The Belgian Revolution was the conflict which led to the secession of the southern provinces from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the establishment of an independent Kingdom of Belgium. The people of the south were Dutch-speaking Flemings and French-speaking Walloons. Both peoples were traditionally Roman Catholic as contrasted with the Protestant people of the north. Many outspoken liberals regarded King William I's rule as despotic. There were high levels of unemployment and industrial unrest among the working classes. On 25 August 1830, riots erupted in Brussels and shops were looted. Theatregoers who had just watched the nationalistic opera La muette de Portici joined the mob. Uprisings followed elsewhere in the country. Factories were occupied and machinery destroyed. Order was restored after William committed troops to the Southern Provinces but rioting continued and leadership was taken up by radicals, who started talking of secession. Dutch units pulled out; the States-General in Brussels declared independence.
In the aftermath, a National Congress was assembled. King William appealed to the Great Powers; the resulting 1830 London Conference of major European powers recognized Belgian independence. Following the installation of Leopold I as "King of the Belgians" in 1831, King William made a belated attempt to reconquer Belgium and restore his position through a military campaign; this "Ten Days' Campaign" failed because of French military intervention. Not until 1839 did the Dutch accept the decision of the London conference and Belgian independence by signing the Treaty of London; the Dutch overthrew Napoleonic rule in 1813 and, after the British-Dutch Treaty of 1814, named their state the "United Provinces of the Netherlands" or the "United Netherlands". After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, the Congress of Vienna created a kingdom for the House of Orange-Nassau, thus combining the United Provinces of the Netherlands with the former Austrian Netherlands in order to create a strong buffer state north of France.
Symptomatic of the tenor of diplomatic bargaining at Vienna was the early proposal to reward Prussia for its staunch fight against Napoleon with the former Habsburg territory. When the British insisted on retaining the former Dutch Ceylon and the Cape Colony the new kingdom of the Netherlands was compensated with these southern provinces; the union of these two areas reverted to the original cultural area of the Netherlands before the 16th century and were called the "United Kingdom of the Netherlands". The Belgian Revolution had many consequences. Catholic bishops in the south viewed the Protestant-majority north with suspicion, had forbidden working for the new government; this rule, originated in 1815 by Maurice-Jean de Broglie, the French nobleman, bishop of Ghent, caused an under-representation of Southerners in government apparatus and the army. The traditional economy of trade and an incipient Industrial Revolution were centred in the present day Netherlands in the large port of Amsterdam.
Furthermore, although 62% of the population lived in the South, they were assigned the same number of representatives in the States General. At the most basic level, the North was for free trade, while less-developed local industries in the South called for the protection of tariffs. Free trade lowered the price of bread, made from wheat imported through the reviving port of Antwerp; the more numerous Northern provinces represented a majority in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands' elected Lower Assembly, therefore the more populous Southerners felt under-represented. King William I was from the North, lived in the present day Netherlands, ignored the demands for greater autonomy, his more progressive and amiable representative living in Brussels, the twin capital, was the Crown-Prince William King William II, who had some popularity among the upper class but none among peasants and workers. A linguistic reform in 1823 was intended to make Dutch the official language in the Flemish provinces, since it was the language of most of the Flemish population.
This reform met with strong opposition from the upper and middle classes who at the time were French-speaking. On 4 June 1830, this reform was abolished. Religion was another cause of the Belgian Revolution. In the politics of the south Roman Catholicism was the important factor, its partisans fought against the freedom of religion proclaimed by William, at that time still supported by the liberal faction. Over time the liberal faction began to support the Catholics to accomplish its own goals: freedom of education and freedom of the press; the Belgian Revolution of 1830 crystallised this antagonism. The language policy of King William was abolished. Catholic partisans watched with excitement the unfolding of the July Revolution in France, details of which were swiftly reported in the newspapers. On 25 August 1830, at the Théâtre
William H. Oakes
W. H. Oakes was a music publisher in 19th-century Boston, Massachusetts, he published compositions by Henry Russell and others. Although details of his life remain scarce, ample evidence exists to show that William Oakes engraved and published many works of music throughout the 1840s, he employed outside printers, distributed his publications through other vendors. Oakes seems to have borne responsibility for selecting the musical work, securing copyright permissions, hiring artists to create cover images, arranging other logistics. Oakes himself engraved the musical notations. In 1840 Oakes and Samuel Swan formed Oakes & Swan; the short-lived firm published musical works such as The Lament of the Irish Emigrant by William R. Dempster, The Land of the Blest by J. P. Knight. Swan left the partnership by January, 1841. For several years Oakes maintained an office on Tremont Street. Oakes served in 1841 as a trustee of the Music Institute. In 1844, the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association selected three examples of Oakes' music engravings to exhibit at Quincy Hall.
