Architecture of Denmark
The architecture of Denmark has its origins in the Viking period, richly revealed by archaeological finds. It became firmly established in the Middle Ages when first Romanesque, Gothic churches and it was during this period that, in a country with little access to stone, brick became the construction material of choice, not just for churches but for fortifications and castles. In parallel, the style became popular for ordinary dwellings in towns. Late in his reign, Christian IV became a proponent of Baroque which was to continue for a considerable time with many impressive buildings both in the capital and the provinces. Neoclassicism came initially from France but was adopted by native Danish architects who increasingly participated in defining architectural style. A productive period of Historicism ultimately merged into the 19th century National Romantic style and it was not, until the 1960s that Danish architects entered the world scene with their highly successful Functionalism. Archaeological excavations in parts of Denmark have revealed much about the way the Vikings lived.
One of the most notable sites is Hedeby, located some 45 km south of the Danish border near the German town of Schleswig, it probably dates back to the end of the 8th century. The houses are deemed to be among the most sophisticated dwellings of their time, oak frames were used for the walls, and the roofs were probably thatched. Viking ring houses, such as those at Trelleborg, near Slagelse on the Danish island of Zealand, have a different, ship-like shape. Each house consisted of a central hall,18 m ×8 m. Those at Fyrkat in the north of Jutland were 28.5 m long,5 m wide at the ends and 7.5 m in the middle, the walls consisted of double rows of posts with planks wedged horizontally between them. A series of posts slanted towards the wall were possibly used to support the building like buttresses. Denmarks first churches from the 9th century were built of timber and have not survived, hundreds of stone churches in the Romanesque style were built in the 12th and 13th centuries. They had a nave and chancel with small rounded windows.
Among the finest examples of brick Romanesque buildings are St. Bendts Church in Ringsted, the church at Østerlars on the island of Bornholm was built around 1150. Like three other churches on the island, it is a round church, the three-storeyed building is supported by a circular outer wall and an exceptionally wide, hollow central column. Construction of Lund Cathedral in Scania started in about 1103 when the region was part of the Kingdom of Denmark and it was the first of great Danish Romanesque cathedrals in the shape of a three-aisled basilica with transepts
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Arne Emil Jacobsen, Hon. FAIA was a Danish architect and designer. He is remembered for his contribution to architectural Functionalism as well as for the success he enjoyed with simple. Arne Jacobsen was born on 11 February 1902 in Copenhagen and his father Johan was a wholesale trader in safety pins and snap fasteners. His mother Pouline was a bank teller whose hobby was painting floral motifs and he first hoped to become a painter but was dissuaded by his father who encouraged him to opt instead for the more secure domain of architecture. Still a student, in 1925 Jacobsen participated in the Paris Art Deco fair, Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes, on that trip, he was struck by the pioneering aesthetic of Le Corbusiers LEsprit Nouveau pavilion. Before leaving the Academy, Jacobsen travelled to Germany, where he acquainted with the rationalist architecture of Mies van der Rohe. Their work influenced his early designs including his graduation project, an art gallery, after completing architecture school, he first worked at city architect Poul Holsøes architectural practice.
It was a spiral-shaped, flat-roofed house in glass and concrete, incorporating a private garage, a boathouse, other striking features were windows that rolled down like car windows, a conveyor tube for the mail and a kitchen stocked with ready-made meals. A Dodge Cabriolet Coupé was parked in the garage, there was a Chris Craft in the boathouse, Jacobsen immediately became recognised as an ultra-modern architect. The year after winning the House of the Future award, Arne Jacobsen set up his own office and he designed the functionalist Rothenborg House, which he planned in every detail, a characteristic of many of his works. Soon afterwards, he won a competition from Gentofte Municipality for the design of a resort complex in Klampenborg on the Øresund coast just north of Copenhagen. The various components of the resort became his major breakthrough in Denmark. In 1932, the first item, the Bellevue Sea Bath, was completed, Jacobsen designed everything from the characteristic blue-striped lifeguard towers and changing cabins to the tickets, season cards and even the uniforms of the employees.
