Shirley Mae Jones is an American singer and actress. In her six decades of show business, she has starred as wholesome characters in a number of well-known musical films, such as Oklahoma!, The Music Man. She won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for playing a vengeful prostitute in Elmer Gantry, she played the lead role of Shirley Partridge, the widowed mother of five children, in the musical situation-comedy television series The Partridge Family, which co-starred her real-life stepson, David Cassidy, son of Jack Cassidy. Jones was born on March 31, 1934, in Charleroi, Pennsylvania, to Methodist parents Marjorie, a homemaker, Paul Jones, owners of the Jones Brewing Company. Jones' paternal grandfather came from Wales, she was named for child star Shirley Temple. The family moved to the small nearby town of Smithton, Pennsylvania. Jones began singing at the age of six in the Methodist Church choir and took voice lessons from Ralph Lewando. Upon attending South Huntingdon High School in Ruffs Dale, she participated in school plays.
Jones won the Miss Pittsburgh contest in 1952. Her first audition was for an open biweekly casting call held by John Fearnley, casting director for Rodgers and Hammerstein and their various musicals. At the time, Jones had never heard of Hammerstein. Fearnley was so impressed, he ran across the street to fetch Richard Rodgers, rehearsing with an orchestra for an upcoming musical. Rodgers called Oscar Hammerstein at home; the two saw great potential in Jones. She became the only singer to be put under personal contract with the songwriters, they first cast her in a minor role in South Pacific. For her second Broadway show, Me and Juliet, she started as a chorus girl, an understudy for the lead role, earning rave reviews in Chicago. Jones impressed Rodgers and Hammerstein with her musically trained voice, she was cast as the female lead in the film adaptation of their hit musical Oklahoma! in 1955. Other film musicals followed, including Carousel, April Love, The Music Man, in which she was typecast as a wholesome, kind character.
However, she won a 1960 Academy Award for her performance in Elmer Gantry portraying a woman corrupted by the title character played by Burt Lancaster. Her character becomes a prostitute who encounters her seducer years and takes her revenge; the director, Richard Brooks, had fought against her being in the movie, but after seeing her first scene, told her she would win an Oscar for her performance. She was reunited with Ron Howard in The Courtship of Eddie's Father. Jones landed the role of a lady. In 1970, after turning down the role of Carol Brady on The Brady Bunch, a role that went to her best friend, Florence Henderson, Jones was the producers' first choice to audition for the lead role of Shirley Partridge in The Partridge Family, an ABC musical sitcom based loosely on the real-life musical family The Cowsills; the series focused on a young widowed mother whose five children form a pop rock group after the entire family painted its signature bus to travel. She was convinced that the combination of comedy would be a surefire hit.
Jones realized, that: The problem with Partridge—though it was great for me and gave me an opportunity to stay home and raise my kids—when my agents came to me and presented it to me, they said if you do a series and it becomes a hit show, you will be that character for the rest of your life and your film career will go into the toilet, what happened. But I have no regrets. During its first season, it was screened in over 70 countries. Within months and her co-stars were pop culture television icons, her real-life 20-year-old stepson David Cassidy, an unknown actor at the time, played Shirley Partridge's eldest son Keith and became a teen idol. The show spawned a number of albums and singles by The Partridge Family, performed by David Cassidy and Shirley Jones; that same year, "I Think I Love You" reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 music chart, making Jones the second person, after Frank Sinatra, the first woman to win an acting Oscar and have a number-one hit on that chart, an achievement only matched by Cher and Barbra Streisand.
