click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Daniel Ellsberg

Daniel Ellsberg is an American economist and former United States military analyst who, while employed by the RAND Corporation, precipitated a national political controversy in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, a top-secret Pentagon study of the U. S. government decision-making in relation to the Vietnam War, to The New York Times and other newspapers. On January 3, 1973, Ellsberg was charged under the Espionage Act of 1917 along with other charges of theft and conspiracy, carrying a total maximum sentence of 115 years. Due to governmental misconduct and illegal evidence-gathering, the defense by Leonard Boudin and Harvard Law School professor Charles Nesson, Judge William Matthew Byrne Jr. dismissed all charges against Ellsberg on May 11, 1973. Ellsberg was awarded the Right Livelihood Award in 2006, he is known for having formulated an important example in decision theory, the Ellsberg paradox, his extensive studies on nuclear weapons and nuclear policy, for having voiced support for WikiLeaks, Chelsea Manning, Edward Snowden.

Ellsberg was awarded the 2018 Olof Palme Prize for his "profound humanism and exceptional moral courage." Ellsberg was born in Illinois, on April 7, 1931, the son of Harry and Adele Ellsberg. His parents were Ashkenazi Jews who had converted to Christian Science, he was raised as a Christian Scientist, he attended the Cranbrook School in nearby Bloomfield Hills. His mother wanted him to be a concert pianist, but he stopped playing in July 1946, after both his mother and sister were killed when his father fell asleep at the wheel and crashed the family car into a culvert wall. Ellsberg entered Harvard College on a scholarship, graduating summa cum laude with an A. B. in economics in 1952. He studied at the University of Cambridge for a year on a Woodrow Wilson Fellowship returned to Harvard for graduate school. In 1954, he enlisted in the U. S. Marine earned a commission, he served as a platoon leader and company commander in the 2nd Marine Division, was discharged in 1957 as a first lieutenant. Ellsberg returned to Harvard as a Junior Fellow in the Society of Fellows for two years.

Ellsberg began working as a strategic analyst at the RAND Corporation for the summer of 1958 and permanently in 1959. He concentrated on the command and control of nuclear weapons. Ellsberg completed a Ph. D. in economics from Harvard in 1962. His dissertation on decision theory was based on a set of thought experiments that showed that decisions under conditions of uncertainty or ambiguity may not be consistent with well defined subjective probabilities. Now known as the Ellsberg paradox, this formed the basis of a large literature that has developed since the 1980s, including approaches such as Choquet expected utility and info-gap decision theory. Ellsberg worked in the Pentagon from August 1964 under Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara as special assistant to Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs John McNaughton, he went to South Vietnam for two years, working for General Edward Lansdale as a member of the State Department. On his return from South Vietnam, Ellsberg resumed working at RAND.

In 1967, he contributed to a top-secret study of classified documents on the conduct of the Vietnam War, commissioned by Defense Secretary McNamara. These documents, completed in 1968 became known collectively as the Pentagon Papers. Through study of this body of US government records, Ellsberg came to understand about the Vietnam War that: It was no more a "civil war" after 1955 or 1960 than it had been during the U. S.-supported French attempt at colonial reconquest. A war in which one side was equipped and paid by a foreign power – which dictated the nature of the local regime in its own interest – was not a civil war. To say that we had "interfered" in what is "really a civil war," as most American academic writers and liberal critics of the war do to this day screened a more painful reality and was as much a myth as the earlier official one of "aggression from the North." In terms of the UN Charter and of our own avowed ideals, it was a war of foreign aggression, American aggression. By 1969, Ellsberg began attending anti-war events while still remaining in his position at RAND.

In April 1968, Ellsberg attended a Princeton conference on “Revolution in a Changing World,” where he met Gandhian peace activist Janaki Tschannerl from India, who had a profound influence on him, Eqbal Ahmed, a Pakistani fellow at the Adlai Stevenson Institute to be indicted with Rev. Philip Berrigan for anti-war activism. Ellsberg recalls Tschannerl saying “In my world, there are no enemies”, that “she gave me a vision, as a Gandhian, of a different way of living and resistance, of exercising power nonviolently."He experienced an epiphany attending a War Resisters League conference at Haverford College in August 1969, listening to a speech given by a draft resister named Randy Kehler, who said he was "very excited" that he would soon be able to join his friends in prison. Ellsberg described his reacti