The focal point of the area was supposed to have been a tower, more than a hundred metres high with a revolving restaurant at the top. Still, it is reflected in the arrangement of buildings in the area which all follow lines that extend from their missing centre. In 1934, came the Bellavista residential development, built in concrete and glass, with surfaces and open floor planning. Completing the white trilogy in 1937, the Bellevue Theatre featured a retractable roof allowing open-air performances and these early works clearly show the influence of the White Cubist architecture Jacobsen had encountered in Germany, particularly at the Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart. The cluster of buildings at Bellevue includes the Skovshoved Filling Station
Denmark is known for its Carlsberg and Tuborg beers and for its akvavit and bitters, but amongst the Danes themselves imported wine has gained in popularity since the 1960s. Danish chefs, inspired by continental practices, have in recent years developed a series of gourmet dishes based on high-quality local produce known as new Danish cuisine. As a result and the provinces now have a number of highly acclaimed restaurants. Danish cooking is rooted in the peasant dishes served across the country before the Industrial Revolution in 1860 and it was based on the need to make use of natural products available on or near the family farm. As a result, a variety of brassicas, fish, families had their own storage of long-lasting dry products, rye for making bread, barley for beer, dried peas for soup and smoked or salted pork. While industrialization brought increases in the consumption of meat and green vegetables, rye bread. With the arrival of dairy cooperatives in the half of the 19th century. Wood-fired ovens and meat grinders contributed to a range of new dishes including frikadeller, roast pork, poached cod, desserts of stewed fruits or berries such as rødgrød date from the same period.
Over the centuries, which was not only economical, in the 1880s, Oskar Davidsen opened a restaurant specializing in smørrebrød with a long list of open sandwiches. Leverpostej became available in shops at the end of the 19th century. In the 1920s and 1930s, tomatoes and cucumbers were added as a topping to the cold cuts, in the 1940s, Henry Stryhn popularized leverpostej by making deliveries around Copenhagen on his bicycle. In the 1960s and 1970s, with the availability of deep frozen goods, by the 1990s, ingredients were being imported from the south while new products were farmed at home, providing a basis for a developing interest in gourmet dishes. Much of the came from France, as Danish chefs went on television explaining how to prepare dishes such as canard à lorange or authentic sauce Béarnaise. As a result, in recent years Danish chefs have helped to put Denmark on the world map, with several Michelin-starred restaurants in Copenhagen. Danish cuisine has advantage of the possibilities inherent in traditional recipes, building on the use of local products.
Products such as rapeseed, oats and older varieties of fruits are being rediscovered and prepared in new ways both by restaurants and at home as interest in organic foods continues to grow. In 2010,2011,2012 and 2014 the Copenhagen restaurant Noma was named the worlds best restaurant by the magazine Restaurant, in 2012, Danish chef and food activist Claus Meyer had his own show about Nordic cuisine on BBC Lifestyle. His recent book Almanak contains 365 new cuisine recipes, one for day of the year
Centre Georges Pompidou
It was designed in the style of high-tech architecture by the architectural team of Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano, along with Gianfranco Franchini. Because of its location, the Centre is known locally as Beaubourg and it is named after Georges Pompidou, the President of France from 1969 to 1974 who commissioned the building, and was officially opened on 31 January 1977 by President Valéry Giscard dEstaing. As of 2006, the Centre Pompidou has had over 180 million visitors since 1977 and more than 5,209,678 visitors in 2013, including 3,746,899 for the museum. The sculpture Horizontal by Alexander Calder, a mobile that is 7.6 m tall, was placed in front of the Centre Pompidou in 2012. Hoping to renew the idea of Paris as a city of culture and art. Paris needed a large, free library, as one did not exist at this time. At first the debate concerned Les Halles, but as the settled, in 1968. A year in 1969, the new president adopted the Beaubourg project, in the process of developing the project, the IRCAM was housed in the complex.
By the mid-1980s, the Centre Pompidou was becoming the victim of its huge and unexpected popularity, its activities. By 1992, the Centre de Création Industrielle was incorporated into the Centre Pompidou, since re-opening in 2000 after a three-year renovation, the Centre Pompidou has improved accessibility for visitors. Now they can access the escalators if they pay to enter the museum. The Centre was designed by Italian architect Renzo Piano, British architect Richard Rogers, the project was awarded to this team in an architectural design competition, the results of which were announced in 1971. It was the first time in France that international architects were allowed to participate, world-renowned architects Oscar Niemeyer, Jean Prouvé and Philip Johnson made up the jury which would select one design out of the 681 entries. National Geographic described the reaction to the design as love at second sight, an article in Le Figaro declared Paris has its own monster, just like the one in Loch Ness.
