren and the house wren, are associated with humans.
Most species are resident, remaining in Central and South America all year round, but the few species found in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere are migratory, spending the winter further south. Wrens vary from secretive species such as those found in the genus Microcerculus to the conspicuous genus Campylorhynchus, the members of which sing from exposed perches; the family as a whole exhibits a great deal of variation in their behavior. Temperate species occur in pairs, but some tropical species may occur in parties of up to 20 birds. Wrens build dome-shaped nests, may be either monogamous or polygamous, depending on species. Though little is known about the feeding habits of many of the Neotropical species, wrens are considered insectivorous, eating insects and other small arthropods. Many species take vegetable matter such as seeds an
D'Entrecasteaux National Park
D'Entrecasteaux National Park is a national park in Western Australia, 315 kilometres south of Perth. The park is named after the French Admiral Bruni D'Entrecasteaux, the first European to sight the area and name Point D'Entrecasteaux in 1792; the park received 168,497 visitors through 2008-2009. The park stretches 130 km from Black Point in the west to Long Point in the east and extends inland as far as 20 km. Black Point is made of basalt columns from a lava flow. An interesting feature in the park is Yeagarup dune, a mobile 10-kilometre long sand dune found to the west of Lake Jasper; the park contains a great variety of scenery including beaches, sand-dunes, coastal cliffs, coastal heath and pockets of Karri forest. Rivers such as the Warren, the Donnelly and the Shannon flow through the park and discharge into the waters off-shore. Important large scale wetlands, known as the Blackwater, lakes such as Lake Jasper and Lake Yeagarup are found within the park boundaries. Broke Inlet is contained within the park boundaries at the eastern end.
The gneiss basement rocks project through the shallow waters to form small islands in the Inlet. Sandy Island in Windy Harbour is part of the park; the park has an entry fee. Facilities available to visitors include barbecues, toilets, 4WD tracks, camp sites, disabled access and picnic areas. Canoeing facilities exist within the park on the Deep River. Rangers patrol the area; the Bibbulmun Track passes through the park area. The outdoor education organisation, Outward Bound, operate within the park taking school groups on hiking expeditions. Protected areas of Western Australia Quagering Island
Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutes most of its territory. Most of England and Wales are on the island; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.
In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland; the latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC.
The term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. The Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee".
It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself "King of Great Brittaine and Ireland". Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, it is often used to refer politically to the whole of England and Wales, including their smaller off shore islands. While it is sometimes used to refer to the whole of the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland, this is not correct. Britain can refer to either all island