The Partridge Family won a NARM award for the best-selling single of the year in 1970 for their hit "I Think I Love You". In 1971, The Partridge Family was nominated for a Grammy under the Best New Artist category. By 1974, it was one of six series to be canceled that year to make room for new shows. Shirley Jones's friendship with David Cassidy's family began in the mid-to-late 1950s, when David was just six, after he learned about his father's divorce from his mother Evelyn Ward. Upon David's first meeting with Shirley before co-starring with her on The Partridge Family, he said, "The day he tells me that they're divorced, he tells me,'We're remarried, let me introduce you to my new wife.' He was thrilled when her first film, Oklahoma!, had come out. She's a warm, sweet, good human being, she couldn't have thawed it for me—the coldness and the ice—any more than she did." Shirley was shocked to hear her real-lif
Professional wrestling is a form of performance art and entertainment that combines athletics with theatrical performance. It takes the form of events, held by touring companies; the unique form of sport portrayed is fundamentally based on classical and "catch" wrestling, with modern additions of striking attacks, strength-based holds and throws and acrobatic maneuvers. Much of these derive from the influence of various international martial arts. An additional aspect of combat with improvised weaponry is sometimes included to varying degrees; the matches have predetermined outcomes to heighten entertainment value and all combative maneuvers are executed with the full cooperation of those involved and performed in specific manners intended to lessen the chance of actual injury. These facts were once kept secret but are now a accepted open secret. To promote and sustain the willing suspension of disbelief by maintaining an aura of verisimilitude, the performing company avoids discussing the true nature of the performance in official media.
Fan communications by individual wrestlers and promotions through outside media directly acknowledge the dramatic and "fixed" nature of the spectacle. Originating as a popular form of entertainment in 19th-century Europe and as a sideshow exhibition in North American traveling carnivals and vaudeville halls, professional wrestling grew into a standalone genre of entertainment with many diverse variations in cultures around the globe, is now a billion dollar entertainment industry. Since the 1980s, local forms have declined in Europe, wrestling from North America has experienced several different periods of prominent cultural popularity during its century and a half of existence and has been exported back to Europe to fill the cultural gap left by the aforementioned decline of local versions; the advent of television gave professional wrestling a new outlet, wrestling was instrumental in making pay-per-view a viable method of content delivery. Show wrestling has become prominent in Central/North America and Europe.
In Brazil, there was a popular wrestling television program from the 1960s to the early 1980s called Telecatch. High-profile figures in the sport have become celebrities or cultural icons in their native or adopted home countries. Although professional wrestling started out as small acts in sideshows, traveling circuses and carnivals, today it is a billion-dollar industry. Revenue is drawn from ticket sales, network television broadcasts, pay-per-view broadcasts, branded merchandise and home video. Pro wrestling was instrumental in making pay-per-view a viable method of content delivery. Annual shows such as WrestleMania, Bound for Glory, Wrestle Kingdom and Starrcade are among the highest-selling pay-per-view programming each year. In modern day, internet programming has been utilized by a number of companies to air web shows, internet pay per views or on-demand content, helping to generate internet-related revenue earnings from the evolving World Wide Web. Home video sales dominate the Billboard charts Recreational Sports DVD sales, with wrestling holding anywhere from 3 to 9 of the top 10 spots every week.
Due to its persistent cultural presence and to its novelty within the performing arts, wrestling constitutes a recurring topic in both academia and the media. Several documentaries have been produced looking at professional wrestling, most notably, Beyond the Mat directed by Barry W. Blaustein, Wrestling with Shadows featuring wrestler Bret Hart and directed by Paul Jay. There have been many fictional depictions of wrestling; the largest professional wrestling company worldwide is the United States-based WWE, which bought out many smaller regional companies in the late 20th century, as well as its primary US competitors World Championship Wrestling and Extreme Championship Wrestling in early 2001. Other prominent professional wrestling companies worldwide include the US-based Impact Wrestling known as Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, Ring of Honor; when talking about professional wrestling, there are two levels: the "in-show" happenings that are presented through the shows, happenings which are outside the scope of performance but have implications on the performance, such as performer contracts, legitimate injuries, etc.
Because actual events are co-opted by writers for incorporation into storylines for the performers, the lines are blurred and become confused. Special care must be taken; the actions of the character should be considered fictional events, wholly separate from the life of the performer. This is similar to other entertainers; some wrestlers would incorporate elements of their real-life personalities into their characters if they and their in-ring persona have different names. Historians are unsure at what point wrestling changed from competitive catch wrestling into worked entertainment; those who participated felt that maintenance of a constant and complete illusion for all who were not involved was necessary to keep audience interest. For decades, wrestlers lived their public lives; the pra
Richard Wagstaff Clark was an American radio and television personality, television producer and film actor, as well as a cultural icon who remains best known for hosting American Bandstand from 1957 to 1988. He hosted the game show Pyramid and Dick Clark's New Year's Rockin' Eve, which transmitted Times Square's New Year's Eve celebrations. Clark was well known for his trademark sign-off, "For now, Dick Clark — so long!", accompanied by a facsimile of a military salute. As host of American Bandstand, Clark introduced roll to many Americans; the show gave many new music artists their first exposure to national audiences, including Iggy Pop, Ike & Tina Turner, Smokey Robinson and the Miracles, Stevie Wonder, Talking Heads, Simon & Garfunkel and Madonna. Episodes he hosted were among the first in which blacks and whites performed on the same stage, among the first in which the live studio audience sat without racial segregation. Singer Paul Anka claimed that Bandstand was responsible for creating a "youth culture".
