The term "Grand Tour" refers to the 17th- and 18th-century custom of a traditional trip of Europe undertaken by upper-class young European men of sufficient means and rank when they had come of age. Young women of sufficient means, or those of either gender of a more humble origin who could find a sponsor, could partake; the custom—which flourished from about 1660 until the advent of large-scale rail transport in the 1840s and was associated with a standard itinerary—served as an educational rite of passage. Though the Grand Tour was associated with the British nobility and wealthy landed gentry, similar trips were made by wealthy young men of other Protestant Northern European nations, from the second half of the 18th century, by some South and North Americans. By the mid 18th century, the Grand Tour had become a regular feature of aristocratic education in Central Europe, as well, although it was restricted to the higher nobility; the tradition declined as enthusiasm for neo-classical culture waned, with the advent of accessible rail and steamship travel—an era in which Thomas Cook made the "Cook's Tour" of early mass tourism a byword.
The New York Times in 2008 described the Grand Tour in this way: Three hundred years ago, wealthy young Englishmen began taking a post-Oxbridge trek through France and Italy in search of art and the roots of Western civilization. With nearly unlimited funds, aristocratic connections and months to roam, they commissioned paintings, perfected their language skills and mingled with the upper crust of the Continent; the primary value of the Grand Tour lay in its exposure to the cultural legacy of classical antiquity and the Renaissance, to the aristocratic and fashionably polite society of the European continent. In addition, it provided the only opportunity to view specific works of art, the only chance to hear certain music. A Grand Tour could last anywhere from several months to several years, it was undertaken in the company of a Cicerone, a knowledgeable guide or tutor. The Grand Tour had more than superficial cultural importance; the legacy of the Grand Tour lives on to the modern day and is still evident in works of travel and literature.
From its aristocratic origins and the permutations of sentimental and romantic travel to the age of tourism and globalization, the Grand Tour still influences the destinations tourists choose and shapes the ideas of culture and sophistication that surround the act of travel. In essence, the Grand Tour was neither a scholarly pilgrimage nor a religious one, though a pleasurable stay in Venice and a residence in Rome were essential. Catholic Grand Tourists followed the same routes as Protestant Whigs. Since the 17th century, a tour to such places was considered essential for budding artists to understand proper painting and sculpture techniques, though the trappings of the Grand Tour—valets and coachmen a cook a "bear-leader" or scholarly guide—were beyond their reach; the advent of popular guides, such as the book An Account of Some of the Statues, Bas-Reliefs and Pictures in Italy published in 1722 by Jonathan Richardson and his son Jonathan Richardson the Younger, did much to popularise such trips, following the artists themselves, the elite considered travel to such centres as necessary rites of passage.
For gentlemen, some works of art were essential to demonstrate the breadth and polish they had received from their tour. In Rome, antiquaries like Thomas Jenkins were dealers and were able to sell and advise on the purchase of marbles. Coins and medals, which formed more portable souvenirs and a respected gentleman's guide to ancient history were popular. Pompeo Batoni made a career of painting the English milordi posed with graceful ease among Roman antiquities. Many continued on to Naples, where they viewed Herculaneum and Pompeii, but few ventured far into Southern Italy, fewer still to Greece still under Turkish rule. Rome for many centuries had been the goal of pilgrims during Jubilee when they visited the Seven Pilgrim Churches of Rome. In Britain, Thomas Coryat's travel book Coryat's Crudities, published during the Twelve Years' Truce, was an early influence on the Grand Tour but it was the far more extensive tour through Italy as far as Naples undertaken by the'Collector' Earl of Arundel, with his wife and children in 1613–14 that established the most significant precedent.
