Scott Lee Peterson is an American convicted murderer, on death row in San Quentin State Prison. In 2004, he was convicted of the first-degree murder of his pregnant wife, Laci Peterson, the second-degree murder of their unborn son, Conner, in Modesto, California. In 2005, he was sentenced to death by lethal injection, his case is on automatic appeal to the Supreme Court of California. Scott Lee Peterson was born October 24, 1972, at Sharp Coronado Hospital in San Diego, California, to Lee Arthur Peterson, a businessman who owned a crate-packaging company, Jacqueline "Jackie" Helen Latham, who owned a boutique in La Jolla called The Put On. Though Lee and Jackie had six children from previous relationships, Scott was their only child together; as a child, he shared a bedroom with his half-brother John in the family's two-bedroom apartment in La Jolla. Peterson began playing golf at an early age, a result of time he spent with his father. By age 14, he could beat his father at the game. For a time, he had dreams of becoming a professional golfer like Phil Mickelson, his teammate at the University of San Diego High School.
By the end of high school, he was one of the top junior golfers in San Diego. In 1990, Peterson enrolled at Arizona State University on a partial golf scholarship. Mickelson would go on to become a successful PGA golfer, Lee Peterson testified that the considerable competition that Mickelson presented to his son while they were at Arizona State discouraged Peterson. Randall Mell of the Broward County, Florida Sun-Sentinel reported that Chip Couch, the father of another Arizona State golfer, Chris Couch, told Mell that he got Peterson kicked off the golf team. Couch stated that Peterson had taken Chris out drinking and to meet girls, resulting in a hangover for Chris; as Chris was the No. 1 junior in the country, Chip did not want Peterson to threaten his son's future, complained to the golf coach, who kicked Peterson off the team. Peterson transferred to Cuesta College in San Luis Obispo, California Polytechnic State University, he planned to major in international business, but changed his major to agricultural business.
Professors who taught Peterson described him as a model student. His agribusiness professor Jim Ahern commented, "I wouldn't mind having a class full of Scott Petersons."While at California Polytechnic, Peterson worked at a restaurant in Morro Bay called the Pacific Café. One of his co-workers would receive visits from a neighbor named Laci Denise Rocha, who attended Cal Poly as an ornamental horticulture major; when Peterson and his future wife first met at the restaurant in mid-1994, Laci made the first move, sending him her phone number. After meeting him, Laci told her mother that she had met the man that she would marry. Peterson called Laci and they began dating, their first date being a deep-sea fishing trip on which Laci got seasick; as Peterson's relationship with Laci grew more serious, he put aside his dreams of professional golf in order to focus on a business path. The couple dated for two years and moved in together. In 1997, after Laci graduated, they married at Sycamore Mineral Springs Resort in San Luis Obispo County's Avila Valley.
While Peterson finished his senior year, Laci took a job in nearby Prunedale. Prosecutors have stated that around this time, Peterson engaged in the first of at least two extramarital affairs, though they have not revealed a name or details of each relationship. Peterson graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in agricultural business in June 1998. After their graduations, the Petersons opened a sports bar in San Luis Obispo called The Shack. Contrary to a Los Angeles Times story that reported that Peterson's parents loaned him money to open the establishment, his parents emphatically told the San Francisco Chronicle that they did not, believing it was a bad investment; when the couple had difficulty finding a technician to install a needed vent in the restaurant, Peterson took the necessary certification course in Los Angeles in order to install it himself. Business was slow, but improved on weekends; the Petersons sold The Shack in 2000 when they moved to Laci's hometown of Modesto to start a family.
In October 2000, they purchased a three-bedroom, two-bath bungalow house for $177,000 on Covena Avenue in an upscale neighborhood near La Loma Park. Laci soon took a part-time job as a substitute teacher, Peterson got a job with Tradecorp U. S. A. A newly founded subsidiary of a European fertilizer company. According to Lee Peterson, the Spanish company was trying to establish a customer base in the United States, hired Peterson as their West Coast representative. Working on salary plus commission, he sold irrigation systems, chemical nutrients, related products to big farms and flower growers in California and New Mexico. Peterson was earning a salary of $5,000 a month before taxes. Laci's loved ones, including her mother and younger sister, related that she worked enthusiastically at being the perfect housewife, enjoying cooking and entertaining, that she and her family welcomed the news in 2002 that she was pregnant. In November 2002, when Laci was seven months pregnant, Peterson was introduced by a friend to a Fresno massage therapist named Amber Frey.
