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Danish Defence

Danish Defence is the unified armed forces of the Kingdom of Denmark, charged with the defence of Denmark and its constituent, self-governing nations Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Defence promote Denmark's wider interests, support international peacekeeping efforts and provide humanitarian aid. Since the creation of a standing military in 1510, the armed forces have seen action in many wars, most involving Sweden, but involving the world's great powers, including the Thirty Years' War, the Great Northern War, the Napoleonic Wars. Today, Danish Defence consists of: Denmark's principal land warfare branch; the Defence include the Home Guard. Under the Danish Defence Law the Minister of Defence serves as the commander of Danish Defence and the Danish Home Guard. De facto the Danish Cabinet is the commanding authority of the Defence, though it cannot mobilize the armed forces, for purposes that are not defence oriented, without the consent of parliament; the modern Danish military can be traced back with the creation of the Royal Danish Navy.

During this time, the Danish Kingdom held considerable territories, including Schleswig-Holstein and colonies in Africa and the Americas. Following the defeat in the Second Schleswig War, the military became a political hot-button issue, with many wanting the disarm the military. Denmark managed to maintain its neutrality during the First World War, with a relative strong military force. However, following the Interwar period, a more pacifistic government came to power, decreasing the size of the military; this resulted in Denmark having a limited military, when Denmark was invaded in 1940. After World War II, the different branches were reorganized, collected under Danish Defence; this was to ensure a unified command as learned from the War. With the defeat in 1864, Denmark had adopted a policy of neutrality; this was however abandoned after World War Two, when Denmark decided to support the UN peacekeeping forces and become a member of NATO. During the Cold War, Denmark began to rebuild its military and to prepare for possible attacks by the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies.

During this time Denmark participated in a number of UN peacekeeping missions including UNEF and UNFICYP. Following the end of the Cold War, Denmark began a more active foreign policy, deciding to participate in international operations; this began with the participation in the Bosnian War, where the Royal Danish Army served as part of the United Nations Protection Force and were in two skirmishes. This was the first time the Danish Army was a part of a combat operation since World War 2. On April 29, 1994, the Royal Danish Army, while on an operation to relieve an observation post as part of the United Nations Protection Force, the Jutland Dragoon Regiment came under artillery fire from the town of Kalesija; the United Nations Protection Force returned fire and eliminated the artillery positions. On October 24, 1994, the Royal Danish Army, while on an operation to reinforce an observation post in the town of Gradačac, were fired upon by a T-55 Bosnian Serb tank. One of the three Danish Leopard 1 tanks experienced slight damage, but all returned fired and put the T-55 tank out of action.

With the September 11 attacks, Denmark joined US forces in the War on terror, participating in both the War in Afghanistan and the Iraq War. In Afghanistan, 37 soldiers have been killed in various hostile engagements or as a result of friendly fire, 6 have been killed in non-combat related incidents, bringing the number of Danish fatalities to 43, being the highest loss per capita within the coalition forces. Denmark has since participated in Operation Ocean Shield, the 2011 military intervention in Libya and the American-led intervention in the Syrian Civil War; the purpose and task of the armed forces of Denmark is defined in Law no. 122 of February 27, 2001 and in force since March 1, 2001. It defines six tasks, its primary purpose is to prevent conflicts and war, preserve the sovereignty of Denmark, secure the continuing existence and integrity of the independent Kingdom of Denmark and further a peaceful development in the world with respect to human rights. Its primary tasks are: NATO participation in accordance with the strategy of the alliance and repel any sovereignty violation of Danish territory, defence cooperation with non-NATO members Central and East European countries, international missions in the area of conflict prevention, crises-control, peacemaking, participation in Total Defence in cooperation with civilian resources and maintenance of a sizable force to execute these tasks at all times.

Total Defence is "the use of all resources in order to maintain an organized and functional society, to protect the population and values of society". This is achieved by combining the military, Home Guard, Danish Emergency Management Agency and elements of the police; the concept of total defence was created following Word War 2, where it was clear that the defence of the country could not only rely on the military, but there need to be other measures to ensure a continuation of society. As a part of the Total Defence, all former conscripts can be recalled to duty, in order to serve in cases of emergency. Since 1988, Danish defence budgets and security policy

Mathieu Darche

Mathieu Darche is a Canadian former professional ice hockey player who played for several AHL and NHL clubs. Mathieu is the younger brother of long snapper J. P. Darche. After attending the New Jersey Devils training camp in January 2013, he was asked to stay with the team but chose to retire. Darche played hockey at Choate Rosemary Hall and graduated in 1996, he has international business from McGill University. While attending university, Darche played four seasons of Canadian Interuniversity Sport hockey, where in his last year, he was named the CIS Outstanding student-athlete and was awarded the Dr. Randy Gregg Award. During the 2004–05 NHL lockout, Darche spent a full season with the Hershey Bears of the AHL, he played for the Füchse Duisburg of the Deutsche Eishockey Liga in 2005–06 and split four seasons between the NHL and AHL with the Columbus Blue Jackets, Nashville Predators, their affiliates. In 2006–07, he played a few games with the San Jose Sharks of the NHL but spent most of the season playing for the team's AHL affiliate, the Worcester Sharks.