Due to his perennial youthful appearance and his teenaged audience of American Bandstand, Clark was referred to as "America's oldest teenager" or "the world's oldest teenager". In his off-stage roles, Clark served as Chief Executive Officer of Dick Clark Productions, he founded the American Bandstand Diner, a restaurant chain modeled after the Hard Rock Cafe. In 1973, he created and produced the annual American Music Awards show, similar to the Grammy Awards. Clark suffered a stroke in December 2004. With speech ability impaired, Clark returned to his New Year's Rockin' Eve show a year on December 31, 2005. Subsequently, he appeared at the 58th Primetime Emmy Awards in 2006, every New Year's Rockin' Eve show through the 2011–12 show, he died at the age of 82, following prostate surgery. Clark was born and raised in Mount Vernon, New York, to Richard Augustus Clark and Julia Fuller Clark nee Barnard, his only sibling, older brother Bradley, was killed in the Battle of the Bulge during World War II.
Clark attended A. B. Davis High School in Mount Vernon, where he was an average student. At age 10, Clark decided to pursue a career in radio. In pursuit of that goal, he attended Syracuse University in Syracuse, New York, graduating in 1951 with a degree in advertising and a minor in radio. While at Syracuse, he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity. In 1945, Clark began his career working in the mailroom at WRUN, an AM radio station in Rome, New York, owned by his uncle and managed by his father, he was asked to fill in for the vacationing weatherman, within a few months he was announcing station breaks. While attending Syracuse, Clark worked at WOLF-AM a country music station. After graduation, he returned to WRUN for a short time. After that, Clark got a job at the television station WKTV in New York, his first television-hosting job was on Cactus Dick and the Santa Fe Riders, a country-music program. He replaced Robert Earle as a newscaster. In addition to his announcing duties on radio and television, Clark owned several radio stations.
From 1964 to 1978, he owned KPRO in California under the name Progress Broadcasting. In 1967, he purchased KGUD-AM-FM in California. In 1952, Clark moved to Drexel Hill, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia, where he took a job as a disc jockey at radio station WFIL, adopting the Dick Clark handle. WFIL had an affiliated television station with the same call sign, which began broadcasting a show called Bob Horn's Bandstand in 1952. Clark was responsible for a similar program on the company's radio station, served as a regular substitute host when Horn went on vacation. In 1956, Horn was subsequently dismissed. On July 9, 1956, Clark became the show's permanent host. Bandstand was picked up by the ABC television network, renamed American Bandstand, debuted nationally on August 5, 1957; the show took off, due to Clark's natural rapport with the live teenage audience and dancing participants as well as the non-threatening image he projected to television audiences. As a result, many parents were introduced to roll music.
According to Hollywood producer Michael Uslan, "he was able to use his unparalleled communication skills to present rock'n roll in a way, palatable to parents."In 1958, The Dick Clark Show was added to ABC's Saturday night lineup. By the end of year, viewership exceeded 20 million, featured artists were "virtually guaranteed" large sales boosts after appearing. In a surprise television tribute to Clark in 1959 on This Is Your Life, host Ralph Edwards called him "America’s youngest starmaker," and estimated the show had an audience of 50 million. Clark moved the show from Philadelphia to Los Angeles in 1964; the move was related to the popularity of new "surf" groups based in Southern California, including The Beach Boys and Jan and Dean. The show ran daily Monday through Friday until 1963 weekly on Saturdays until 1987. Bandstand was revived in 1989, with Clark again serving as host. By the time of its cancellation, the show had become longest-running variety show in TV history. In the 1960s, the show's emphasis changed from playing records to including live performers.