Inez Hogan

Inez Hogan was an American author and illustrator of children's books animal stories. She was born in Washington, D. C. and attended the Cape Cod School of Art. She lived in New York City. Hogan wrote 63 books, including many about her character Nicodemus, she illustrated another 19 books, including the first edition of Epaminondas and His Auntie by Sara Cone Bryant. The black characters in Hogan's books were portrayed with African American stereotypes. From the 1930s until her death, children's books were her sole means of support. Of this she said "I can think of no happier way to make a living."Inez Hogan died in February 1973 in Orleans, Massachusetts. Animal Tales from the Old North State. Lucy M Cobb. Publisher: New York, E. P. Dutton & Co. 1938. A Bear is a Bear. Inez Hogan. Publisher: New York: E. P. Dutton, 1953. Bear Twins. Inez Hogan. Publisher: New York, E. P. Dutton & Co. 1935. Bigger and Bigger. Inez Hogan. Publisher: Boston, D. C. Heath, 1946, 1955. Cubby Bear and the Book. Inez Hogan. Publisher: New York, Dutton, 1961.

Dinosaur Twins. Inez Hogan. Publisher: New York, Dutton, 1963. A Dog for Danny. Inez Hogan. Publisher: Champaign, Ill. Garrard Pub. Co. 1973. Eager Beaver. Inez Hogan. Publisher: New York, Dutton, 1963. Elephant Twins. Inez Hogan. Publisher: New York, E. P. Dutton & Co. 1937. Epaminondas and his Auntie. Sara Cone Bryant. Publisher: Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1938; the Four Funny Men. Erlin Hogan. Publisher: New York, E. P. Dutton & Co. 1939. Fox Twins. Inez Hogan. Publisher: New York, Dutton, 1964. Giraffe Twins. Inez Hogan. Publisher: New York, E. P. Dutton, 1948. Little Lost Bear. Inez Hogan. Publisher: New York, Dutton, 1960; the Little Ones. Inez Hogan. Publisher: New York, Dutton, 1956; the Littlest Bear. Inez Hogan. Publisher: New York, Dutton, 1959; the Littlest Satellite. Inez Hogan. Publisher: New York, Dutton, 1958; the Lone Wolf. Inez Hogan. Publisher: New York, Dutton, 1961. Me. Inez Hogan. Publisher: New York, Dutton, 1954. Monkey See Monkey Do. Inez Hogan. Publisher: New York: E. P. Dutton & Co. 1960. Mule Twins. Inez Hogan. Publisher: New York, Dutton & Co. 1939.

Nappy has a New Friend. Inez Hogan. Publisher: Dutton & Co. 1947. Ned and Nancy. Inez Hogan. Publisher: Boston, Heath, 1955. Nicodemus and the Goose. Inez Hogan. Schomburg Children's Collection. Publisher: New York: E. P. Dutton, 1945. Nicodemus Runs Away. Inez Hogan. Publisher: Dutton, 1942. Petunia Be Keerful. Inez Hogan. Publisher: Racine, Whitman, 1934. Read to Me about Nono, the Baby Elephant. Inez Hogan. Publisher: New York: E. P. Dutton, 1947. Runaway Stories: Folk Tales and Nursery Rimes. Inez Hogan. Publisher: New York: Newson & Co. 1928. Twin Kittens. Inez Hogan. Publisher: New York, Dutton, 1958. Twin Lambs. Inez Hogan. Publisher: Dutton, 1951. Twin Otters and the Indians. Inez Hogan. Publisher: New York, Dutton, 1962. We Are a Family. Inez Hogan. Publisher: New York Dutton, 1952. Biography and bibliography Guide to the Inez Hogan papers at the University of Oregon

House of Leyen

The house von der Leyen is an ancient German noble family of princely and sovereign rank. As a former ruling and mediatized family, it belongs to the Hochadel; the origin can be traced to the middle of the 10th century. The family was named de Petra or by its castle in Gondorf. Since the 14th century it has called itself von der Leyen, its members had the hereditary office of sénéchal in the Electorate of Trier. They had Adendorf near Bonn, Leiningen on the Hunsrück, the Lordship of Arenfels and St. Ingbert. Prior to 1660, Hugo Ernst became Lord of Blieskastel and, in 1657, was created Reichsfreiherr von der Leyen. In addition to its scattered territories the family acquired the lordships of Burresheim and Blieskastel before 1660, where it built a residence around 1760. In 1697 Freiherr Karl Caspar received the county of Hohengeroldseck as a fiefdom from Austria. In 1711 he was created Imperial count von der Leyen und zu Hohengeroldseck. With most of the count's territories lost to Napoleon France, Reichsgraf Philipp Franz still retained the county Geroldseck.