In public statements, Frey said Peterson told her he was single, the two began a romantic relationship. The last time Peterson's parents saw Laci was during a three-day weekend they spent together in Carmel, California the week before Christmas. On December 23, 2002 at 5:45pm, Peterson and Laci went to Salon, the workplace of Laci's sister, Amy Rocha, where Amy cut Peterson's hair, as she did e
Night is a work by Elie Wiesel about his experience with his father in the Nazi German concentration camps at Auschwitz and Buchenwald in 1944–1945, at the height of the Holocaust toward the end of the Second World War. In just over 100 pages of sparse and fragmented narrative, Wiesel writes about the death of God and his own increasing disgust with humanity, reflected in the inversion of the parent–child relationship, as his father declines to a helpless state and Wiesel becomes his resentful teenage caregiver. "If only I could get rid of this dead weight... I felt ashamed of myself, ashamed forever." In Night everything is inverted, every value destroyed. "Here there are no fathers, no brothers, no friends", a kapo tells him. "Everyone lives and dies for himself alone."Wiesel was 16 when Buchenwald was liberated by the United States Army in April 1945, too late for his father, who died after a beating while Wiesel lay silently on the bunk above for fear of being beaten too. He moved to Paris after the war and in 1954 completed an 862-page manuscript in Yiddish about his experiences, published in Argentina as the 245-page Un di velt hot geshvign.
The novelist François Mauriac helped. Les Éditions de Minuit published 178 pages as La Nuit in 1958, in 1960 Hill & Wang in New York published a 116-page translation as Night. Fifty years the book had been translated into 30 languages, now ranks as one of the bedrocks of Holocaust literature, it remains unclear. Wiesel called it his deposition, but scholars have had difficulty approaching it as an unvarnished account; the literary critic Ruth Franklin writes that the pruning of the text from Yiddish to French transformed an angry historical account into a work of art. Night is the first in a trilogy—Night, Day—marking Wiesel's transition during and after the Holocaust from darkness to light, according to the Jewish tradition of beginning a new day at nightfall. "In Night," he said, "I wanted to show the finality of the event. Everything came to an end—man, literature, God. There was nothing left, and yet we begin again with night." Elie Wiesel was born on 30 September 1928 in Sighet, a town in the Carpathian mountains of northern Transylvania, to Chlomo Wiesel, a shopkeeper, his wife, Sarah, née Feig.
The family lived in a community of 10,000–20,000 Orthodox Jews. Northern Transylvania had been annexed by Hungary in 1940, restrictions on Jews were in place, but the period Wiesel discusses at the beginning of the book, 1941–1943, was a calm one for the Jewish population; that changed at midnight on Sunday, 18 March 1944, with the invasion of Hungary by Nazi Germany, the arrival in Budapest of SS-Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann to oversee the deportation of the country's Jews. From 5 April Jews over the age of six had to wear a 10 x 10 cm yellow badge on the upper-left side of their coats or jackets. Jews had to declare the value of their property, were forbidden from moving home, owning cars or radios, listening to foreign radio stations, or using the telephone. Jewish authors could no longer be published, their books were removed from libraries, Jewish civil servants and lawyers were sacked; as the Allies prepared for the liberation of Europe, the mass deportations began at a rate of four trains a day from Hungary to the Auschwitz concentration camp in German-occupied Poland, each train carrying around 3,000 people.
Between 15 May and 8 July 1944, 437,402 Hungarian Jews are recorded as having been sent there on 147 trains, most gassed on arrival. The transports comprised most of the Jewish population outside Budapest, the Hungarian capital. Between 16 May and 27 June, 131,641 Jews were deported from northern Transylvania. Wiesel, his parents and sisters—older sisters Hilda and Beatrice and seven-year-old Tzipora—were among them. On arrival Jews were "selected" for forced labour. Sarah and Tzipora were sent to the gas chamber. Hilda and Beatrice survived. Wiesel and Chlomo managed to stay together, surviving forced labour and a death march to another concentration camp, near Weimar. Chlomo died there in January 1945, three months before the 6th Armored Division of the United States Army arrived to liberate the camp. Night opens in Sighet in 1941; the book's narrator is Eliezer, an Orthodox Jewish teenager who studies the Talmud by day, by night "weep over the destruction of the Temple". To the disapproval of his father, Eliezer spends time discussing the Kabbalah with Moshe the Beadle, caretaker of the Hasidic shtiebel.
