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Daniel Chodowiecki

Daniel Niklaus Chodowiecki was a German painter and printmaker with Huguenot ancestry, most famous as an etcher. He spent most of his life in Berlin, became the director of the Berlin Academy of Art, he was born in the city of Danzig in Poland, in a letter “in typical Berlin humor” wrote, “that he moved to Berlin, which shows for sure, that he is a'genuine Pole'.” He kept close to the Huguenot scene. His grandfather Bartholomāus Chodowiecki had lived in the 16th century in Greater Poland. Gottfried Chodowiecki, Daniel's father, was a tradesman in Danzig and his mother, Henriette Ayrer born in Switzerland, was a Huguenot. Daniel's grandfather Christian had been a tradesman in the city as well; when his father died, both Daniel and his younger brother Gottfried Chodowiecki went to live with their uncle in Berlin, who offered to educate them, where Daniel received an artistic training with the painter Haid in Augsburg. His brother became a painter, he had three daughters, Jeannette and Henriette. Jeannette's daughter Marianne Chodowiecka Papin and her son Heinrich Papin became artists.

Soon Daniel was able to earn a living by painting. He was admitted to the Berlin Academy in 1764 and became vice-director under Bernhard Rode in 1788, he became the most famous German graphic artist of his time. His works includes several thousand etchings rather small, many drawings and paintings, his book illustrations embrace all the great classics. His prints represent in great detail the life of the bourgeoisie during the Zopfstil period, a time between Rococo and Classicism. In 1797 Chodowiecki was appointed director of the Academy of Arts in Berlin, where he died on 7 February 1801; the bulk of his work was in illustrating scientific books by Basedow, Lavater and others. He painted many portraits of Polish gentry and was interested in Huguenot and Polish history as well, making some paintings on the topic, he was in tune with the developing spirit of the age, many works reflect the cult of sensibility, the revolutionary and German nationalist feelings of the end of the century. In printmaking, he is credited with the invention of the deliberate remarque, a small sketch on a plate, lying outside the main image.

These were little sketches or doodles by artists, not meant to be seen, but Chodowiecki turned them into "bonus items" for collectors. Chodowiecki, though speaking only French and German, many times declared his Polish allegiance and had his son Isaac Heinrich, born in Berlin, painted as a young child with a Polish outfit and haircut. After Partitions of Poland Chodowiecki wrote to Gräfin Solms-Laubach: "From father's side I'm Polish, a descendant of a brave nation which will soon vanish". In a letter to Józef Łęcki, the Polish astronomer, he wrote: "I consider it an honour to be a genuine Pole though I am now living in Germany"; because of his mother's and his wife's Huguenot descent he was close to the Huguenots of Berlin. Nearly all his life and career was spent in Germany, writing in German and living in Berlin from the age of 17. One of his most popular books is "Journey from Berlin to Danzig" with many illustrations, he purchased a horse rather than going by stage coach. This was his first return after 30 years absence and he went to see his elderly mother and sisters in Danzig again.

He made only one more trip to Danzig afterwards, to his mother's funeral. He illustrates towns and people in Pomerania and Prussia on the way. Chodowiecki is buried at the Französischer Friedhof cemetery in Berlin. Wolfgang Plat, Die Reise nach Danzig, Mit Daniel Chodowiecki durch Pommern 541 images of works at the LA County Museum of Art Gallery of works by Chodowiecki at www.malarze.com Gallery of works by Chodowiecki's brother - Gottfried at www.malarze.com Works at www.bildindex.de Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Chodowiecki, Daniel Nicolas". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press

North Western of Uruguay Railway

The North Western of Uruguay Railway was one of the five original rail systems in Uruguay. The other four were the Midland Uruguay, the Central Uruguay, the Uruguay Northern, the Uruguay East Coast Railway; the North Western of Uruguay Railway Company, Ltd. was registered In London in 1882. The North Western system consisted of 182 kilometres of standard gauge railway, extending from Salto, the terminus of the Midland Uruguay Railway, in a general northerly direction to Palomas, where connections were made with the Uruguay Northern Railway, Cuareim, opposite Barra do Quaraí, Brazil. Salto is opposite Concordia, Argentina, an important railway center located on the Entre Rios and Argentine North Eastern Railway lines, some traffic was interchanged. At Cuareim, an international bridge was constructed and a third rail laid for connections with the Brazil Great Southern Railway, which ran from Quarahim, northward; the North Western operated triweekly passenger-train service in both directions between Salto and Quarahim.

Connections could be made with trains for Uruguaiana and other points in southern Brazil. It served stations at Salto, Las Vinas, San Antonio, Palomas, Santa Ana, Isla Cabellos, Zanja Honda, Santa Rosa, Port Cuareim, its major bridge traverses were over the Arapey Grande River, Lake Arapey, Jacuy. Less than a year after its founding, Railway News reported in June 16, 1883 that the company directors, in their report for the ten months during which they had held office, stated that, owing to the publication of an unfounded telegram that a revolution had broken out in Uruguay, only £88,115 out of the £340,000 debentures for which they asked subscriptions were placed; the directors resolved to clear off, as far as possible, the liabilities which they had taken over from the North Western Railway of Monte Video Company, to put the existing line in good working order, to proceed with the extension as far as Isla Cabellos, having thus given proofs to the Uruguayan Government that the company intended faithfully to carry out their agreement with them, to ask them to grant an extension of time for completing the railway to Santa Rosa.

An application was made to the Government to give the company an eighteen months extension. Regarding the works upon the existing line, the railway superintendent reported that they are in good shape, that an new station, with the necessary goods and sheds was built at the Port of Salto to take the place of the old terminus, inconveniently situated about 2 km inland

Eurasian penduline tit

The Eurasian penduline tit or European penduline tit is a passerine bird of the genus Remiz. The genus name is the Polish word for the Eurasian penduline tit, pendulinus is Latin for "hanging down”, which refers to its nest, it is widespread throughout the Palearctic. The breeding range of the species in Western Europe experienced an expansion during the 1980s and 1990s; this was accompanied by an expansion of the species’ winter range and reached as far south as northern Morocco. It builds an elaborate hanging nest used in Central Europe as children's slippers; this species was first described as Motacilla pendulinus by Linnaeus in his Systema naturae in 1758. The penduline tit has a large range, estimated at 1-10 million square kilometres, a population estimated at 420,000–840,000 individuals in Europe alone, there is evidence that the population is increasing, it is therefore not believed to meet the IUCN Red List threshold criterion of a population decline of more than 30% in ten years or three generations, is evaluated as Least Concern.

Ageing and sexing by Javier Blasco-Zumeta & Gerd-Michael Heinze Biodiversity Lab University of Bath, containing info about Penduline Tit research Penduline Tit Research Group Images at www.naturlichter.com On regular wintering of Eurasian Penduline Tits Remiz pendulinus in northern Morocco