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Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit

Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit FRS was a physicist and scientific instrument maker. Fahrenheit was born in Danzig a predominantly German-speaking Hanseatic city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, but lived most of his life in the Dutch Republic and was one of the notable figures in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology. A pioneer of exact thermometry, he helped lay the foundations for the era of precision thermometry by inventing the mercury-in-glass thermometer and Fahrenheit scale. In other words, Fahrenheit's inventions ushered in the first revolution in the history of thermometry. From the early 1710s until the beginnings of the electronic era, mercury-in-glass thermometers were among the most reliable and accurate thermometers invented. Fahrenheit was born in Danzig in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, but lived most of his life in the Dutch Republic; the Fahrenheits were a German Hanse merchant family. Fahrenheit's great-grandfather had lived in Rostock, research suggests that the Fahrenheit family originated in Hildesheim.

Daniel's grandfather moved from Kneiphof in Königsberg to Danzig and settled there as a merchant in 1650. His son, Daniel Fahrenheit, married Concordia Schumann, daughter of a well-known Danzig business family. Daniel was the eldest of the five Fahrenheit children, his sister, Virginia Elisabeth Fahrenheit, married Benjamin Krüger and was the mother of Benjamin Ephraim Krüger, a clergyman and playwright. Daniel Gabriel began training as a merchant in Amsterdam after his parents died on 14 August 1701 from eating poisonous mushrooms. However, Fahrenheit's interest in natural science led him to begin studies and experimentation in that field. From 1717, he traveled to Berlin, Leipzig, Copenhagen, to his hometown, where his brother still lived. During that time, Fahrenheit met or was in contact with Ole Rømer, Christian Wolff, Gottfried Leibniz. In 1717, Fahrenheit settled in The Hague as a glassblower, making barometers and thermometers. From 1718 onwards, he lectured in chemistry in Amsterdam, he was the same year elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.

From August 1736 Fahrenheit stayed in the house of Johannes Frisleven at Plein square in The Hague, in connection with an application for a patent at the States of Holland and West Friesland. At the beginning of September he became ill and on the 7th his health had deteriorated to such an extent that he had notary Willem Ruijsbroek come to draw up his will. On the 11th the notary came by again to make some changes. Five days after that Fahrenheit died at the age of fifty. Four days he received a fourth-class funeral, which meant that he was destitute, in the Kloosterkerk in The Hague. According to Fahrenheit's 1724 article, he determined his scale by reference to three fixed points of temperature; the lowest temperature was achieved by preparing a frigorific mixture of ice, a salt, waiting for the eutectic system to reach equilibrium temperature. The thermometer was placed into the mixture and the liquid in the thermometer allowed to descend to its lowest point; the thermometer's reading there was taken as 0 °F.

The second reference point was selected as the reading of the thermometer when it was placed in still water when ice was just forming on the surface. This was assigned as 30 °F; the third calibration point, taken as 90 °F, was selected as the thermometer's reading when the instrument was placed under the arm or in the mouth. Fahrenheit came up with the idea. Work by others showed; the Fahrenheit scale was redefined to make the freezing-to-boiling interval 180 degrees, a convenient value as 180 is a composite number, meaning that it is evenly divisible into many fractions. It is because of the scale's redefinition that normal body temperature today is taken as 96 degrees, whereas it was 96 degrees on Fahrenheit's original scale; the Fahrenheit scale was the primary temperature standard for climatic and medical purposes in English-speaking countries until the 1970s, nowadays replaced by the Celsius scale long used in the rest of the world, apart from the United States, where temperatures and weather reports are still broadcast in Fahrenheit.

Fahrenheit hydrometer List of German inventors and discoverers People from Gdańsk Bolton, Henry Carrington. Evolution of the Thermometer, 1592–1743. Easton, Pennsylvania: The Chemical Publishing Company. Pp. 66–79. Fahrenheit, D. G.. "Experimenta circa gradum caloris liquorum nonnullorum ebullientium instituta". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 33: 1–3. Doi:10.1098/rstl.1724.0002. Fahrenheit, D. G.. "Experimenta et Observationes de Congelatione aquae in vacuo factae". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 33: 78–84. Doi:10.1098/rstl.1724.0016. Klemm, Friedrich, "Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 4, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 746–747 Kops, J. "Who was G. D. Fahrenheit?". Zdravotnická Pracovnice. 26. Pp. 118–19. PMID 775856. Lommel, "F

2016 Green Party of England and Wales leadership election

The Green Party of England and Wales leadership election, 2016 took place from July to August 2016, with the campaign period taking place in July, voting period in August. The incumbent leader, Natalie Bennett, announced on 15 May 2016 that she was not intending to stand for re-election after four years as the leader of the party, resulting in the first contested leadership election since 2012. Former Leader Caroline Lucas MP and Jonathan Bartley won the leadership election with a job share arrangement with 86% of the vote. Five other candidates contested the election; the party has elections every two years for Deputy Leader roles. It saw the highest turnout in a Green Party internal ballot by quantity of votes. Caroline Lucas an MEP for South East England, was elected as the first Leader of the Green Party of England and Wales in 2008. In the new Constitution of the Green Party, it was mandated that there would be leadership elections every two years. Lucas was elected as the first Green Party MP, for the constituency of Brighton Pavilion, in the same year she was re-elected unopposed as Leader.