L. Schumann, composer; the Flora Waltzes. 1843. James G. Maeder, composer. Teddy O'Neale. 1843. Francis H. Brown, composer. Soldier's Dream Polka. 1849. Francis H. Brown, composer. Song My Mother Sings. 1849. Catalogue of vocal and instrumental music, for sale by William H. Oakes, music engraver & publisher, no. 13 Tremont Row, Boston. Boston: Samuel N. Dickinson, printer, 52 Washington Street, 1840. WorldCat. Oakes, William H. d. 1890 Nineteenth Century American Sheet Music Collection at the UNC-Chapel Hill Music Library. Includes works published by Oakes. William Dempster's Lament of the Irish emigrant, 1840 Davis' quick step, 1841. E. L. White's Oh! that I had wings, 1843. Edward L. White's The Aeolian, 1845. American Antiquarian Society. H. K. Sweetland's The Ploughboy, A Rural Song, 1848. Cover of Fleurs d'ete, 1849. Friedrich Muller's Tyrolese Melodies, in papers of S. E. Thoreau
Tyrol is a federal state in western Austria. It comprises the Austrian part of the historical Princely County of Tyrol, it is a constituent part of the present-day Euroregion Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino. The capital of Tyrol is Innsbruck; the state of Tyrol is separated into two parts, divided by a 7-kilometre wide strip. The larger territory is called the smaller area is called East Tyrol; the neighbouring Austrian state of Salzburg stands to the east, while on the south Tyrol has a border with the Italian province of South Tyrol, part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire before the First World War. With a land area of 12,683.85 km2, Tyrol is the third-largest state in Austria. Tyrol shares its borders with the federal state of Vorarlberg in the west. In the north, it adjoins to the German state of Bavaria. East Tyrol shares its borders with the federal state of Carinthia to the east and Italy's Province of Belluno to the south; the state's territory is located within the Eastern Alps at the Brenner Pass.
The highest mountain in the state is the Großglockner, part of the Hohe Tauern range on the border with Carinthia. It has a height of 3,797 m, making it the highest mountain in Austria. In ancient times, the region was split between the Roman provinces of Noricum. From the mid-6th century, it was resettled by Germanic Bavarii tribes. In the Early Middle Ages it formed the southern part of the German stem duchy of Bavaria, until the Counts of Tyrol, former Vogt officials of the Trent and Brixen prince-bishops at Tyrol Castle, achieved imperial immediacy after the deposition of the Bavarian duke Henry the Proud in 1138, their possessions formed a state of the Holy Roman Empire in its own right; when the Counts of Tyrol died out in 1253, their estates were inherited by the Meinhardiner Counts of Görz. In 1271, the Tyrolean possessions were divided between Count Meinhard II of Görz and his younger brother Albert I, who took the lands of East Tyrol around Lienz and attached it to his committal possessions around Gorizia.
The last Tyrolean countess of the Meinhardiner Dynasty, bequeathed her assets to the Habsburg duke Rudolph IV of Austria in 1363. In 1420, the committal residence was relocated from Merano to Innsbruck; the Tyrolean lands were reunited when the Habsburgs inherited the estates of the extinct Counts of Görz in 1500. In the course of the German mediatization in 1803, the prince-bishoprics of Trent and Brixen were secularized and merged into the County of Tyrol, but Tyrol was ceded to the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1805. Andreas Hofer led the Tyrolean Rebellion against the Bavarian occupiers. South Tyrol was ceded to the Kingdom of Italy, a client state of the First French Empire, by Bavaria in 1810. After Napoleon's defeat, the whole of Tyrol was returned to Austria in 1814. Tyrol was a Cisleithanian Kronland of Austria-Hungary from 1867; the County of Tyrol extended beyond the boundaries of today's state, including North Tyrol and East Tyrol. After World War I, these lands became part of the Kingdom of Italy according to the 1915 London Pact and the provisions of the Treaty of Saint Germain.