In June 1941 the Hungarian government expelled Jews unable to prove their citizenship. Moshe is taken to Poland, he manages to escape, saved by God, that he might save the Jews of Sighet. He returns to the village to tell what he calls the "story of his own death", running from one house to the next: "Jews, listen to me! It's all. No money. No pity. Just listen to me!"When the train crossed into Poland, he tells them, it was taken over by the Gestapo, the German secret police. The Jews were transferred to trucks driven to a forest in Galicia, near Kolomaye, where they were forced to dig pits; when they had finished, each prisoner had to approach the hole, present his neck, was shot. Babies were used as targets by machine gunners, he tells them about Malka, the young girl who took three days to die, Tobias, the tailor who begged to be killed before his sons. But the Jews of Sighet wou
Heather Jeanne Fong is the former chief of police for San Francisco, United States. She is the first woman to lead the San Francisco Police Department, the first Asian American woman to head a major metropolitan city police force, she is the second Asian American police chief in SFPD history, the other being Fred Lau. Fong became the Interim San Francisco police chief in January 2004 after Alex Fagan Sr. was reassigned by Gavin Newsom. She became the permanent police chief in April 2004. Fong most served as the Department of Homeland Security Assistant Secretary for State and Local Law Enforcement, a position she held since November 17, 2014, she left the position at the end of the Obama administration. Her ancestral roots are in Chung Shan County, Guangdong Province, China. Fong grew up in the North Beach neighborhood of San Francisco and holds a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of San Francisco and a Master of Social Work degree from San Francisco State University. In college, Fong worked as a police cadet.
She served as a Police Activities League Cadet and Civil Service Police Cadet prior to entering the department. She was sworn in as a police officer in 1977, worked through the ranks of inspector, lieutenant, commander, deputy chief, assistant chief, acting chief, permanent chief. During her career, she has been assigned to patrol, served as an Academy training officer and instructor, child abuse investigator, youth programs coordinator, drug education instructor, grant writer, strategic planner, district station watch commander and commanding officer. Chief Fong was assigned to the Special Operations Division in August 1998 when she was promoted to commander. While there, she was responsible for the Traffic, MUNI Transit companies. In June 2000, upon promotion to deputy chief, she was assigned to the Field Operations Bureau, where she managed the uniformed patrol personnel of the San Francisco Police Department. In August 2002, she was assigned to oversee the Administration Bureau. In May 2003, she was appointed assistant chief of police.
Mayor Gavin Newsom appointed her acting chief of police on January 22, 2004, chief of police on April 14, 2004. Chief Fong drew criticism in June 2008 for failing to complete firearm recertification for over five years though all San Francisco police officers are required to recertify annually by department regulations. Chief Fong was quoted as saying; when the controversy erupted in the local media, she was recertified a week later. Fong was criticized for supporting Mayor Gavin Newsom in his conflict with police officer Andrew Cohen and 21 other officers who made a controversial "comedy" videotape for a police Christmas party; this tape was deemed racist, sexist and anti-Asian by the mayor, but the officers pointed out that they were making fun of themselves and that the tape was meant only for their own private Christmas party. Fong was criticized for supporting the mayor in this dispute rather than the men and women under her command. Fong announced in December 2008 that she would be stepping down in April 2009, after serving five years as San Francisco's police chief.
Fong receives some $264,000 annually in pension payments. The high amount of pension payments to Fong and other retired top officials in San Francisco's police and fire departments has prompted critical comment. San Francisco Police Department San Francisco Police Officers Association San Francisco, California SF Chronicle on Fong retirement A low-profile chief Heather Fong may serve behind the scenes, but she's tough and reform minded Biography of Heather Fong. Article. SFGate.com. May 2005. Official San Francisco government biography
Perjury is the intentional act of swearing a false oath or falsifying an affirmation to tell the truth, whether spoken or in writing, concerning matters material to an official proceeding. In some jurisdictions, contrary to popular misconception, no crime has occurred when a false statement is made while under oath or subject to penalty. Instead, criminal culpability attaches only at the instant the declarant falsely asserts the truth of statements that are material to the outcome of the proceeding. For example, it is not perjury to lie about one's age except if age is a fact material to influencing the legal result, such as eligibility for old age retirement benefits or whether a person was of an age to have legal capacity. Perjury is considered a serious offense, as it can be used to usurp the power of the courts, resulting in miscarriages of justice. In the United States, for example, the general perjury statute under federal law classifies perjury as a felony and provides for a prison sentence of up to five years.