The Pritzker jury said the Pompidou revolutionised museums, transforming what had once been elite monuments into popular places of social and cultural exchange, the Centre was built by GTM and completed in 1977. The building cost 993 million 1972 French francs, renovation work conducted from October 1996 to January 2000 was completed on a budget of 576 million 1999 francs. The black-painted mechanical sculptures are by Tinguely, the works by de Saint-Phalle. Video footage of the fountain appeared frequently throughout the French language telecourse, the Place Georges Pompidou in front of the museum is noted for the presence of street performers, such as mimes and jugglers
Danish Culture Canon
Each category contains 12 works although music contains 12 works of score music and 12 of popular music and the literature sections 12th item is an anthology of 24 works. The committee for architecture was asked to choose 12 works covering both buildings and landscaping and it was decided that works could either be in Denmark designed by one or more Danes or abroad designed by Danish architects. The committee consisted of, Lone Wiggers, Carsten Juel-Christiansen, Malene Hauxner, Lars Juel Thiis, the committee for visual arts decided that only works of artists who had completed their oeuvre could be included. They decided that members of the committee could each select a work they especially appreciated, in this way the committee first selected seven works whereafter five members selected one work each. The committee consisted of Hein Heinsen, Hans Edvard Nørregård-Nielsen, Bente Scavenius, Bjørn Nørgaard, the committee for design and crafts decided that selection should be based on works with a useful function which were relevant at the time they were created while remaining recognizable today.
They should fall into an international perspective, the committee consisted of Merete Ahnfeldt-Mollerup, Erik Magnussen, Astrid Krogh, Ursula Munch-Petersen and Louise Campbell. In their selection, the committee for film focused on films reflecting Danish life with Danish actors, the included nevertheless the film Sult which takes place in Oslo and has Swedish actors. The committee consisted of Susanne Bier, Vinca Wiedemann, Tivi Magnusson, Ole Michelsen, the committee for literature found it important to select works with a quality which had been appreciated over time. The selected works were considered to have made an important contribution both to Danish literature and to Danish culture in the widest sense. They reflect an original and bold approach to works of value. They are worthy of being preserved for posterity as they serve as points in a modern global context. The committee consisted of Finn Hauberg Mortensen, Erik A. Nielsen, Mette Winge, Claes Kastholm Hansen and they presented two lists, one for what they called score music, the other for popular music, although the two should be considered as a whole.
The committee consisted of Per Erik Veng, Jørgen I, Torben Bille, Inger Sørensen and Henrik Marstal. The committee consisted of Flemming Enevold, Karen-Maria Bille, Jokum Rohde, Sonja Richter, the committee was formed spontaneously as work proceeded in the other areas. It is therefore not an independent selection as suggestions were received from all the other areas, according to press reports, the canon has had limited impact and has been ineffective in its stated goal of fostering integration between the Danes and the immigrant communities. He points out that the reason his students take an interest in Danish culture is that they have to take exams in it. If they are free to choose culture themselves, they go for films, rock music, kulturkanon, PDF Copy of the Website from 2006 Danish Ministry of Culture, Kulturkanonen PDF
Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets. The stack is bound together along one edge by either sewing with thread through the folds or by a layer of flexible adhesive, for protection, the bound stack is either wrapped in a flexible cover or attached to stiff boards. Finally, a cover is adhered to the boards and a label with identifying information is attached to the covers along with additional decoration. Bookbinding is a trade that relies on basic operations of measuring, cutting. A finished book depends on a minimum of two dozen operations to complete but sometimes more than double that according to the specific style. All operations have an order and each one relies on accurate completion of the previous step with little room for back tracking. An extremely durable binding can be achieved by using the best hand techniques, Bookbinding combines skills from other trades such as paper and fabric crafts, leather work, model making, and graphic arts.
It requires knowledge about numerous varieties of book structures along with all the internal and external details of assembly, a working knowledge of the materials involved is required. Bookbinding is a craft of great antiquity, and at the same time. The division between craft and industry is not so wide as might at first be imagined and it is interesting to observe that the main problems faced by the mass-production bookbinder are the same as those that confronted the medieval craftsman or the modern hand binder. Before the computer age, the bookbinding trade involved two divisions, second was Letterpress binding which deals with making new books intended to be read from and includes fine binding, library binding, edition binding, and publishers bindings. A result of the new bindings is a third division dealing with the repair, with the digital age, personal computers have replaced the pen and paper based accounting that used to drive most of the work in the stationery binding industry.