Upon joining the Rheinbund in 1806, he was created Fürst von der Leyen. His mother's brother was Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg, who became Prince-Primate of the Confederation of the Rhine and Grand Duke of Frankfurt. In 1819 the principality's holdings were mediatized under Baden, although the title is still being nominally held by House von der Leyen. Two members of the family became Archbishop of Trier: 1556-1567 Prince Elector Johann von der Leyen 1652-1676 Prince Elector Karl Kaspar von der Leyen-Hohengeroldseckand one Archbishop of Mainz: 1675–1678 Prince Elector and Archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire Damian Hartard von der Leyen-HohengeroldseckErwein Otto Philipp Prince von der Leyen, died without male issue, but left his title and property to his grandson, Philipp-Erwein IV von Freyberg zu Eisenberg, 7th Prince von der Leyen und zu Hohengeroldseck, he will be succeeded by Hereditary Prince of Leyen and zu Hohengeroldseck. Prince Philipp-Erwein IV the current head of the family is descended, amongst others, from Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Vsevolod I of Kiev, Hugh Capet, Eric the Victorious, Harold Godwinson, Pope Julius II and Pope Paul III.

The members of the House of Leyen are entitled a formal style of Address using the predicate Serene Highness. Although German law no longer acknowledges or recognizes a status for noble houses or their titles per se, the government does allow for titles to be used in lieu of a surname. Fürst von der Leyen und zu Hohengeroldseck Principality of Leyen Von der Leyen, silk weaver industrialists in the 19th century with baronial rank. Location of the von der Leyen possessions

Tyrosine—tRNA ligase

Tyrosine—tRNA ligase known as tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-tyrosine + tRNA ⇌ AMP + diphosphate + L-tyrosyl-tRNAThe three substrates of this enzyme are ATP, L-tyrosine, a tyrosine-specific transfer RNA, whereas its three products are AMP, L-tyrosyl-tRNA. This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, to be specific those forming carbon-oxygen bonds in tRNA and related compounds. More it belongs to the family of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases; these latter enzymes link amino acids to their cognate transfer RNAs in aminoacylation reactions that establish the connection between a specific amino acid and a nucleotide triplet anticodon embedded in the tRNA. Therefore, they are the enzymes; the 20 enzymes, corresponding to the 20 natural amino acids, are divided into two classes of 10 enzymes each. This division is defined by the unique architectures associated with the catalytic domains and by signature sequences specific to each class; as of late 2007, 34 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1H3E, 1J1U, 1JH3, 1JII, 1JIJ, 1JIK, 1JIL, 1N3L, 1NTG, 1Q11, 1TYA, 1TYB, 1TYC, 1TYD, 1U7D, 1U7X, 1VBM, 1VBN, 1WQ3, 1WQ4, 1X8X, 1Y42, 1ZH0, 1ZH6, 2AG6, 2CYA, 2CYB, 2CYC, 2DLC, 2HGZ, 2J5B, 2TS1, 3TS1, 4TS1.

The tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases are either monomers with a pseudo-dimeric structure. Each subunit or pseudo-subunit comprises an N-terminal domain which has: about 230 amino acid residues; the N-terminal domain contains the catalytic site of the enzyme. The C-terminal moiety of the YARSs varies in sequence and organization and is involved in the recognition of the tRNA anticodon. Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from Bacillus stearothermophilus was the first synthetase whose crystal structure has been solved at high resolution, alone or in complex with tyrosine, tyrosyl-adenylate or tyrosinyl-adenylate; the structures of the Staphylococcus aureus YARS and of a truncated version of Escherichia coli YARS have been solved. A structural model of the complex between B. sterothermophilus YARS and tRNA was constructed using extensive mutagenesis data on both YARS and tRNATyr and found consistent with the crystal structure of the complex between YARS and tRNA from Thermus thermophilus, subsequently solved at 2.9 Å resolution.

The C-terminal moiety of the eubacterial YARSs comprises two domains: a proximal α-helical domain of about 100 amino acids. The S4-like domain was disordered in the crystal structure of B. stearothermophilus YARS. However, biochemical and NMR experiments have shown that the S4-like domain is folded in solution, that its structure is similar to that in the crystal structure of the T. thermophilus YARS. Mutagenesis experiments have shown that the flexibility of the peptide that links the α-ACB and S4-like domains is responsible for the disorder of the latter in the structure and that elements of sequence in this linker peptide are essential for the binding of tRNA by YARS and its aminoacylation with tyrosine. Variability in their C-terminal moieties leads to the ranking of eubacterial TyrRSs into two sub-groups; the crystal structures of several archaeal tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases are available. The crystal structure of the complex between YARS from Methanococcus jannaschii, tRNA and L-tyrosine has been solved at 1.95 Å resolution.