The California Penal Code allows for perjury to be a capital offense in cases causing wrongful execution. Perjury which caused the wrongful execution of another or in the pursuit of causing the wrongful execution of another is construed as murder or attempted murder, is itself punishable by execution in countries that retain the death penalty. Perjury is considered a felony in most U. S. states as well as most Australian states. In Queensland, under Section 124 of the Queensland Criminal Code Act 1899, perjury is punishable by up to life in prison if it is committed to procure an innocent person for a crime, punishable by life in prison. However, prosecutions for perjury are rare. In some countries such as France and Italy, suspects cannot be heard under oath or affirmation and so cannot commit perjury, regardless of what they say during their trial; the rules for perjury apply when a person has made a statement under penalty of perjury if the person has not been sworn or affirmed as a witness before an appropriate official.
An example is the US income tax return, which, by law, must be signed as true and correct under penalty of perjury. Federal tax law provides criminal penalties of up to three years in prison for violation of the tax return perjury statute. See: 26 U. S. C. § 7206 Statements that entail an interpretation of fact are not perjury because people draw inaccurate conclusions unwittingly or make honest mistakes without the intent to deceive. Individuals may have honest but mistaken beliefs about certain facts or their recollection may be inaccurate, or may have a different perception of what is the accurate way to state the truth. Like most other crimes in the common law system, to be convicted of perjury one must have had the intention to commit the act and to have committed the act. Further, statements that are facts cannot be considered perjury if they might arguably constitute an omission, it is not perjury to lie about matters that are immaterial to the legal proceeding. In the United States, Kenya and several other English-speaking Commonwealth nations, subornation of perjury, attempting to induce another person to commit perjury, is itself a crime.
The offence of perjury is codified by section 132 of the Criminal Code. It is defined by section 131, which provides: Subject to subsection, every one commits perjury who, with intent to mislead, makes before a person, authorized by law to permit it to be made before him a false statement under oath or solemn affirmation, by affidavit, solemn declaration or deposition or orally, knowing that the statement is false. Subject to subsection, every person who gives evidence under subsection 46 of the Canada Evidence Act, or gives evidence or a statement pursuant to an order made under section 22.2 of the Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Act, commits perjury who, with intent to mislead, makes a false statement knowing that it is false, whether or not the false statement was made under oath or solemn affirmation in accordance with subsection, so long as the false statement was made in accordance with any formalities required by the law of the place outside Canada in which the person is present or heard.
Subsection applies, whether or not a statement referred to in that subsection is made in a judicial proceeding. Subsections and do not apply to a statement referred to in either of those subsections, made by a person, not specially permitted, authorized or required by law to make that statement; as to corroboration, see section 133. Mode of trial and sentence Every one who commits perjury is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding fourteen years. A person who, before the Court of Justice of the European Union, swears anything which he knows to be false or does not believe to be true is, whatever his nationality, guilty of perjury. Proceedings for this offence may be taken in any place in the State and the offence may for all incidental purposes be treated as having been committed in that place. Perjury is a statutory offence in Wales, it is created by section 1 of the Perjury Act 1911. Section 1 of that Act reads: If any person lawfully sworn as a witness or as an interpreter in a judicial proceeding wilfully makes a statement material in that proceeding, which he knows to be false or does not believe to be true, he shall be guilty of perjury, shall, on conviction thereof on indictment, be liable to penal servitude for a term not exceeding seven years, or to imprisonment... for a term not exceeding two years, or to a fine or to both such penal servitude or imprisonment and fin
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at law, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, civil law notary, counselor, counselor at law, chartered legal executive, or public servant preparing and applying law, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary. Working as a lawyer involves the practical application of abstract legal theories and knowledge to solve specific individualized problems, or to advance the interests of those who hire lawyers to perform legal services; the role of the lawyer varies across legal jurisdictions, so it can be treated here in only the most general terms. In practice, legal jurisdictions exercise their right to determine, recognized as being a lawyer; as a result, the meaning of the term "lawyer" may vary from place to place. Some jurisdictions have two types of lawyers and solicitors, whilst others fuse the two. A barrister is a lawyer. A solicitor is a lawyer, trained to prepare cases and give advice on legal subjects and can represent people in lower courts.
