SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Daniel Day-Lewis

Sir Daniel Michael Blake Day-Lewis is a retired English actor. One of the most respected actors of his generation, he has been hailed as one of the greatest actors in cinema history, he has received numerous awards throughout his career, including three Academy Awards for Best Actor, making him the only male actor to have three wins in the Best Actor category and one of only three male actors to win three Oscars. He won four BAFTA Awards for Best Actor, three Screen Actors Guild Awards and two Golden Globe Awards. In June 2014, he received a knighthood for services to drama. Born and raised in London, Day-Lewis excelled on stage at the National Youth Theatre before being accepted at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, which he attended for three years. Despite his traditional training at the Bristol Old Vic, he is considered a method actor, known for his constant devotion to and research of his roles. Displaying a "mercurial intensity", he would remain in character throughout the shooting schedules of his films to the point of adversely affecting his health.

He is one of the most selective actors in the film industry, having starred in only six films since 1998, with as many as five years between roles. Protective of his private life, he gives interviews, makes few public appearances. Day-Lewis shifted between theatre and film for most of the early 1980s, joining the Royal Shakespeare Company and playing Romeo in Romeo and Juliet and Flute in A Midsummer Night's Dream, before appearing in the 1984 film The Bounty, he starred in My Beautiful Laundrette, his first critically acclaimed role, gained further public notice with A Room with a View. He assumed leading man status with The Unbearable Lightness of Being and The Last of the Mohicans, his performance in My Left Foot saw him receive BAFTA for Best Actor. Following his performance in The Boxer, Day-Lewis retired from acting for three years, taking up a new profession as an apprentice shoe-maker in Italy, he returned to acting in 2000 to film Gangs of New York. He won Oscars and BAFTAs again for There Lincoln.

He was nominated for the Academy Award for his work in In the Name of the Father, Gangs of New York, Phantom Thread. Day-Lewis announced his retirement following the completion of Phantom Thread. Day-Lewis was born in Kensington, the second child of poet Cecil Day-Lewis and his second wife, actress Jill Balcon, his older sister, Tamasin Day-Lewis, is a television food critic. His father, born in the Irish town of Ballintubbert, County Laois, was of Protestant Anglo-Irish descent, lived in England from the age of two, was appointed Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom. Day-Lewis' mother was Jewish. Day-Lewis' maternal grandfather, Sir Michael Balcon, became the head of Ealing Studios, helping develop the new British film industry. Two years after Day-Lewis' birth, he moved with his family to Crooms Hill in Greenwich via Port Clarence Middlesbrough, he and his older sister did not see much of their older two half-brothers, teenagers when Day-Lewis' father divorced their mother. Living in Greenwich, Day-Lewis had to deal with tough South London children.

At this school, he was bullied for being both Jewish and "posh". He mastered the local accent and mannerisms, credits that as being his first convincing performance. In life, he has been known to speak of himself as much a disorderly character in his younger years in trouble for shoplifting and other petty crimes. In 1968, Day-Lewis' parents, finding his behaviour to be too wild, sent him as a boarder to the independent Sevenoaks School in Kent. At the school, he was introduced to his three most prominent interests: woodworking and fishing. However, his disdain for the school grew, after two years at Sevenoaks, he was transferred to another independent school, Bedales in Petersfield, Hampshire, his sister was a student there, it had a more relaxed and creative ethos. He made his film debut at the age of 14 in Sunday Bloody Sunday, in which he played a vandal in an uncredited role, he described the experience as "heaven" for getting paid £2 to vandalise expensive cars parked outside his local church.

For a few weeks in 1972, the Day-Lewis family lived at Lemmons, the north London home of Kingsley Amis and Elizabeth Jane Howard. Day-Lewis' father had pancreatic cancer, Howard invited the family to Lemmons as a place they could use to rest and recuperate, his father died there in May that year. By the time he left Bedales in 1975, Day-Lewis' unruly attitude had diminished and he needed to make a career choice. Although he had excelled on stage at the National Youth Theatre in London, he applied for a five-year apprenticeship as a cabinet-maker, he was rejected due to lack of experience. He was accepted at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, which he attended for three years along with Miranda Richardson performing at the Bristol Old Vic itself. At one point he played understudy to Pete Postlethwaite, with whom he would co-star in the film In the Name of the Father. John Hartoch, Day-Lewis' acting teacher at Bristol Old Vic, recalled: There was something about him then, he was quiet and polite, but he was focused on his acting—he had a burning quality.