This is because he asked Inigo Jones, not yet established as an architect but known as a'great traveller' and masque designer, to act as his cicerone. Larger numbers of tourists began their tours after the Peace of Münster in 1648. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first recorded use of the term was by Richard Lassels, an expatriate Roman Catholic priest, in his book The Voyage of Italy, published posthumously in Paris in 1670 and in London. Lassels's introduction listed four areas in which travel furnished "an accomplished, consummate Traveller": the intellectual, the social, the ethical, the political; the idea of travelling for the sake of curiosity and learning was a developing idea in the 17th century. With John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding, it was argued, accepted, that knowledge comes entire
William Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Devonshire
William Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Devonshire was a British nobleman and politician. He was the eldest son of 1st Duke of Devonshire and Lady Mary Butler. A prominent Whig, he was sworn of the Privy Council in 1707, served as Lord President of the Council from 1716 to 1717 and 1725 to 1729, he married The Hon. Rachel Russell, daughter of William Russell, Lord Russell on 21 June 1688, they had five children: William Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Devonshire Lady Rachel Cavendish married Sir William Morgan on 14 May 1723 Lady Elizabeth Cavendish married Sir Thomas Lowther, 2nd Baronet Lord James Cavendish Lord Charles Cavendish married Anne Grey on 9 January 1727, father of Henry Cavendish thePeerage.com Leo van de Pas genealogies familysearch.org Accessed 4 November 2007
Christ Church, Oxford
Christ Church is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Christ Church is a joint foundation of the college and the cathedral of the Oxford diocese, which serves as the college chapel and whose dean is ex officio the college head. Founded in 1546 by King Henry VIII, it is one of the larger colleges of the University of Oxford with 629 students in 2016, it is the second wealthiest college with an endowment of £550m as of 2018. Christ Church has a number of architecturally significant buildings including Tom Tower, Tom Quad, the Great Dining Hall, the seat of the parliament assembled by King Charles I during the English Civil War; the buildings have inspired replicas throughout the world in addition to being featured in films such as Harry Potter and The Golden Compass. This has helped Christ Church become the most popular Oxford college for tourists with half a million visitors annually. Christ Church has many notable alumni including thirteen British prime ministers, King Edward VII, King William II of the Netherlands, seventeen Archbishops, writers Lewis Carroll and W.
H. Auden, philosopher John Locke, scientist Robert Hooke. Christ Church is partly responsible for the creation of University College Reading, which gained its own Royal Charter and became the University of Reading; the first female undergraduates matriculated at Christ Church in 1980. In 1525, at the height of his power, Thomas Wolsey, Lord Chancellor of England and Cardinal Archbishop of York, suppressed the Priory of St Frideswide in Oxford and founded Cardinal College on its lands, using funds from the dissolution of Wallingford Priory and other minor priories, he planned the establishment on a magnificent scale, but fell from grace in 1529, with the buildings only three-quarters complete, as they were to remain for 140 years. In 1531 the college was itself suppressed, but it was refounded in 1532 as King Henry VIII's College by Henry VIII, to whom Wolsey's property had escheated. In 1546 the King, who had broken from the Church of Rome and acquired great wealth through the dissolution of the monasteries in England, refounded the college as Christ Church as part of the reorganisation of the Church of England, making the demolished priory church the cathedral of the created Diocese of Oxford.
Christ Church's sister college in the University of Cambridge is Trinity College, founded the same year by Henry VIII. Since the time of Queen Elizabeth I the college has been associated with Westminster School; the dean remains to ex officio member of the school's governing body. Major additions have been made to the buildings through the centuries, Wolsey's Great Quadrangle was crowned with the famous gate-tower designed by Sir Christopher Wren. To this day the bell in the tower, Great Tom, is rung 101 times at 9 pm at the former Oxford time every night, for the 100 original scholars of the college. In former times this was done at midnight, signalling the close of all college gates throughout Oxford. Since it took 20 minutes to ring the 101, Christ Church gates, unlike those of other colleges, did not close until 12:20; when the ringing was moved back to 9:00 pm, Christ Church gates still remained open until 12.20, 20 minutes than any other college. Although the clock itself now shows GMT/BST, Christ Church still follows Oxford time in the timings of services in the cathedral.
King Charles I made the Deanery his palace and held his Parliament in the Great Hall during the English Civil War. In the evening of 29 May 1645, during the second siege of Oxford, a "bullet of IX lb. weight" shot from the Parliamentarians warning-piece at Marston fell against the wall of the north side of the Hall. Several of Christ Church's deans achieved high academic distinction, notably Owen under the Commonwealth and Fell in the Restoration period and Gaisford in the early 19th century and Liddell in the high Victorian era. For over four centuries Christ Church admitted men only. Christ Church, formally titled "The Dean and Students of the Cathedral Church of Christ in Oxford of the Foundation of King Henry the Eighth", is the only academic institution in the world, a cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of Oxford; the Visitor of Christ Church is the reigning British sovereign, the Bishop of Oxford is unique among English bishops in not being the Visitor of his own cathedral. The head of the college is the Dean of Christ Church, an Anglican cleric appointed by the crown as dean of the cathedral church.