Both barristers and solicitors have gone through law school, completed the requisite practical training. However, in jurisdictions where there is a split-profession, only barristers are admitted as members of their respective bar association. In Australia, the word "lawyer" can be used to refer to both barristers and solicitors, whoever is admitted as a lawyer of the Supreme Court of a state or territory. In Canada, the word "lawyer" only refers to individuals who have been called to the bar or, in Quebec, have qualified as civil law notaries. Common law lawyers in Canada are formally and properly called "barristers and solicitors", but should not be referred to as "attorneys", since that term has a different meaning in Canadian usage, being a person appointed under a power of attorney. However, in Quebec, civil law advocates call themselves "attorney" and sometimes "barrister and solicitor" in English, all lawyers in Quebec, or lawyers in the rest of Canada when practising in French, are addressed with the honorific title, "Me." or "Maître".
In England and Wales, "lawyer" is used to refer to persons who provide reserved and unreserved legal activities and includes practitioners such as barristers, solicitors, registered foreign lawyers, patent attorneys, trade mark attorneys, licensed conveyancers, public notaries, commissioners for oaths, immigration advisers and claims management services. The Legal Services Act 2007 defines the "legal activities" that may only be performed by a person, entitled to do so pursuant to the Act.'Lawyer' is not a protected title. In Pakistan, the term "Advocate" is used instead of lawyer in The Legal Practitioners and Bar Councils Act, 1973. In India, the term "lawyer" is colloquially used, but the official term is "advocate" as prescribed under the Advocates Act, 1961. In Scotland, the word "lawyer" refers to a more specific group of trained people, it includes advocates and solicitors. In a generic sense, it may include judges and law-trained support staff. In the United States, the term refers to attorneys who may practice law.
It is never used to refer to patent paralegals. In fact, there are statutory and regulatory restrictions on non-lawyers like paralegals practicing law. Other nations tend to have comparable terms for the analogous concept. In most countries civil law countries, there has been a tradition of giving many legal tasks to a variety of civil law notaries and scriveners; these countries do not have "lawyers" in the American sense, insofar as that term refers to a single type of general-purpose legal services provider. It is difficult to formulate accurate generalizations that cover all the countries with multiple legal professions, because each country has traditionally had its own peculiar method of dividing up legal work among all its different types of legal professionals. Notably, the mother of the common law jurisdictions, emerged from the Dark Ages with similar complexity in its legal professions, but evolved by the 19th century to a single dichotomy between barristers and solicitors. An equivalent dichotomy developed between procurators in some civil law countries.
Several countries that had two or more legal professions have since fused or united their professions into a single type of lawyer. Most countries in this category are common law countries, though France, a civil law country, merged its jurists in 1990 and 1991 in response to Anglo-American competition. In countries with fused professions, a lawyer is permitted to carry out all or nearly all the responsibilities listed below. Arguing a client's case before a judge or jury in a court of law is the traditional province of the barrister in England, of advocates in some civil law jurisdictions. However, the boundary between barristers and solicitors has evolved. In England today, the barrister monopoly covers only appellate courts, barristers must compete directly with solicitors in many trial courts. In countries like the United States, that have fused legal professions, there are trial lawyers who specialize in trying cases in court, but trial lawyers do not have a de jure monopoly like barristers.
In some countries, litigants have the option of arguing pro
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Gavin Christopher Newsom is an American politician and businessman. He is the 40th governor of California, serving since January 2019. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as the 49th lieutenant governor of California from 2011 to 2019 and as the 42nd mayor of San Francisco from 2004 to 2011, he was sworn in as Governor of California on January 7, 2019. Newsom attended Redwood High School, graduated from Santa Clara University. After graduation, he founded the PlumpJack wine store with family friend Gordon Getty as an investor; the PlumpJack Group grew to manage 23 businesses, including wineries and hotels. Newsom began his political career in 1996, when San Francisco Mayor Willie Brown appointed him to serve on the city's Parking and Traffic Commission. Brown appointed Newsom to fill a vacancy on the Board of Supervisors the following year, Newsom was elected to the Board in 1998, 2000, 2002. In 2003, Newsom was elected the 42nd mayor of San Francisco, becoming the city's youngest mayor in a century.