There is a grey area between the two divisions. There are cases where the printing and binding jobs are combined in one shop, a step up to the next level of mechanization is determined by economics of scale until you reach production runs of ten thousand copies or more in a factory employing a dozen or more workers. The craft of bookbinding probably originated in India, where religious sutras were copied on to palm leaves with a metal stylus, the leaf was dried and rubbed with ink, which would form a stain in the wound. The finished leaves were given numbers, and two long twines were threaded through each end through wooden boards, making a palm-leaf book, when the book was closed, the excess twine would be wrapped around the boards to protect the manuscript leaves. Buddhist monks took the idea through Afghanistan to China in the first century BC, similar techniques can be found in ancient Egypt where priestly texts were compiled on scrolls and books of papyrus. Another version of bookmaking can be seen through the ancient Mayan codex, writers in the Hellenistic-Roman culture wrote longer texts as scrolls, these were stored in boxes or shelving with small cubbyholes, similar to a modern winerack
Culture of Denmark
The culture of Denmark has a rich intellectual and artistic heritage. The astronomical discoveries of Tycho Brahe, Ludwig A, from the mid-1990s, Danish films have attracted international attention, especially those associated with Dogme 95 like those of Lars Von Trier. Denmark has had a tradition of movie making and Carl Theodor Dreyer has been recognised as one of the worlds greatest film directors. Culture and the arts thrive as a result of the high amount of government funding they receive. Thanks to a system of grants, Danish artists are able to devote themselves to their work while museums, similar to other Scandinavian cultures, a fundamental aspect of Danish culture is hygge. Hygge, meaning snug, is a concept that evokes coziness, particularly when relaxing with friends or loved ones. Christmas time, when loved ones sit close together on a rainy night, is a true moment of hygge, as is grilling a pølse. It is suspected the concept of Hygge is part of the reason Danes, the Danish word for the Christmas holiday is Jul, from the Old Norse jól, the term for midwinter, itself cognate with the English word, yule.
Midwinter celebrations were an important part of Scandinavian culture since prehistoric times, the morning can be spent in various ways but most often it is the time when preparations are made for the evening. Juleaften or Yule Eve starts around 6 p. m. when a dinner is served. The menu is, White and browned potatoes, red cabbage, White potatoes are ordinary boiled potatoes without their jackets and browned potatoes are caramelised white potatoes. Some families enjoy a special Danish version of roast pork, called flæskesteg complete with crackling or maybe a special sausage called medisterpølse, made out of rice, it is not to be confused with rice pudding. The chief difference is the whipped cream added to the rice, on serving, chopped almond and vanilla can be added, among other things. It is served cold, with hot cherry sauce, an unchopped almond can be added and hidden in the dessert. The person who finds it in his portion receives a small prize, the candles on the Christmas tree are lit and the family dance around it singing Christmas songs and carols and subsequently exchange presents.
Danish folklore is made up of folk tales, songs, dancing, popular beliefs and traditions, mostly communicated by the inhabitants of towns, many of these were passed on from generation to generation by word of mouth. As in neighbouring countries, interest in folklore grew with a feeling of national consciousness in 19th-century Denmark. Researchers travelled across the country collecting innumerable folktales and sayings while observing traditional dress in the various regions, folklore today is part of the national heritage, represented in particular by national and local traditions, folk dances and literature
Their beliefs were reflected in the well-made furniture of minimalist designs. —Metropolitan Museum of Art Furniture was made thoughtfully, with functional form and proportion. Furniture was made of cherry, maple or pine lumber, which was generally stained or painted with one of the colors which were dictated by the sect, typically blue, drawer pulls for dressers or other furniture were made of wood. A core business for the New Lebanon Shaker community by the 1860s was the production of well-made ladder back or turned post chairs, the minimalist design and woven seats were fast and easy to produce. The furniture, acquired in the 1970s, and Shaker textiles are considered among the finest Shaker collections in the world, many examples of Shaker furniture survive and are preserved today, including such popular forms as Shaker tables, rocking chairs, and cabinets. Collections of Shaker furniture are maintained by many art and historical museums in the United States and England, the underlying principles of Shaker design have given inspiration to some of the finest designers of modern furniture.