There are a senior and a junior censor the former of whom is responsible for academic matters, the latter for undergraduate discipline. A censor theologiae is appointed to act as the dean's deputy; the form "Christ Church College" is considered incorrect, in part because it ignores the cathedral, an integral part of the unique dual foundation. The governing body of Christ Church consists of the dean and chapter of the cathedral, together with the "Students of Christ Church", who are not junior members but rather the equivalent of the fellows of the other colleges; until the 19th century, the students differed from fellows in that they had no governing powers in their own college, these residing with the dean and chapter. Christ Church si
John Sheffield, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Normanby
John Sheffield, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Normanby, was an English poet and Tory politician of the late Stuart period who served as Lord Privy Seal and Lord President of the Council. He was known by his original title, Lord Mulgrave. John Sheffield was the only son of Edmund Sheffield, 2nd Earl of Mulgrave, succeeded his father as 3rd Earl and 5th Baron Sheffield in 1658. At the age of eighteen he joined the fleet, he was made a colonel of infantry, served for some time under Turenne. He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1674. In 1680 he was put in charge of an expedition sent to relieve the Garrison of the town of Tangier, under siege by Moulay Ismail ibn Sharif, it was said that he was provided with a rotten ship in the hope that he would not return, but the reason of this abortive plot, if plot there was, is not ascertained. At court he helped to bring about Monmouth's disgrace. In 1682 he was dismissed from the court for putting himself forward as a suitor for the Princess Anne, but on the accession of King James II, he received a seat in the Privy Council, was made Lord Chamberlain..
He supported James in his most unpopular measures, stayed with him in London during the time of his flight. He protected the Spanish ambassador from the dangerous anger of the mob, he acquiesced, however, in the "Glorious Revolution", in 1694 was made Marquess of Normanby. In 1696 he refused in company with other Tory peers to sign an agreement to support William as their "rightful and lawful king" against Jacobite attempts, was dismissed from the privy council. On the accession of Queen Anne, of whom he was a personal favourite, he was appointed Lord Privy Seal and Lord Lieutenant of the North Riding of Yorkshire, in 1703 was created Duke of Buckingham and Normanby. During the predominance of the Whigs between 1705 and 1710, Buckingham was deprived of his office as Lord Privy Seal, but in 1710 he was made Lord Steward, in 1711 Lord President of the Council. After Queen Anne's death he was not reappointed, he died on 24 February 1721 at his house in St. James's Park, on the site of the present Buckingham Palace.
Buckingham was succeeded by Edmund, on whose death the titles became extinct. Buckingham was the author of An Account of the Revolution and some other essays, of numerous poems, among them the Essay on Poetry and the Essay on Satire, it is probable that the Essay on Satire, which attacked many notable persons, "sauntering Charles" amongst others, was circulated in MS. It was attributed at the time to Dryden, who accordingly suffered a thrashing at the hands of Rochester's bravoes for the reflections it contained upon the earl. Mulgrave was a patron of Dryden, who may have revised it, but was not responsible, although it is printed with his works. Mulgrave adapted Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, breaking it up into two plays, Julius Caesar and Marcus Brutus, he introduced choruses between the acts, two of these being written by Pope, an incongruous love scene between Brutus and Portia. He was a constant friend and patron of Pope, who expressed a flattering opinion of his Essay on Poetry. This, although smoothly enough written, deals chiefly with commonplaces.
In 1721 Edmund Curl published a pirated edition of his works, was brought before the bar of the House of Lords for breach of privilege accordingly. An authorized edition under the superintendence of Pope appeared in 1723, but the authorities cut out the Account of the Revolution and The Feast of the Gods on account of their alleged Jacobite tendencies; these were printed at the Hague in 1727. Pope disingenuously repudiated any knowledge of the contents. Other editions reappeared in 1723, 1726, 1729, 1740 and 1753, his Poems were included in other editions of the British poets. On 18 March 1685, in the chapel of Littlecote House, Wiltshire, Buckingham married as his first wife Ursula Stawell, a daughter of George Stawell by his marriage to Ursula Austen, she died on 13 August 1697. He married secondly Catherine Greville, a daughter of Fulke Greville, 5th Baron Brooke and Sarah Dashwood, on 12 March 1698 in St Clement Danes, Westminster, she died young, on 7 February 1703. Buckingham married, Lady Catherine Darnley, an illegitimate daughter of King James II and Catherine Sedley, on 16 March 1705 in St Martin-in-the-Fields, Covent Garden, London.