He seemed to have something burning beneath the surface. There was a lot going on beneath that quiet appearance. There was one performance in particular, when the students put on a play called Class Energy, when he r

Phase-contrast X-ray imaging

Phase-contrast X-ray imaging or phase-sensitive X-ray imaging is a general term for different technical methods that use information concerning changes in the phase of an X-ray beam that passes through an object in order to create its images. Standard X-ray imaging techniques like radiography or computed tomography rely on a decrease of the X-ray beam's intensity when traversing the sample, which can be measured directly with the assistance of an X-ray detector. In PCI however, the beam's phase shift caused by the sample is not measured directly, but is transformed into variations in intensity, which can be recorded by the detector. In addition to producing projection images, PCI, like conventional transmission, can be combined with tomographic techniques to obtain the 3D distribution of the real part of the refractive index of the sample; when applied to samples that consist of atoms with low atomic number Z, PCI is more sensitive to density variations in the sample than conventional transmission-based X-ray imaging.

This leads to images with improved soft tissue contrast. In the last several years, a variety of phase-contrast X-ray imaging techniques have been developed, all of which are based on the observation of interference patterns between diffracted and undiffracted waves; the most common techniques are crystal interferometry, propagation-based imaging, analyzer-based imaging, edge-illumination and grating-based imaging. The first to discover X-rays was Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen in 1895, the reason why they are today sometimes referred to as "Röntgen rays", he found out that the "new kind of rays" had the ability to penetrate materials opaque for visible light, he thus recorded the first X-ray image, displaying the hand of his wife. He was awarded the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901 "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him". Since X-rays were used as an invaluable tool to non-destructively determine the inner structure of different objects, although the information was for a long time obtained by measuring the transmitted intensity of the waves only, the phase information was not accessible.

The principle of phase-contrast imaging in general was developed by Frits Zernike during his work with diffraction gratings and visible light. The application of his knowledge to microscopy won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1953. Since, phase-contrast microscopy has been an important field of optical microscopy; the transfer of phase-contrast imaging from visible light to X-rays took a long time due to the slow progress in improving the quality of X-ray beams and the non-availability of X-ray optics. In the 1970s it was realized that the synchrotron radiation emitted from charged particles circulating in storage rings constructed for high-energy nuclear physics experiments was a much more intense and versatile source of X-rays than X-ray tubes; the construction of synchrotrons and storage rings, explicitly aimed at the production of X-rays, the progress in the development of optical elements for X-rays were fundamental for the further advancement of X-ray physics. The pioneer work to the implementation of the phase-contrast method to X-ray physics was presented in 1965 by Ulrich Bonse and Michael Hart, Department of Materials Science and Engineering of Cornell University, New York.

They presented a crystal interferometer, made from a large and perfect single crystal. Not less than 30 years the Japanese scientists Atsushi Momose, Tohoru Takeda and co-workers adopted this idea and refined it for application in biological imaging, for instance by increasing the field of view with the assistance of new setup configurations and phase retrieval techniques; the Bonse–Hart interferometer provides several orders of magnitude higher sensitivity in biological samples than other phase-contrast techniques, but it cannot use conventional X-ray tubes because the crystals only accept a narrow energy band of X-rays. In 2012, Han Wen and co-workers took a step forward by replacing the crystals with nanometric phase gratings; the gratings split and direct X-rays over a broad spectrum, thus lifting the restriction on the bandwidth of the X-ray source. They detected sub nanoradian refractive bending of X-rays in biological samples with a grating Bonse–Hart interferometer. At the same time, two further approaches to phase-contrast imaging emerged with the aim to overcome the problems of crystal interferometry.

The propagation-based imaging technique was introduced by the group of Anatoly Snigirev at the ESRF in Grenoble and was based on the detection of "Fresnel fringes" that arise under certain circumstances in free-space propagation. The experimental setup consisted of an inline configuration of an X-ray source, a sample and a detector and did not require any optical elements, it was conceptually identical to the setup of Dennis Gabor's revolutionary work on holography in 1948. An alternative approach called analyzer-based imaging was first explored in 1995 by Viktor Ingal and Elena Beliaevskaya at the X-ray laboratory in Saint Petersburg, by Tim Davis and colleagues at the CSIRO Division of Material Science and Technology in Clayton, Australia; this method uses a Bragg crystal as angular filter to reflect only a small part of the beam fulfilling the Bragg condition onto a detector. Important contributions to the progress of this method have been made by a US collaboration of the research teams of Dean Chapman, Zhong Zhong and William Thomlinson, for example the extracting of an additional signal caused by ultra-small angle scattering and the first CT ima

Ngāpuhi

Ngāpuhi is a Māori iwi located in the Northland region of New Zealand, centred in the Hokianga, the Bay of Islands, Whangarei. Ngāpuhi has the largest affiliation of any iwi, with 125,601 people identifying as Ngāpuhi in the 2013 census, formed from 150 hapū/subtribes, with 55 marae. Despite such diversity, the people of Ngāpuhi maintain self-identity; the iwi is administered based in Kaikohe. The Rūnanga acts on behalf of the iwi in consultations with the New Zealand Government, it ensures the equitable distribution of benefits from the 1992 settlement with the Government, undertakes resource management and education initiatives. The founding ancestor of Ngāpuhi is the son of Tauramoko and Te Hauangiangi. Tauramoko was a descendant of Kupe, from Matawhaorua, Nukutawhiti, of the Ngātokimatawhaorua canoe. Te Hauangiangi was the daughter of Puhi, who captained the Mataatua canoe northwards from the Bay of Plenty. Rāhiri was born near Opononi in the Hokianga; the early tribes led by Rāhiri's descendants lived in the Hokianga and Pouerua areas.