During this period, many of the leading rock groups of the 1960s had their first exposure to nationwide audiences. A few of the many artists introduced were Ike and Tina Turner, Smokey Robinson and the Miracles, The Beach Boys
The View (talk show)
The View is an American talk show, conceived by broadcast journalist Barbara Walters. It has aired on ABC as part of the network's daytime programming block since August 11, 1997; the show features a multi-generational panel of women, who discuss the day's "Hot Topics" such as sociopolitical and entertainment news. In addition to the conversation segments, the panel conducts interviews with prominent figures, such as celebrities and politicians. Production of the show was held in ABC Television Studio 23 in New York City. In 2014, it relocated to ABC Broadcast Center in New York City. Throughout its run, The View has had a total of 22 permanent co-hosts of varying characteristics and ideologies, with the number of contracted permanent co-hosts ranging between four and eight women per season; the original panel comprised Walters, broadcast journalist Meredith Vieira, attorney Star Jones, then-newcomer Debbie Matenopoulos, comedian Joy Behar, while the current line-up consists of Behar, entertainer Whoopi Goldberg, attorney Sunny Hostin, television personalities Meghan McCain and Abby Huntsman.
Furthermore, the show makes use of male and female guest panelists, including the addition of television personality Ana Navarro as a weekly guest co-host in season 22. The View has won 30 Daytime Emmy Awards, including Outstanding Talk Show and Outstanding Talk Show Host; the show has received positive reviews from The New York Times, Entertainment Weekly, New York Post, HuffPost. Beginning in 2007, the show became subject to on-air controversies and media criticism due to frequent changes in its panel of co-hosts, subsequently causing a decline in ratings. In 2014, the show was transferred from the helm of the entertainment division to that of ABC News, which led to a viewership growth and warmer critical response. In 2017, the show became the only broadcast daytime program to see a rise in its overall audience from the previous season; the original opening credits for the show featured voice-over from broadcast journalist as well as the show's creator and executive producer Barbara Walters explaining the show's premise as well as its co-hosts' credentials: Walters described the show as "a talk show featuring four or five women'of different backgrounds, different generations, different opinions,' who would discuss the topics of the day, mixing humor with intelligent debate."
The show begins with a segment where the panel engages in a discussion pertaining to subjects ranging from politics to social issues as well as pop culture referred to as "Hot Topics." Every episode features multiple "Hot Topics" segments, which take up to most–if not all–of the day's show. The discussions are followed by an interview with a guest a celebrity promoting a project; the show periodically conducts audience giveaways. Every show is ended by one of the co-hosts the moderator, delivering the closing remarks, "Have a great day and take a little time to enjoy the view."The twelfth season of The View focused on the events related to the 2008 United States presidential election and its aftermath. The show's thirteenth season saw the introduction male guest panelists. Male personalities have since begun serving as guest co-hosts more specifically on Fridays, dubbed "Guy Day Friday." After Walters' retirement, the show was perceived to have been veering away from political discussions. Leading to the 2016 United States presidential election, the show began refocusing on politics and has reincorporated it back into "Hot Topics" discussions since.
During its first 17 seasons, The View was filmed at 320 West 66th Street in ABC Television Studio 23 in New York City. The original set for the first four seasons was a leftover set from a cancelled soap opera The City; as a co-executive producer of the show, Walters plays a part in the casting of the co-hosts. Longtime executive producer Bill Geddie was the lone recurring male persona, sometimes shown as stepping out from behind the camera to interact with the panel; the co-hosts wear IFB earpieces. The View's eighteenth season brought significant on-air and behind-the-scenes changes in what was regarded as a "reinvention" of the show. In August 2014, ABC announced that Geddie was departing the show and that he was to be replaced by Bill Wolff, who had served as vice president of primetime programming and as executive producer of The Rachel Maddow Show at MSNBC. Production of the show relocated to the ABC Broadcast Center at 77 West 66th Street on the Upper West Side of Manhattan. During the season premiere on September 15, 2014, the show unveiled its new studio featuring a coffee table-style desk with low-arm chairs, a large video wall, in-the-round audience seating, an on-camera social media station.