They had three sons of whom Edmund survived, succeeded him as 2nd Duke of Buckingham. Around 1706 Buckingham had an illegitimate son Charles with Frances Stewart, or afterwards, wife of The Hon. Oliver Lambart, younger son of Charles Lambart, 3rd Earl of Cavan. On the death of his half brother Edmund, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, Charles inherited the family estates and was the first of the Sheffield baronets. Cokayne, George Edward, ed. Complete Baronetage 1707–1800, 5, Exeter: William Pollard and Co, p. 102 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Carlyle, Edward Irving, "Sheffield, John", in Lee, Dictionary of National Biography, 52, London: Smith, Elder & Co, pp. 13–15 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. "Buckingham and Normanby, John Sheffield, 1st Duke of", E
No Peace Without Spain
No Peace Without Spain was a popular British political slogan of the early eighteenth century. It referred to the ongoing War of the Spanish Succession, it implied that no peace treaty could be agreed with Britain's principal enemy Louis XIV of France that allowed Philip, the French candidate, to retain the Spanish crown. The term became a rallying cry for opposition to the Tory government of Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford and the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht; the phrase was first popularly used by the Tory politician Lord Nottingham in Parliament in December 1711. However it was soon adopted by the rival Whig movement, who were regarded as the "war party" opposed to the "peace party" of the Tories; the Whigs were buoyed by the campaigns in the Low Countries where the British commander, the Duke of Marlborough, led the Allies to a series of victories. The Whigs demanded that King Louis be made to abandon his expansionist policies, renounce any attempts to make Spain a satellite state. While the term originated in London, it spread to several Allied capitals as a statement of intent.
However, this represented an extension of the war aims the Allies had agreed upon extending the conflict. The intervention in Spain started well for the pro-Habsburg side, with the capture of Gibraltar in 1704 and Barcelona in 1705 and securing the support of Portugal and the Catalans. However, it soon became clear the Bourbon candidate Philip V was far more popular in Castile than the Austrian Archduke Charles; the Allies were forced to evacuate Madrid in 1706 and soundly beaten at the Battle of Almanza in 1707. In 1708 the new British commander James Stanhope took the island of Minorca, a possession of more use to the British than Charles' prospects of becoming King of Spain. Philip's forces recaptured Alicante in April 1709 and defeated an Anglo-Portuguese army at La Gudiña in May; the Portuguese now declared an informal truce, allowing agriculture to recommence. A renewed Allied effort in 1710 led to victories at Almenar and Saragossa in July and August and the capture of Madrid in September.
However, lack of support from the local population meant Charles entered an deserted city and the Allies were isolated when Portuguese forces were prevented from crossing into Spain. In November, they left Madrid for Catalonia in two separate detachments, Stanhope's division of 5,000 and one of 12,000 under the Austrian Starhemberg. At Brihuega on 9 December 1710, Stanhope was taken by surprise and forced to surrender to an army led by Louis Joseph, Duke of Vendôme. Vendôme followed this up the next day by defeating Starhemberg at Villaviciosa. In April 1711, Emperor Joseph I died and his brother Archduke Charles succeeded him as the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. A new Tory Government, led by Robert Harley, came to power in 1710. Committed to ending Britain's involvement in the European War, costly in lives and money, they took steps to disengage; this resulted in the dismissal of the hawkish Marlborough, replaced by the Irish Tory commander Duke of Ormonde. An struggling France was eager to discuss terms.
A major stumbling block had been an earlier demand that Louis XIV assist, by force if necessary, to drive his own grandson from the throne of Spain. After lengthy negotiations an agreement was established; this allowed Philip to keep the throne, while granting Britain possession of Minorca. Britain withdrew from the war effort in both Flanders and Spain; the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht were bitterly contested by the Whigs. Jonathan Swift's The Conduct of the Allies was published as a defence of the Tory government; the celebrated Hamilton-Mohun Duel was fought between Lord Mohun, a Whig partisan, the Duke of Hamilton who had just been appointed Ambassador to France. Tories portrayed the duel, in which both men were killed, as a Whig plot to derail the peace agreement. Whigs remained furious about; the slogan became a popular rallying cry against the Treaty, the Tory government in general. Nonetheless Parliament voted in favour of the Utrecht terms. Still using the slogan of "No Peace Without Spain", Britain's former allies such as the Austria and the Dutch Republic tried to fight on, but suffered defeats without the financial and military support provided by London.