Since November 1918 it was occupied by 20,000–22,000 soldiers of the Italian Army. After World War II, Tyrol was governed by France until Austria regained independence again in 1955; the capital, Innsbruck, is known for its university, for its medicine. Tyrol is popular for its famous ski resorts, which include Ischgl and St. Anton; the 15 largest towns in Tyrol are: Tyrol has long been a central hub for European long-distance routes and thus a transit land for trans-European trade over the Alps. As early as the 1st century B. C. Tyrol had one of the most important north-south links of the Via Claudia Augusta. Roman roads crossed the Tyrol from the Po Plain in present-day Italy, following the course of the Etsch and Eisack in present South Tyrol over the Brenner and following the northern Wipp valley to Hall. From there roads branched along the River Inn; the Via Raetia went westwards and up onto the Seefeld Plateau, where it crossed into Bavaria where Scharnitz is today. The Porta Claudia, built in the early 17th century is a fortification that underlines the importance of the road in the Early Modern Period.
Today Tyrol has international road and air connections. Innsbruck Airport is Tyrol's international airport. In addition there are several smaller airports in various places such as St. Johann in Tirol, Höfen in the Außerfern or Langkampfen. Many ÖPNV companies operate a common tariff scheme as part of the Tyrol Transport Association; the state is divided into nine districts. The districts and their administrative centres, from west to east and north to south, are: North Tyrol: Landeck District, Reutte District, Imst District, Innsbruck-Land, Innsbruck Stadt Schwaz District, Kufstein District, Kitzbühel District, East Tyrol: Lienz District, Tyrol History of Tyrol North Tyrol East Tyrol Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino
Louis Philippe I
Louis Philippe I was King of the French from 1830 to 1848. His father Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans had taken the name "Philippe Égalité" because he supported the French Revolution. However, following the deposition and execution of his cousin King Louis XVI, Louis Philippe fled the country, his father denounced his actions and voted for his death, but was imprisoned and executed that same year. Louis Philippe spent the next 21 years in exile before returning during the Bourbon Restoration, he was proclaimed king in 1830 after his cousin Charles X was forced to abdicate by the July Revolution. The reign of Louis Philippe is known as the July Monarchy and was dominated by wealthy industrialists and bankers, he followed conservative policies under the influence of French statesman François Guizot during the period 1840–48. He promoted friendship with Britain and sponsored colonial expansion, notably the French conquest of Algeria, his popularity faded as economic conditions in France deteriorated in 1847, he was forced to abdicate after the outbreak of the French Revolution of 1848.
He lived out his life in exile in the United Kingdom. His supporters were known as Orléanists, as opposed to Legitimists who supported the main line of the House of Bourbon. Louis Philippe was born in the Palais Royal, the residence of the Orléans family in Paris, to Louis Philippe, Duke of Chartres, Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon; as a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a Prince of the Blood, which entitled him the use of the style "Serene Highness". His mother was an wealthy heiress, descended from Louis XIV of France through a legitimized line. Louis Philippe was the eldest of three sons and a daughter, a family, to have erratic fortunes from the beginning of the French Revolution to the Bourbon Restoration; the elder branch of the House of Bourbon, to which the kings of France belonged distrusted the intentions of the cadet branch, which would succeed to the throne of France should the senior branch die out. Louis Philippe's father was exiled from the royal court, the Orléans confined themselves to studies of the literature and sciences emerging from the Enlightenment.
Louis Philippe was tutored by the Countess of Genlis, beginning in 1782. She instilled in him a fondness for liberal thought; when Louis Philippe's grandfather died in 1785, his father succeeded him as Duke of Orléans and Louis Philippe succeeded his father as Duke of Chartres. In 1788, with the Revolution looming, the young Louis Philippe showed his liberal sympathies when he helped break down the door of a prison cell in Mont Saint-Michel, during a visit there with the Countess of Genlis. From October 1788 to October 1789, the Palais Royal was a meeting-place for the revolutionaries. Louis Philippe grew up in a period that changed Europe as a whole and, following his father's strong support for the Revolution, he involved himself in those changes. In his diary, he reports that he himself took the initiative to join the Jacobin Club, a move that his father supported. In June 1791, Louis Philippe got his first opportunity to become involved in the affairs of France. In 1785, he had been given the hereditary appointment of Colonel of the Chartres Dragoons.