In 2007–08, Darche played with the Tampa Bay Lightning. After starting the 2009–10 season playing for its AHL affiliate, the Hamilton Bulldogs he was recalled and played his first game as a Canadien on January 20, 2010, versus the St. Louis Blues and scored his first goal for the team on January 22 versus the New Jersey Devils, a game-winning goal. Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or, or The Internet Hockey Database

Albert Purchas

Albert Purchas was a prominent 19th century architect and surveyor in Melbourne, Australia. Albert Purchas was born in Chepstow, Wales in 1825, the son of Robert Whittlesey Purchas and Marianne Guyon, he was the brother of Arthur Guyon Purchas. He emigrated to Melbourne in 1851, soon established a private practice as a surveyor and architect. On 1 Nov 1854 in St Kilda, he married Eliza Anne Swyer, the eldest daughter of Robert Swyer, of Kersal, Lancashire. Albert and Eliza had a large family, with 10 children, their children included Marian Eliza Purchas, Claude Albert Guyon Purchas, Robert Guyon Whittlesey, Edith Matilda, Beatrice Purchas, Lillian Purchas, Ethel Annie. Purchas was soon joined his brother-in law Charles R Swyer in the partnership of Purchas & Swyer, which lasted from 1856 to 1862, after which he again practiced alone up to about 1891. Purchas had his offices at 81 Little Collins. Alone or with Swyer purchase is said to have designed over 140 houses, churches and cemetery buildings in Victoria in his long career.

Berkely Hall St Kilda dating from 1854 is one of his first buildings, still exists, though the original house is obscured by an early 20thC verandah. Another notable early design was the head office of the Melbourne Savings Bank, built on the corner Flinders Lane and Market Street in 1857-58, in an elaborately detailed Renaissance Revival style, his churches were Gothic Revival, built for the Anglican Church, along with some parsonages, while most of the bank buildings were Renaissance Revival designs for the Bank of Australasia. He designed city buildings in the 1860s and 70s, such as the Mutual Insurance Co, Northern Insurance Co, the first premises for George & George, destroyed by fire in 1889. One of his most outstanding designs is St George's Presbyterian Church in Chapel Street, St Kilda, in a striking polychrome brick Gothic Revival style, unusually carried on through to the interior. Several Australian architects obtained experience working in Purchas's office, including South Australian architect Edward Davies, while another pupil, William Black, became a senior partner in the well-known Cape Town, South Africa partnership of Black & Fagg.

During his pupilage to Purchas, Black won several prizes offered by the RVIA, among them the Royal Victoria Institute of Architects' award in December 1885. Purchas produced one of the few published maps and compilations of the early pastoral settlers runs in Victoria in 1853In the same year he designed the layout of the Melbourne General Cemetery, the first'garden' cemetery in Victoria, a curvilinear layout with extensive plantings, as well as the gate lodge and gates, he was a long time member of the Cemetery Trust, serving as secretary from 1876-1886. He was Chairman of the Boroondara General Cemetery Board of Trustees 1867 to 1909, designed many aspects of the cemetery, including the landscape, the cast iron entrance gates, the rotunda and the surrounding brick wall, he was involved with the philanthropic Old Colonists Homes in North Fitzroy, arranging the fencing in 1870. He was vice president of the Royal Victorian Institute of Architects for many years, President in 1887-8, he was a subscriber to the Philosophical Society of Victoria in 1855, a member of the Philosophical Institute of Victoria 1857-8.

Purchas was a keen inventor having applied for a patent for an invention for lighting a railway carriage with gas in 1861, won a competition for a model farm complex, in 1862. This unusual design had the dairy either underground or half underground, to keep it cool, with a'dry lining' around the outside of the sunken portions. In 1883, with fellow architect Alfred Smith, he took out a patent for fire-proof floors, arches and other parts of buildings; the Miles Lewis Architectural Index has 218 entries for Albert Purchas, more for Purchas & Swyer. Notable works amongst this prolific output include: Hawthorn Village Plan, 1851 Melbourne General Cemetery layout, gate lodge and gates, Carlton, 1853. Berkeley Hall, 11 Princes Street, St Kilda, 1854 Christ Church Anglican Church, Brunswick, 1857 Christ Church, St Kilda, 1854-7 Temple Court, Collins Street frontage, 1857 Glenara Homestead, Bulla, 1857 Melbourne Savings Bank, corner Flinders Lane and Market Street, Melbourne, 1857-58 Bank of Australasia, 2 Malop Street Geelong, 1859-60 Beck's Imperial Hotel, Lyttleton St, Castlemaine, 1861 St John's, Victoria, 1861-66 Melbourne Meat Preserving Company Buildings, Van Ness Avenue, Maribyrnong, c1868 Corsewall, before 1875 St George's Presbyterian Church, East St Kilda, 1877-1880 Barristers’ Chambers, Bourke Street through to Little Collins Street near William Street, 1882 National Bank of Australasia, 261 Victoria Street Abbotsford, 1887 St Hilary's Church of England and Rowland Streets Kew, 1888 The United Service Home, 1 Crimea Street, Drysdale, 1891 In 1878, Purchas was one of several architects who protested the choice of an overseas architect for the design of the Melbourne Anglican Cathedral, pointing out the expertise in the profession in Victoria and the need for someone aware of local conditions.