The Allies reluctantly agreed terms with France. While these represented a successful outcome of the war, they were less than had been hoped for a few years before. Philip was acknowledged as King of Spain, but was forced to give up significant territories to the Emperor in Austria; the Allies withdrew their last forces from the Iberian Peninsular. The final fighting in Spain took place when the remaining anti-French stronghold Barcelona fell after a lengthy siege. In 1714 George I the ruler of Hanover, one of the Allies who had opposed the withdrawal from Spain, succeeded to the British throne. George dismissed the Tories, he rewarded the opponents of Utrecht with places in government. These were Whigs, although the new cabinet included the Tory Nottingham who had moved the "No Peace Without Spain" amendement. Marlborough was reinstalled as head of the Army with William Cadogan as his deputy. General Stanhope, a Whig, who had commanded in Spain and vigorously opposed the peace became chief minister and the architect of Britain's post-war foreign policy.
Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer
Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, KG PC FRS was an English and British statesman of the late Stuart and early Georgian periods. He began his career before defecting to a new Tory Ministry, he was raised to the peerage of Great Britain as an earl in 1711. Between 1711 and 1714 he served as Lord High Treasurer Queen Anne's chief minister, he has been called a Prime Minister, although it is accepted that the de facto first minister to be a prime minister was Robert Walpole in 1721. The central achievement of Harley's government was the negotiation of the Treaty of Utrecht with France in 1713, which brought an end to twelve years of English and Scottish involvement in the War of the Spanish Succession. In 1714 Harley fell from favour following the accession of the first monarch of the House of Hanover, George I, was for a time imprisoned in the Tower of London by his political enemies, he was a noted literary figure and served as a patron of both the October Club and the Scriblerus Club.
Harley Street is sometimes said to be named after him, although it was his son Edward Harley who developed the area. Harley was born in Bow Street, London, in 1661, the eldest son of Sir Edward Harley, a prominent landowner in Herefordshire and his wife Abigail Stephens and the grandson of Sir Robert Harley and his third wife, the celebrated letter-writer Brilliana, Lady Harley, he was educated at Shilton, near Burford, in Oxfordshire, in a small school which produced at the same time a Lord High Treasurer, a Lord High Chancellor and a Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. Harley spent some time at Foubert's Academy, but disliked it, he was never called to the bar. The principles of Whiggism and Nonconformism were taught him at an early age, he never formally abandoned his family's religious opinions, although he departed from them in politics, his father was wrongly imprisoned for suspected support for the 1685 Monmouth rebellion. Harley wrote afterwards. During 1688 Harley acted as his father's agent in promoting support for William, Prince of Orange and the Protestant cause against the policies of James II.
When William landed in England on 5 November, Sir Edward Harley and his son raised a troop of horse in support of the cause of William III, took possession of the city of Worcester on his behalf. Harley was sent to report to William. Harley obtained a commission as a major of militia foot in Herefordshire, which he held for several years; this recommended Robert Harley to the notice of the Boscawen family, led to his election, in April 1689, as the parliamentary representative of Tregony, a borough under their control, whilst at the same time acting as High Sheriff of Herefordshire. He sat for Tregony for one parliament, after which, in 1690, he was elected by the constituency of New Radnor, which he represented until his elevation to the peerage in 1711. From an early age, Harley paid particular attention to the conduct of public business, taking special care over the study of the forms and ceremonies of the House of Commons. Harley supported the Toleration Bill during its passage through the Commons and he hoped for "an equal settlement of religion" to be achieved by the inclusion of Presbyterians in the Church of England.
However, this was not adopted. He helped to defeat a Tory amendment to the Bill of Rights that would have enabled James II's son James Francis Edward Stuart to inherit the crown if he converted to Protestantism. On 14 May, Harley delivered his maiden speech in which he reminded the House of recent Tory persecutions and said that this injustice must be remedied. After a series of French victories in Flanders during the early years of the Nine Years' War, Harley believed that the subordination of English soldiers to Dutch officers was the cause of the heavy English casualties, he therefore proposed a motion that future appointments of English foot regiments should be manned by Englishmen, which the House passed on 23 November 1692. He opposed Lord Somers' proposed Abjuration Bill. If passed, this would have compelled office-holders to take an oath against recognising James II as the lawful king upon penalty of dismissal and imprisonment on the first refusal, with the penalties of high treason upon the second refusal.