Shaker ladder back chairs, for instance, deeply influenced the work of a generation of postwar Danish designers. Also many ideals of furniture formed around the common Shaker furniture construction, Edward Deming and Faith Andrews. Shaker Furniture, The Craftsmanship of an American Communal Sect Dover Publications, the Shaker Legacy, Perspectives on an Enduring Furniture Style. Grant, Jerry V. & Douglas R. Allen, Jerry, David & Conran, Sir Terrence. The Edward Deming Andrews Memorial Shaker Collection, New York & London, Garland Publishing,1987. Moore, William D. “‘You’d Swear They Were Modern’, Ruth Reeves, the Index of American Design, Stephen J. Historical Dictionary of the Shakers. Rieman, Timothy D. & Buck, Susan L, the Art of Craftsmanship, The Mount Lebanon Collection, Art Services International, and Chrysler Museum. Rieman, Timothy D. & Muller, Charles R, the Shaker Chair, Line Drawings by Stephen Metzger, This is the definitive work. Shaker Museum and Library, Chatham, NY Shaker furniture at the Art Complex Museum
Poul Henningsen was a Danish author and critic, and one of the leading figures of the cultural life of Denmark between the World Wars. In Denmark, he is referred to as PH. Poul Henningsen was the son of author Agnes Henningsen and satirist Carl Ewald. He spent a childhood in a tolerant and modern home in Ordrup which was often visited by the leading literates. Between 1911 and 1917 he was educated as an architect, but he never graduated and tried himself as an inventor and his most valuable contribution to design was in the field of lighting. He designed the PH-lamp in 1925, like his designs, used carefully analyzed reflecting and baffling of the light rays from the bulb to achieve glare-free. His light fixtures were manufactured by Louis Poulsen and his best-known models are the PH Artichoke and PH5. The lamps created the foundation of his work. Other notable designs include the PH Grand Piano which is included in several notable 20th-century design collections and he designed Glassalen for Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen.
During the 1920s Poul Henningsen had his literary breakthrough and he edited the polemic left wing periodical Kritisk Revy in which he and his colleagues scorned old-fashioned style and cultural conservatism, linking these themes to politics. At the same time he began as a revue writer praising natural behaviour, sexual broad-mindedness and he was the man who made the Danish revues a political weapon of the left wing without giving up its character of entertainment. 1933 he edited his most famous work Hvad med Kulturen, a polemic and urgent criticism of Danish cultural life and its snobism and passion of the past in spite of all the efforts of the Modern Break-Through. He tried to make parallels between prudery and fascist leanings and he accused the Social Democrats of lacking a firm. This book together with his activities as a whole made him a reputation as a semi-communist fellow traveller, in this period he in fact stood near the communists without joining them. He took part in the anti-fascist propaganda, always trying to connect culture, among his other initiatives of this period was Danmarksfilmen 1935, known as PH’s Danmarksfilm.
It is an unpretentious and untraditional film portraying the life in contemporary Denmark in a lively and slightly disrespectful way in which the visuals are supported by jazz rhythms. It was condemned and torn apart by most critics but on it has become rehabilitated as one of the classic Danish documentary films and he wrote some movie manuscripts. During World War II and the German Occupation of Denmark he kept a lower profile and fled to Sweden in 1943, however he kept writing and debating, and during the 1960s the new generation in many ways made him something of a guru
The Carlsberg Group is a brewing company founded in 1847 by J. C. The companys first headquarters were located in Copenhagen, since Jacobsens death in 1887, the majority owner of the company has been the Carlsberg Foundation. The companys flagship brand is Carlsberg Beer but it brews Tuborg, Somersby cider, Russias best-selling beer Baltika, Belgian Grimbergen abbey beers, and more than 500 local beers. After merging with the assets of Norwegian conglomerate Orkla ASA in January 2001. After a failed attempt by Orkla, Carlsberg became the sole owner after purchasing Orklas share in the brewery in 2004. It is the leading beer seller in Russia with about a 40 percent share of the market, in 2009 Carlsberg ranked fourth worldwide, and employed around 45,000 people. Carlsberg was founded by J. C, Jacobsen, a philanthropist and avid art collector. With his fortune he amassed an art collection which is now housed in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek in central Copenhagen. The first brew was finished on 10 November 1847, and the export of Carlsberg beer began in 1868 with the export of one barrel to Edinburgh, Jacobsens son Carl opened a brewery in 1882 named Ny Carlsberg forcing him to rename his brewery Gamle Carlsberg.