In 2012, she announced she would not be standing again as Leader, saying: "The reason that I've decided not to re-stand... is because I want to give other people the opportunity to get well known, to have some profile in the party to use that to get themselves elected as well."In the 2012 leadership election, Natalie Bennett, a journalist for The Guardian, was elected as Leader. She was re-elected unopposed in the 2014 leadership election, led the party in the 2015 general election. At the general election, the Green Party's vote share increased from 1.0% to 3.8%, but they did not increase their parliamentary representation. Following the 2016 local elections, in which the Green Party lost four local councillors but came third in the London Assembly and in the London mayoral election, Bennett defended her record as Leader. On 15 May 2016, Bennett announced she would not be standing again for election in 2016, saying: "There have been times when I got things right, times when I got things wrong, but that’s because I'm not a smooth, spin-trained, lifelong politician."

During the course of the leadership campaign, the UK held a referendum resulting in a vote to leave the EU. This led to leadership contests starting in UKIP and the Labour Party. A series of hustings were held, including in London and Manchester. Caroline Lucas stated that she and Bartley wanted "to forge a new "progressive alliance" with other political parties willing to advocate electoral reform – including deals over who would contest particular parliamentary seats." Rival candidate Clive Lord criticised the plan, noting the rejection of the idea by Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn. Lord said, "What else did anyone think Corbyn would say to the Green Party’s Progressive Alliance? It makes sense for Labour – both factions – to eliminate Greens wherever we do well, because we only take what they regard as ‘their’ votes and nobody else's. So the four or five seats where we would want a clear run, are the last that Labour would allow us." Matt Townsend, a party executive member, expressed concern that Lucas's early entry into the contest would lead it to become a "coronation", as did other party commentators.

The campaign was covered by various on-line and printed media, including Vice, Bright Green, Left Foot Forward, The Guardian, The Huffington Post. As part of the election process, all candidates were invited to answer a diverse range of questions related to Green Party policy by various party organisations and affiliates. One consistent question at hustings and in the questionnaires was the question of identity, diversity and LGBT BAME representation in the party and how noticeably homogenous the leadership race is in particular. All candidates have acknowledged this and it is not a point of contention; the question was put in the Electoral Reform Society's questionnaire and all candidates answers and views on this issue were printed. A campaign to support Re-open nominations in the leadership vote was founded upon an alleged lack of diversity in the make-up of the leadership candidates. Other major questionnaires were on Reddit from the UK Greens subreddit, The Green Party Trade union Group, from Bright Green, one of Britain's leading left-wing blogs.

According to the Constitution of the Green Party the leadership should be "the primary public faces of the party, responsible for presenting Green Party policy and promoting its electoral activity and campaigns to the public on a daily basis." Candidates must have been members of the Green Party for three years or more at the close of nominations, must have signatures supporting their nomination from a minimum of twenty other party members. Elections are constitutionally mandated to take place every two years by a postal ballot of all members; the Constitution states that nominations for leadership will be open from 10:00 on the first week-day in June until noon on the last week-day in June. Polls will close either after the last mail delivery on the last week-day of August, or five week-days before Autumn Conference starts, whichever is sooner; the party elects a Leader and two Deputy Leaders, or two Co-Leaders and a Deputy leader (thus, as Bartley/Lucas won the leadership, only one deputy leader

Robert Coll

Robert J. Coll was a longtime Pittsburgh Police leader, who served as Pittsburgh Police Chief from March 1, 1975 – April 4, 1986, he first joined the force in 1960. In the last year of his tenure as Chief the Pittsburgh Police boasted 1,200 sworn officers. In 1977, Chief Coll made headlines while attending a community meeting with the comment that the state law prohibited him from reprimanding officers with suspensions or dismissals. In February, 1981 a long simmering political feud erupted during a Pittsburgh City Council meeting at City Hall between Chief Coll and longtime councilmember and sometimes council president Eugene "Jeep" DePasquale, with accusations of lying and shouting. Coll was the last chief before Mayor Caliguri's summer 1986 police reorganization that put the nine long time city police precincts under the current five "police zones" format. After his retirement he became Director of the Allegheny County Police Training Academy in suburban North Park. A position he assumed in January, 1987.

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