Subsequent tweaks included a glass desk and high stools at center stage, as well as color adjustments in backgrounds and graphics. On October 30, 2014, ABC announced that responsibilities for production oversight on The View would shift from ABC's daytime entertainment division to Lincoln Square Productions, an ABC News subsidiary, where the show will be grouped under the division's non-fiction programming umbrella; the move allowed the show to leverage ABC News' resources toward news-related segments. In August 2015, it was reported that former Late Show with David Letterman producer Brian Teta would be joining the show as co-executive producer. In the month, executive producer Wolff was announced to be departing the show. During season 19, the show introduced an aftershow entitled After the View, available through live streaming. In Feb
A talk show or chat show is a television programming or radio programming genre in which one person discusses various topics put forth by a talk show host. Guests consist of a group of people who are learned or who have great experience in relation to whatever issue is being discussed on the show for that episode. Other times, a single guest discusses their area of expertise with a host or co-hosts. A call-in show takes live phone calls from callers listening at home, in etc.. Sometimes, guests are seated but are introduced and enter from backstage. There have been many notable talk show hosts. There are several major formats of talk shows; each subgenre predominates during a specific programming block during the broadcast day. Breakfast chat or early morning shows that alternate between news summaries, political coverage, feature stories, celebrity interviews, musical performances. Late morning chat shows that feature two or more hosts or a celebrity panel, focus on entertainment and lifestyle features.
Daytime tabloid talk shows featuring a host, a guest or a panel of guests, a live audience that interacts extensively with the host and guests. These shows may feature celebrities, political commentators, or "ordinary" people who present unusual or controversial topics. "Lifestyle" or self-help programs, which feature a host or hosts who are medical practitioners, therapists, or counselors, guests who seek intervention, describe medical or psychological problems, or offer advice. Evening panel discussion shows which focus on politics, or popular culture. Late-night talk shows that feature celebrity guests who talk about their work and personal lives as well as their latest films, TV shows, music recordings, or other projects they'd like to promote to the public; the hosts are comedians who open the shows with comedy monologues. Sunday morning talk shows are a staple of network programming in North America, focus on political news and interviews with elected political figures and candidates for office and journalists.
Aftershows which feature in-depth discussion about a program on the same network that aired just before. Spoof talk shows, such as Space Ghost Coast to Coast and Eric Nite Live, Comedy Bang! Bang!, The Eric Andre Show, where the interviews are scripted, shown in a humorous and satirical way, or the show engages in subverting the norms of the format. These formats are not absolute. Syndicated "daytime" shows may appear overnight in some markets, some afternoon programs have similar structures to late night talk shows; these formats may vary across different markets. Late night talk shows are significant in the United States. Breakfast television is a staple of British television; the daytime talk format has become popular in Latin America as well as the United States. Talk-radio host Howard Stern hosted a talk show, syndicated nationally in the USA moved to satellite radio's Sirius; the tabloid talk show genre, pioneered by Phil Donahue but popularized by Oprah Winfrey was popular during the last two decades of the 20th century.
Politics are hardly the only subject of American talk shows, however. Other radio talk show subjects include Car Talk hosted by NPR and Coast to Coast AM hosted by Art Bell and George Noory which discusses topics of the paranormal, conspiracy theories, fringe science, the just plain weird. Sports talk shows are very popular ranging from high-budget shows like The Best Damn Sports Show Period to Max Kellerman's original public-access television cable TV show Max on Boxing. Talk shows have been broadcast on television since the earliest days of the medium. Joe Franklin, an American radio and television personality, hosted; the show began in 1951 on WJZ-TV and moved to WOR-TV from 1962 to 1993. NBC's The Tonight Show is the world's longest-running talk show; the show underwent some minor title changes until settling on its current title in 1962, despite a brief foray into a more news-style program in 1957 and reverting that same year, it has remained a talk show. Ireland's The Late Late Show is the second-longest running talk show in television history, the longest running talk show in Europe, having debuted in 1962.
Steve Allen was the first host of The Tonight Show, which began as a local New York show, being picked up by the NBC network in 1954. It in turn had evolved from his late-night radio talk show in Los Angeles. Allen pioneered the format of late night network TV talk shows, originating such talk show staples as an opening monologue, celebrity interviews, audience participation, comedy bits in which cameras were taken outside the studio, as well as music, although the series' popularity was cemented by second host Jack Paar, who took over after Allen had left and the show had ceased to exist. TV news pioneer Edward R. Murrow hosted a talk show entitled Small World in the late 1950s and since political TV talk shows have predominantly aired on Sunday mornings. Syndicated daily talk shows began to gain more popularity during the mid-1970s and reached their height of popularity with the rise of the tabloid talk show. Morning talk shows replaced earlier forms of programming — there were a plethora of morning game shows during the 1960s and early to mid-1970s, some stations showed a morning movie in the time slot that many talk shows now occupy.