He sat on the examin

Miguel Belgrano

Miguel José Belgrano was an Argentine poet, writer and teacher. He served as Rector of the Colegio de Ciencias Morales of Buenos Aires, he was born in Buenos Aires, belonging to the distinguished family of Domingo Belgrano, a rich merchant of Genoese origin and María Josefa González, born in the city. After having completed his elementary studies in the Colegio San Carlos, he moves to Spain entering to serve as a Guardia Corps, taking part in the actions of El Ferrol against the English in 1800. On his return to Buenos Aires, he wrote Rasgo histórico poético, a composition on the occasion of the English invasions. In 1820, Belgrano was a French language teacher at the Colegio de la Unión del Sud. Time he was appointed as rector of the same establishment renamed as Colegio de Ciencias Morales, where his students attended the English and French classes. Miguel Belgrano married twice, first in Madrid to María de Bazán, second in the Buenos Aires Cathedral with his relative Flora Dominga Ramos Belgrano, daughter of Ignacio Ramos Villamil and Juana Belgrano González.

Pre-school playgroup

A pre-school playgroup, or in everyday usage just a playgroup, is an organised group providing care and socialisation for children under five. The term is used in the United Kingdom. Playgroups are less formal than the preschool education of nursery schools, they do not provide full-time care, operating for only a few hours a day during school term time in the mornings only. They are staffed by nursery nurses or volunteers, not by nursery teachers, are run by private individuals or charities, rather than by the state or companies. In the United Kingdom, since around the 1980s, the traditional territory of the playgroup has been encroached on by the expansion of more formal nursery education, playgroups now cater only for two- and three-year-olds before they move onto a nursery school. Over the same period there has been an increase in the state supervision of playgroups. In the United States, a playgroup is an organization of parents with the expressed intent to have the children come together and play.

There are playgroups that cater to specific categories of parents including stay at home dads, stay at home moms, working moms. In areas of the US where homeschooling is popular, it is not unusual to see groups for homeschooling families; these can be part of local or national playgroups. Churches, rec centers, other community organizations sometimes sponsor weekly or monthly playgroups. Age limits are determined by the individual group; some groups have upper age limits and some do not. It is not unusual to see groups where, in addition to activities for the children, there are social events for the whole family or for parents only. In mobile communities, playgroups can be an important tool for building the social network of young families who have relocated to the area. There are a number of resources online for parents to find playgroups in their area - including Playgroups USA and Social Toddler - both directories and social networks for parents in playgroups. In The Netherlands, international or expatriate parents form small groups, local to their area, for the purpose of providing a play space for babies and toddlers up to the age of 4-5, as well as offering a support network for the parents themselves.

Meetings are held weekly in a hall or other public venue, the groups organize other social activities such as Ladies Nights Out, visits to local parks and zoos, summer barbecues etc. In Maastricht, for example, the Maastricht International Playgroup was established more than 10 years ago as a way to cater to the needs of expatriate families living in and around the area. Another International Playgroup is First Friends in Voorhout. Playgroup Australia is the national peak and administrative body for playgroups in Australia. Playgroup is an informal session where mums, grand parents, caregivers and babies meet together in a relaxed environment. Playgroups are set up and run by parents and caregivers, with children choosing from a range of activities set up to meet their varying needs. Activities at playgroup are either free or low cost, may include Music and singing, Imaginative play and free play and craft activities or Outings. Playgroup can be held anywhere, safe for children and where groups of people can meet - community and neighbourhood centres, health clinics, women's centres and kindergartens, church halls and in someone's house.

In a playgroup and caregivers stay to interact with the other adults. No child is too young for playgroup. All children from 0–5 years, including babies, love new experiences and benefit from developing sensory and communication skills through activities at playgroup. March 2003 saw a dramatic increase in the number of mothers attending playgroup. In Hong Kong, pre-school children join playgroups to study in an interactive environment before they go on to kindergartens. Pre-school Learning Alliance


Kayaralam is one of the village in Mayyil Gram panchayat in the Kannur District, state of Kerala, India. Before the formation of the Mayyil panchayath, it was a panchayath. Orappadi is the nearest town; the national highway passes through Valapattanam town. Goa and Mumbai can be accessed on the northern side and Cochin and Thiruvananthapuram can be accessed on the southern side; the road to the east of Iritty connects to Bangalore. The nearest railway station is Kannur on Mangalore-Palakkad line. Trains are available to all parts of India subject to advance booking over the internet. There are airports at Mattanur and Calicut. All of them are international airports but direct flights are available only to Middle Eastern countries