The crystal structures of the YARSs from Archeoglobus fulgidus, Pyrococcus horikoshii and Aeropyrum pernix have been solved at high resolution. The C-terminal moieties of the archaeal YARSs contain only one domain; this domain is different from the α-ACB domain of eubacteria. It is present in all eukarya; the structure of the complex between YARS from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, tRNA and an analog of tysosyl-adenylate has been solved at 2.4 Å resolution. The YARS from this lower eukaryote has an organization, similar to that of the archaeal YARSs; the human YARS has a C-terminal moiety that include a proximal C-W/Y domain and a distal domain, not found in the YARSs of lower eukaryotes, archaea or eubacteria, is a homolog of endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II. Although full-length, native YARS has no cell-signaling activity, the enzyme is secreted during apoptosis in cell culture and can be cleaved with an extracellular enzyme such as leukocyte elastase; the two released fragments, an N-terminal mini-YARS and a C-terminal EMAP II-like C-terminal domain, are active cytokines.

The structure of mini-YARS has been solved at 1.18 Å resolution. It has an N-terminal Rossmann-fold domain and a C-terminal C-W/Y domain, similar to those of other YARSs; the mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases and in particular H. sapiens mt-YARS originate from a YARS of eubacterial origin. Their C-terminal moiety includes both α-ACB and S4-like domains like the eubacterial YARSs and share a low sequence identity with their cytosolic relatives; the crystal structure of a complex between a recombinant H. sapiens m

Yale Child Study Center

The Yale Child Study Center is a department at the Yale University School of Medicine. The center conducts research and provides clinical services and medical training related to children and families. Topics of investigation include autism and related disorders, Tourette syndrome, other pediatric mental health concerns and neurobiology; the center conducts research and provides clinical services and medical training related to children and families. Topics of investigation include autism spectrum disorders, Tourette syndrome, other pediatric mental health concerns and neurobiology; the center was started in 1911 as the Yale Clinic of Child Development by Arnold Gesell. Dr. Gesell, considered the father of child development in the United States, led the center until 1948. Subsequent directors were: Milton J. E. Senn, 1948–1966 Albert J. Solnit, 1966–1983 Donald J. Cohen, 1983–2001 John E. Schowalter, 2001–2002 Alan E. Kazdin, 2002–2006 Fred R. Volkmar, 2006–2014 Linda C. Mayes, 2014-2016. "The Yale Child Study Center Centennial: An International Perspective".

International Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions Bulletin. 29: 9–19. Retrieved April 17, 2012. Mayes LC. Vision for the Yale Child Study Center Official website

Standoff (video game)

Standoff is a first person shooter video game developed by Russian video game developer Anton Makarevskiy and publisher Ata Berdyev, working under the names Revived Games and Acid Publishing Group. It was first scheduled for release on June 2018 through the Steam distribution platform. After Valve removed the publisher from the platform, the developer released the game independently; the game depicts a school shooting, allows players to take the role of either the active shooter or a SWAT member responding to the event. Players can choose to attack with guns, grenades or knives, the number of civilian and police deaths are tallied on screen. Standoff known as Active Shooter, attracted controversy after its Steam store page was published in May 2018, with parents of Stoneman Douglas High School shooting victims campaigning against the game online. An online petition had attracted 100,000 signatures by the time of the game's cancellation. On May 29, it emerged that Revived Games and Acid Publishing Group were the trading names of Anton Makarevskiy and Ata Berdyev, the latter of, removed from Steam by Valve for copyright infringement after the publication of a Rick and Morty parody called Piccled Ricc.

The company announced that Revived Games and Acid Publishing Group would be removed from the Steam platform. A spokesperson told Matthew Gault of Motherboard that Berdyev is "a troll, with a history of customer abuse, publishing copyrighted material, user review manipulation". In a subsequent blog post, Acid Software argued that Steam had carried other video games with a focus on violence and murder, giving examples of Hatred and Carmageddon. Following the media reaction to the game, Valve suggested a broader review of its content policies would take place "soon". Valve issued this updated policy on June 6, 2018, which stated that they would allow any content on Steam as long as it was not illegal, or if the content was "trolling". Valve's Doug Lombardi used Active Shooter as an example of such trolling, in that the game was "designed to do nothing but generate outrage and cause conflict through its existence", if another developer, without the history of abusing Steam as they found with Berdyev, had released the same title, they still would have removed it for its trolling nature.

In June 2018, PayPal closed the account of Acid Software, citing that the game violated their Acceptable Use Policy. Indiegogo dropped the title from their service near the same time; the developers' websites for the game were shut down by Bluehost following a Sandy Hook Promise petition. Official website