With war imminent in 1791, all proprietary colonels were ordered to join their regiments. Louis Philippe showed himself to be a model officer, he demonstrated his personal bravery in two famous instances. First, three days after Louis XVI's flight to Varennes, a quarrel between two local priests and one of the new constitutional vicars became heated, a crowd surrounded the inn where the priests were staying, demanding blood; the young colonel broke through the crowd and extricated the two priests, who fled. At a river crossing on the same day, another crowd threatened to harm the priests. Louis Philippe put himself between a peasant armed with a carbine and the priests, saving their lives; the next day, Louis Philippe dove into a river to save a drowning local engineer. For this action, he received a civic crown from the local municipality, his regiment was moved north to Flanders at the end of 1791 after the August 27, 1791 Declaration of Pillnitz. Louis Philippe served under his father's crony, Armand Louis de Gontaut the Duke of Biron, along with several officers who gained distinction in Napoleon's empire and afterwards.
These included Lieutenant Colonel Alexandre de Beauharnais. After war was declared by the Kingdom of France on the Habsburg Monarchy on April 20, 1792, Louis Philippe saw his first exchanges of fire of the French Revolutionary Wars within the invaded by France Austrian Netherlands at Boussu, Walloon, on about April 28, 1792, at Quaregnon, Walloon, on about April 29, 1792, at Quiévrain, near Jemappes, Walloon, on about April 30, 1792, where he was instrumental in rallying a unit of retreating soldiers after the victorious Battle of Quiévrain only two days earlier on April 28th of 1792. Biron wrote to War Minister de Grave, praising the young colonel, promoted to brigadier, commanding a brigade of cavalry in Lückner's Army of the North. In the Army of the North, Louis Philippe served with four future Marshals of France: Macdonald, Mortier and Oudinot. Dumouriez was appointed to command the Army of the North in August 1792. Louis Philippe commanded a division under him in the Valmy campaign. At the September 20, 1792 Battle of Va
Masaniello was an Italian fisherman who became leader of the revolt against the rule of Habsburg Spain in Naples in 1647. Until it was believed that Masaniello was a native of Amalfi, when in fact he was born in Vico Rotto al Mercato, one of the many lanes around the market square in Naples; the source of this misunderstanding is that Amalfi was part of his name, but has been traditionally interpreted as a reference to his place of origin. Some sources do argue that Tommaso Aniello was born in Amalfi, where he was a friend of another unique character, Abbot Pirone, so named because he improperly used his habit to escape justice but, in reality a bandit who would kill for a fee, who would have been Tommaso's collaborator during the Neapolitan uprising. In 1896, the poet Salvatore Di Giacomo resolved the confusion around Masaniello and Amalfi by transcribing the act of baptism found in the Church of Santa Caterina which cites: "On June 29, 1620 Tommaso Aniello son of Cicco d'Amalfi and Antonia Gargano was baptized by me Don Giovanni Matteo Peta, lifted from the sacred font by Agostino Monaco and Giovanna de Lieto in Vico Rotto."The celebration took place on the day of birth, in the same church where in 1641 Tommaso Aniello would marry the sixteen-year-old Bernardina Pisa.
The historian Giuseppe Galasso suggested that the misunderstanding "was fostered and encouraged by a conscious attitude of power and official culture in Spanish Naples. The faithful city was not to be and could not admit the presence of an infidel, a rebel and one who had questioned Spanish government in Naples." On 7 July 1997, at the 350th anniversary of the popular uprising, the City of Naples placed an inscription in honor of Masaniello in Vico Rotto al Mercato. Masaniello's family was humble but not poor, his father, Francesco d'Amalfi was a shopkeeper. His mother, Antonia Gargano was a housekeeper who became pregnant with Masaniello before her marriage, he had two younger brothers and one sister: John, another leader of the rebellion. The house where he lived was in the Pendino quarter, where the tax on fish was collected, close to Porta Nolana which dealt with the duty on flour. At the time, Naples had about 250,000 inhabitants, was one of the most populous metropolises in Europe. Market Square, where Masaniello spent his whole life, was the nerve center.