Through intermarriage with other iwi and expansionist land migration, the descendants of Rāhiri formed tribes across the Northland peninsula. These actions fostered ties with neighbouring iwi. Auha and Whakaaria, for example, led expansion eastward from Kaikohe and Pouērua into the Bay of Islands area and intermarrying with Ngāi Tāhuhu, Ngāti Manaia, Te Wahineiti and Ngāti Miru; these tribes in the east were the first to use the name Ngāpuhi. As the eastern and western groups merged, the name came to describe all the tribes settled in the Hokianga and Bay of Islands. In the late 1700s and early 1800s the Ngāpuhi tribes pushed further east through the southern Bay of Islands to the open coast, absorbing tribes such as Ngāti Manu, Te Kapotai, Te Uri o Rata, Ngare Raumati and Ngātiwai. Ruatara was chief of the Ngāpuhi from 1812 to his death in 1815. In 1814, he invited the Rev. Samuel Marsden to set up the first Christian mission in New Zealand on Ngāpuhi land; the presence of these influential Pakeha secured Ruatara's access to European plants and knowledge, which he distributed to other Māori, thus increasing his mana.

After the death of Ruatara, his uncle Hongi Hika became protector of the mission. Thomas Kendall, John King, William Hall, missionaries of the Church Missionary Society, founded the first mission station in Oihi Bay in the Bay of Islands in 1814 and over the next decades established farms and schools in the area. In 1823 Rev. Henry Williams and his wife Marianne established a mission station at Paihia on land owned by Ana Hamu, the wife of Te Koki. In 1826 Henry's brother William and his wife Jane joined the CMS mission at Paihia. Marianne and Jane Williams established schools for the Ngāpuhi. William Williams lead the CMS missionaries in the translation of the Bible and other Christian literature; the missionaries did not succeed in converting a single Māori until 1830 when Rawiri Taiwhanga, a Ngāpuhi chief, was baptised. Ruatara and Hongi Hika themselves did not convert. Hōne Heke attended the CMS mission school at Kerikeri and Heke and his wife Ono, were baptised in 1835. By the early 19th century, the Bay of Islands had become a prominent shipping port in New Zealand.

Through increased trade with Europeans, initiated by Ruatara, Ngāpuhi gained greater access to European weapons, including muskets. Armed with European firearms, led by Hongi Hika, launched a series of expansionist campaigns, with resounding slaughters across Northland and in the Waikato and Bay of Plenty. On 28 October 1835 various Northland chiefs from the Ngapuhi tribe, met at Waitangi with British resident James Busby and signed the Declaration of Independence of New Zealand, proclaiming the United Tribes of New Zealand. In 1836, the Crown received and recognized the United Tribes independence under King William IV. By 1839, 52 chiefs from around Northland and central North Island had signed the Declaration, including most Ngāpuhi chiefs and Pōtatau Te Wherowhero, ariki of the Tainui tribes of the Waikato. In 1840, the Ngāpuhi chiefs were all signatories to the Treaty of Waitangi. However, from 1845–1846, Ngāpuhi fought against the British Crown over treaty disputes and European encroachment and interference.

The Māori forces were led by Te Ruki Kawiti and Hōne Heke, who instigated the war when he chopped down the flagpole at Kororāreka to commence what is sometimes called the Flagstaff War. The British had Ngāpuhi allies; the outcome of the Flagstaff War is a matter of some debate. Although the war was lauded as a British victory, it is clear that the outcome was somewhat more complex contentious; the flagstaff which had proved so controversial was not re-erected by the colonial government. Whilst the Bay of Islands and Hokianga was still nominally under British influence, the fact that the Government's flag was not re-erected was symbolically significant; such significance was not lost on Henry Williams, writing to E. G. Marsh on 28 May 1846, stating that "the flag-staff in the Bay is still prostrate, the natives here rule; these are humiliating facts to the proud Englishman, many of whom thought they could govern by a mere name."The flagstaff that now stands at Kororareka was erected in January 1858 at the direction of Kawiti's son Maihi Paraone Kawiti.