Newsom was re-elected in 2007 with 72 percent of the vote. He was elected Lieutenant Governor of California in 2010 as the running mate of Jerry Brown, was re-elected in 2014. In February 2015, Newsom announced his candidacy for Governor of California in the 2018 election. On June 5, 2018, he finished in the top two of the non-partisan blanket primary. Newsom defeated Republican John H. Cox in the general election on November 6. Newsom hosted The Gavin Newsom Show on Current TV and wrote the 2013 book Citizenville. Despite speculation, he has denied any interest in running for President of the United States. Gavin Christopher Newsom was born in San Francisco, California, to Tessa Thomas and William Alfred Newsom III, a state appeals court justice and attorney for Getty Oil, he is a fourth-generation San Franciscan. His father is of Irish descent. Newsom is the second cousin, twice removed, of musician Joanna Newsom. Newsom's parents separated when he was two, divorced in 1972. At age ten, Newsom moved with his mother and sister to nearby Marin County.
While Newsom reflected that he did not have an easy childhood, he attended kindergarten and first grade at the French American bilingual school in San Francisco. He transferred because of severe dyslexia that still affects him, his dyslexia has made it difficult for him to write, spell and work with numbers. He attended third through fifth grades at Notre Dame des Victoires, where he was placed in remedial reading classes. In high school, Newsom played basketball and baseball and graduated from Redwood High School in 1985. Newsom was an outfielder in baseball and his baseball skills placed him on the cover of the Marin Independent Journal. Tessa Newsom worked three jobs to support Gavin and his sister Hilary Newsom Callan, the president of the PlumpJack Group, named after the opera Plump Jack composed by family friend Gordon Getty. In an interview with The San Francisco Chronicle, his sister recalled Christmas holidays when their mother told them there wouldn't be any gifts. Tessa opened their home to foster children, instilling in Newsom the importance of public service.
His father's finances were strapped in part because of his tendency to give away his earnings. Newsom worked several jobs in high school to help support his family. Newsom attended Santa Clara University on a partial baseball scholarship, where he graduated in 1989 with a B. S. in political science. Newsom was a left-handed pitcher for Santa Clara, but he threw his arm out after two years and hasn't thrown a baseball since, he lived in the Alameda Apartments, which he compared to living in a hotel. He reflected on his education fondly, crediting the Jesuit approach of Santa Clara that he said has helped him become an independent thinker who questions orthodoxy. While in school, Newsom spent a semester studying abroad in Rome. Newsom's aunt was married to Ron Pelosi, the brother-in-law of Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Nancy Pelosi. On May 14, 1991, Newsom and his investors created the company PlumpJack Associates L. P. In 1992, the group started the PlumpJack Winery with the financial help of his family friend Gordon Getty.
PlumpJack was the name of an opera written by Getty, who invested in 10 of Newsom's 11 businesses. Getty told the San Francisco Chronicle that he treated Newsom like a son and invested in his first business venture because of that relationship. According to Getty business investments were because of "the success of the first". One of Newsom's early interactions with government occurred when Newsom resisted the San Francisco Health Department requirement to install a sink at his PlumpJack wine store; the Health Department argued that wine was a food and required the store to install a $27,000 sink in the carpeted wine shop on the grounds that the shop needed the sink for a mop. When Newsom was appointed supervisor, he told the San Francisco Examiner: "That's the kind of bureaucratic malaise I'm going to be working through."The business grew to an enterprise with more than 700 employees. The PlumpJack Cafe Partners L. P. opened the PlumpJack Café on Fillmore Street, in 1993. Between 1993 and 2000, Newsom and his investors opened several other businesses that included the PlumpJack Squaw Valley Inn with a PlumpJack Café, a winery in Napa Valley, the Balboa Café Bar and Grill, the PlumpJack Development Fund L.
P. the MatrixFillmore Bar, PlumpJack Wines shop Noe Valley branch, PlumpJackSport retail clothing, a second Balboa Café at Squaw Valley. Newsom's investm