It housed stalls selling all manner of goods, it was where acrobats performed for the common people and, in the days of Conrad of Swabia, had been the place for public executions. During the 1640s, Habsburg Spain was faced with a long series of disastrous conflicts: the revolt of the Netherlands, the Thirty Years War, the Revolt of Catalonia, the secession of Portugal. To support the war effort, the Iberian Crown imposed a heavy tax burden on the Viceroy of Naples in order to restore the coffers of its vast empire, whose Golden Age was coming to an end. Masaniello and fishmonger like his father, was described by his contemporaries as:...a young man of twenty-seven and graceful in appearance, his face was brown and somewhat burned by the sun: black eyes, blond hair, with locks that ran down his neck. To escape taxation, he brought the fish directly to the homes of nobles, but was always caught in the act by the tax collectors and imprisoned, his main activity was, smuggling, so much so that in 1646 his reputation as a skilled smuggler was well established in the Market.
He worked for the feudal nobility, including the marchesa di Brienza and don Diomede Carafa, Duke of Maddaloni, who treated him like a slave. His wife Bernardina, arrested for bringing to town a sock full of flour, evading duty, was imprisoned for eight days. To obtain her freedom, Masaniello was forced to pay a ransom of one hundred crowns, which brought him into debt. According to tradition, it was this episode that provoked in him a desire to avenge the people from their oppressors. During a stay in prison he met the "Grand Admiral" and Doctor of Law Marco Vitale, the illegitimate son of a famous lawyer, who brought him into contact with some members of the middle class tired of the continuing abuses of the tax collector and privileges of the nobility. Masaniello became a pupil of the writer Don Giulio Genoino, an octogenarian priest with a past as a defender of the people. In 1619, during the term of office of Viceroy Don Pedro Téllez-Girón, 3rd Duke of Osuna, Genoino had been called twice to represent the interests of the people against the nobility playing the role of an ancient tribune.
In 1620, however, he had been imprisoned far from Naples. Returning to the city in 1639, he began to fight for the rights of the people around him and formed a large group of agitators, including: Francesco Antonio Arpaja, his old and trusted employee, the Carmelite friar Savino Boccardo, the aforementioned Mark Vitale and the various captains of the city districts, a great number of "Lazzarini". Misgovernment and fiscal oppression during the Thirty Years' War aroused much discontent throughout the Kingdom of Naples. A revolt broke out at Palermo in May 1647, the people of Naples followed the example of the Sicilians; the immediate occasion of the latter rising was a new tax on fruit and the other ordinary food of the poor, the chief instigator of the movement was Masaniello, who took command of the malcontents. The outbreak began on 7 July 1647 with a riot at the city gates between the fruit-vendors of the environs and the customs officers.
Institut de France
The Institut de France is a French learned society, grouping five académies, including the Académie française. The Institute, located in Paris, manages 1,000 foundations, as well as museums and châteaux open for visit, it awards prizes and subsidies, which amounted to a total of over €27 million per year in 2017. Most of these prizes are awarded by the Institute on the recommendation of the académies; the building was constructed as the Collège des Quatre-Nations by Cardinal Mazarin, as a school for students from new provinces attached to France under Louis XIV. The Institut de France was established on 25 October 1795, by the French government. In 2017, Xavier Darcos was named the Institut de France's chancellor. Académie française – initiated 1635, suppressed 1793, restored 1803 as a division of the institute. Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres – initiated 1663. Académie des sciences – initiated 1666. Académie des beaux-arts – created 1816 as the merger of the Académie de peinture et de sculpture Académie de musique and Académie d'architecture Académie des sciences morales et politiques – initiated 1795, suppressed 1803, reestablished 1832.
The Royal Society of Canada, initiated 1882, was modeled after the Institut de France and the Royal Society of London. The Lebanese Academy of Sciences, known by its French name "Académie des Sciences du Liban", is broadly fashioned after the French Academy of Sciences, with which it continues to develop joint programs. Collège des Quatre-Nations National academy List of museums in Paris List of honorary societies Media related to Institut de France at Wikimedia Commons Official website Notes on the Institut de France from the Scholarly Societies project
Le prophète is a grand opera in five acts by Giacomo Meyerbeer. The French-language libretto was by Eugène Scribe and Émile Deschamps, after passages from the Essay on the Manners and Spirit of Nations by Voltaire; the plot is based on the life of John of Leiden, Anabaptist leader and self-proclaimed "King of Münster" in the 16th century. After the brilliant success of their grand opera Les Huguenots and his librettist Scribe decided to collaborate again on a piece based on a historical religious conflict. Meyerbeer's great personal wealth and his duties as official court composer to King Frederick William IV of Prussia meant that there was no hurry to complete the opera, it was more than a decade in the composition and planning. Le prophète was first performed by the Paris Opera at the Salle Le Peletier on 16 April 1849. In the audience at the work's premiere were Chopin, Verdi, Théophile Gautier, Ivan Turgenev and Berlioz, among others; the production featured costumes by Paul Lormier and sets by Charles-Antoine Cambon and Joseph Thierry, Charles Séchan, Édouard Desplechin.