The companies were merged and run under Carls direction in 1906, Jacobsen set up the Carlsberg Laboratory in 1875, which worked on scientific problems related to brewing. It featured a Department of Chemistry and a Department of Physiology, the species of yeast used to make pale lager, Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, was isolated by Emil Christian Hansen at the laboratory in 1883 and bears its name, this was shared freely by Carlsberg. The Carlsberg Laboratory developed the concept of pH and made advances in protein chemistry, in 1972, the Carlsberg Research Centre was established and the Carlsberg Laboratory is now an independent unit of the Centre. Because of a conflict with his son Carl, Jacobsens brewery was left to the Foundation upon his death in 1887, the first brewery to be built outside Denmark was in Blantyre, Malawi in 1968. Carlsberg merged with Tuborg breweries in 1970 forming the United Breweries AS, Carlsberg became the sole owner of Carlsberg-Tetley in 1997. In 2008 Carlsberg Group, together with Heineken, bought Scottish & Newcastle, in 2013 the company joined leading alcohol producers as part of a producers commitments to reducing harmful drinking.
The old brewery in Copenhagen is currently open for tours, famous visitors have included Winston Churchill in 1950, Queen Elizabeth II in 1957, and Yuri Gagarin in 1962. The Carlsberg Group divides their operations into three areas, Northern & Western Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia. Baltic Beverages Holding is currently owned by Carlsberg, previously, it was a joint venture between Carlsberg and Scottish & Newcastle in Russia
Finn Juhl was a Danish architect and industrial designer, most known for his furniture design. He was one of the figures in the creation of Danish design in the 1940s. He was admitted to the Architecture School at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts where from 1930 to 1934 he studied under Kay Fisker, after graduating, Juhl worked for ten years at Vilhelm Lauritzens architectural firm, where he had apprenticed as a student. In 1943 he received the C. F, in 1945 he left Vilhelm Lauritzens company and set up his own design practice, in Nyhavn in Copenhagen, specializing in interior and furniture design. However, his work in furniture design began earlier than that, his early chairs were originally produced in small numbers, eighty at most, because the Guild-shows emphasized the work of the artisan over the burgeoning industry of mass production. However, they were almost all reissued in his career, the projects was highly controversial and Juhls first work met much criticism. His Pelican chair, designed in 1939 and first produced in 1940, was described as a tired walrus, in spite of the initial criticism, Juhls work began to influence the style of homes abroad throughout the 40s.
In 1948 Edgar Kaufmann, Jr. leader of the Department for Industrial Design at Merchandise Mart in New York and he intentionally did not visit only the big Scandinavian exhibitions, but being impressed by Juhls work he presented it in a large article in the Interiors magazine. In 1951 he participated in the Good Design exhibition in Chicago, in connection with the show he was quoted in Interiors for stating that One cannot create happiness with beautiful objects, but one can spoil quite a lot of happiness with bad ones. At the Milan Triennale in the 50s, he won a total of five gold medals, during this decade he continued to design more specifically for the mass market than had been the case in the 40s. In the 60s and 70s he experienced a declining interest in his designs, in the 80s and 90s the interest resurged. In 1951–52 he designed the Trusteeship Council Chamber in the United Nations headquarters in New York City and he collaborated regularly with companies such as Georg Jensen and Scandinavian Airlines, his work for the latter including both ticket offices and interiors of planes.
He had assignments as an exhibition designer. In 1942 Juhl designed a house for himself, today simply as Finn Juhls House. Over the years it was furnished with creations of his own design. He married Inge-Marie Skaarups on 15 July 1937 but they divorced, from 1961 he lived in a common-law marriage with Hanne Wilhelm Hansen, a member of the family behind the Edition Wilhelm Hansen music publishing house. Juhl was a teacher at the School of Interior Design in Copenhagen from 1945 to 1955, in 1965 he was a visiting professor at the Institute of Design. Juhl gave an edge to the lines of wooden modernist chairs