During the early 1690s Harley became a leader, second only to Paul Foley, of the'Old Whigs' who were willing to co-operate with Tories in pursuing'Country Party' measures against the ministerial or court Whigs in office, the so-called Whig Junto. In December 1690 he was elected to the Commission of Public Accounts to "examine and state" the accounts of the realm since William's accession, as expenditure had ballooned. Harley supported a Bill to exclude from the Commons holders of government office and placemen in an effort to weaken court patronage. In taking part in the debates, Harley wrote: "I hope we have shown the parts of honest men and lovers of our country", he supported the Triennial Bill to limit the maximum life of a Parliament to three years. In the Commons in early 1693 he claimed that long parliaments were not as representative as short-lived ones and he drew from his pocket a copy of King William's Declaration of 1688 in which he had promised frequent parliaments. In 1696 Harley advocated the founding of a Land Bank that would serve the agriculture interest as the Bank of England served the monied interest.
After the general election of 1698, Harley emerged as the leader of the combined Country Whig-Tory opposition alliance against the Junto, or what Harley called the'New Cou
Burley, or Burley-on-the-Hill, is a village and civil parish in the county of Rutland in the East Midlands of England. It is located two miles north-east of Oakham; the population of the civil parish was 577 at the 2001 census, including Egleton, but reducing to 325 at the 2011 census. HM Prison Ashwell a Category C men's prison in the parish of Burley, closed in 2011. In the parish, north of the village, is Alstoe, the site of a possible small motte-and-bailey castle, part of the deserted medieval village of Alsthorpe. Alstoe was the name of a hundred. In 1379 Sir Thomas le Despenser granted the Burley manor to trustees, two of whom were his brother Henry, Bishop of Norwich and his nephew Hugh le Despenser. Thomas died without issue in 1381, when at the outbreak of the Peasants' Revolt, Henry was at Burley and travelled to Norwich to confront the rebels; the Old Smithy on the village green was used in advertisements for Cherry Blossom shoe polish in the 1920s. Ashwell Prison, was located about one mile west of the centre of the village.
The site was a World War II US army base, home to part of the 82nd Airborne Division. The prison closed in March 2011 and has been redeveloped as Oakham Enterprise Park, a business park for office and light industrial use; the mansion in the village overlooks Rutland Water. The house in the manner associated with Sir Christopher Wren, was built in the 1690s by the 2nd Earl of Nottingham, to a large extent his own architect and involved himself in the minutiae of construction, but employed Henry Dormer to supervise its building. Nottingham replaced Dormer with John Lumley in 1697. Before embarking on the project, Lord Nottingham consulted Sir Christopher Wren and had measurements taken at Berkeley House and Montagu House in London; the house, in an H-plan, has a pedimented central block and projecting end pavilions. With its symmetrical wings and outbuildings forming a cour d'honneur, segmental walling linking matching blocks in a larger outer grassed court, it forms one of the most ambitious aristocratic ensembles of the late seventeenth century.
A dining room was designed for the 8th Earl of Winchilsea, installed in 1778. In 1908, a fire broke out during a party attended by Winston Churchill, destroying the west part of the house; the mansion was converted into six dwellings by Kit Martin in 1993–98, with a further 22 dwellings on the estate. The estate had been purchased by Asil Nadir in 1991; the church of the Holy Cross, adjacent to the mansion, is in the care of the Churches Conservation Trust. It contains a moving memorial by Sir Francis Chantrey to Lady Charlotte Finch. George Finch, 9th Earl of Winchilsea, lived at the mansion in the late 18th century and used its grounds to stage a number of cricket matches, six of them first-class, between 1790 and 1793; as late as 1814, the venue was used for a Rutland v Nottingham game. Howard Colvin, A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects, 1600–1840, 3rd ed. 1995 Media related to Burley, Rutland at Wikimedia Commons Burley on the Hill mansion photo Classification of cricket matches from 1697 to 1825 CricketArchive