It involved the first use on stage of Léon Foucault and Jules Duboscq's electric arc light, imitating the effect of sunlight. The creators of the three main roles were Jeanne-Anaïs Castellan as Berthe, Pauline Viardot as Fidès, Gustave-Hippolyte Roger as Jean. A sensational success at its premiere, the second city to hear it was London, at Covent Garden on 24 July of the same year, it was given all over Germany in 1850, as well as in Vienna, Antwerp, New Orleans, Brussels and Basel. Its tremendous success continued into the early 20th century. Like others of Meyerbeer's operas, Le prophète lost favor in the early part of the twentieth century and it fell out of the operatic repertoire worldwide, except for occasional revivals. Since the Second World War notable productions have included: Zürich in 1962, Deutsche Opera Berlin in 1966 and the Metropolitan Opera in 1977 with Marilyn Horne as Fidès, directed by John Dexter. At the Vienna State Opera in 1998 the opera was given in a production by Hans Neuenfels with Plácido Domingo and Agnes Baltsa in the leading roles.
Beginning in 2015, new productions of Le prophète are again appearing in European opera houses. Time: The religious wars of the 16th century Place: Dordrecht and MünsterPrecis: Jean de Leyde, whose beloved, Berthe, is coveted by Count Oberthal, ruler of Dordrecht, is persuaded by a trio of sinister Anabaptists to proclaim himself king in Münster. Meyerbeer wrote a long overture for the opera, cut during rehearsals, along with various other sections of the work, due to the excessive length of the opera itself. For over a century, the overture was thought to survive only in piano arrangements made at Meyerbeer's request by Charles-Valentin Alkan, but Meyerbeer's manuscript full score was rediscovered in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris in the early 1990s, the original parts were discovered in the archives of the Paris Opèra shortly thereafter, a newly edited edition was published in 2010; the countryside around Dordrecht in Holland. At the bottom flows the Meuse. On the right, Oberthal's castle with turrets.
It is morning. The peasants and millers leave to work, the wings of the mills begin to turn. Berthe, a young peasant girl, is happy to be able to marry the man she loves, she welcomes her future mother-in-law, Fidès, who blesses her and puts an engagement ring on her finger. Berthe explains to Fidès that she needs the Count's permission to marry Jean whom she has loved since he rescued her from the Meuse. Before leaving for Leiden, where Fidès runs an inn with her son, Berthe must obtain permission from Oberthal to leave the country and to marry; the two women stop at the sight of three men dressed in black. These are three Anabaptists, Jonas and Zacharie, singing their chorale, Ad nos ad salutarem; the Anabaptists arouse the interest of the local peasants in their ideas of social revolution and urge them to revolt against their overlord. The peasants arm themselves with pitchforks and sticks and make for the castle, but all stop at the sight of the Count of Oberthal and his soldiers. Seeing Berthe, Oberthal asks the girl about the reasons for her presence.
Berthe explains that she has loved Fidès' son Jean since he saved her from drowning and asks his permission to marry. Oberthal however recognizes one of the Anabaptists, Jonas, as a former steward and orders soldiers to beat the three men. Taken by Berthe's beauty, he refuses her request and arrests the two women; the people become angry, with the returning Anabaptists, threaten the castle. The interior of the inn of Jean and Fidès in the suburbs of Leiden in Holland. At the back, a door with crosses overlooking the countryside. Doors to the right and left of the stage The Anabaptists enter with merrymaking peasants and try to persuade Jean that he is their destined leader, claiming that he resembles the picture of King David in Münster Cathedral. Jean recounts to them a dream. Jean tells the three Anabaptists that he lives only for his love for Berthe and refuses to join with them. Berthe hurries in. In despair, Jean