Current late night talk shows such as The Tonight Sh
Mark Richard Hamill is an American actor, voice actor, writer. Hamill is known for playing Luke Skywalker in the Star Wars films, which won him the Saturn Award for Best Actor twice, he is known for his voice acting in animation and video games for his portrayal of the Joker, beginning with Batman: The Animated Series in 1992. Hamill was born in Oakland, California, to Virginia Suzanne and U. S. Navy Captain William Thomas Hamill, he is one of seven children, having two brothers and Patrick, four sisters, Jan and Kim. His father has English, Scottish and Welsh ancestry and his mother was of half Swedish and half English descent, his father's changes of station and attendant family moves led to the Hamill children changing schools often. In his elementary years, he went to Poe Middle School. At age 11, he moved to the 5900 block of Castleton Drive in San Diego, where he attended Hale Junior High School. During his first year at James Madison High School, his family moved to Virginia, Hamill attended Annandale High School.
By his junior year, his father was stationed in Japan, where Hamill attended and was a member of the Drama Club at Nile C. Kinnick High School, from which he graduated in 1969, he enrolled at Los Angeles City College, majoring in drama. Hamill has described his father as a staunch Roman Catholic, "Nixon Republican". Hamill's early career included a recurring role on the soap opera General Hospital, a starring role on the short-lived sitcom The Texas Wheelers, he portrayed the oldest son, David, in the pilot episode of Eight Is Enough, though the role was performed by Grant Goodeve. He had guest appearances on The Bill Cosby Show, The Partridge Family, Room 222 and One Day at a Time, he appeared in multiple television films such as The City, Sarah T. - Portrait of a Teenage Alcoholic. Robert Englund was auditioning for a role in Apocalypse Now when he walked across the hall where auditions were taking place for George Lucas's Star Wars. After watching the auditions for a while, he realized that Hamill, his friend, would be perfect for the role of Luke Skywalker.
He suggested to Hamill. Released in May 1977, Star Wars was an enormous, unexpected success and had a huge effect on the film industry. Hamill appeared in the Star Wars Holiday Special in 1978 and starred in the successful sequels The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi. During the time between the first two films, Hamill was involved in a serious automobile accident, fracturing his nose and left cheekbone. False rumors spread. For both of the sequels, Hamill was honored with the Saturn Award for Best Actor given by the Academy of Science Fiction and Horror Films. Hamill reprised the role of Luke Skywalker for the radio dramatizations of both Star Wars and The Empire Strikes Back. For the Return of the Jedi radio drama, the role was played by a different actor. Editions of Joseph Campbell's The Hero with a Thousand Faces issued after the release of Star Wars in 1977 used the image of Hamill as Luke Skywalker on the cover. Hamill returned to the Star Wars universe in 2014, when he voiced the ancient Sith Lord Darth Bane, in the final episode of the animated series The Clone Wars.
He was nominated for a Daytime Emmy Award for his performance. With the acquisition of Lucasfilm by The Walt Disney Company, a Disney press release was announced that there would be more Star Wars films starting with Star Wars: The Force Awakens, released on December 18, 2015. Hamill appeared in Star Wars: The Force Awakens. Both Disney and Hamill were coy about whether Hamill would be a cast member of The Force Awakens. In September 2013, Englund and long-time friend of Hamill, said that Hamill was working out in the gym. Englund stated, "Mark now – they've got Mark in the gym because Mark's coming back as Luke Skywalker. They've got him doing his sit-ups." It was reported that both Hamill and Fisher had been assigned nutritionists and personal trainers to work with ahead of production. Hamill played Skywalker again in Star Wars: The Last Jedi, released on December 15, 2017. Hamill was critical of his own role in The Last Jedi, stating that he and director Rian Johnson had "a fundamental difference" on the characterization of Luke Skywalker.
Hamill is set to reprise his role as Skywalker in Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker. After the success of Star Wars, Hamill found that audiences identified him closely with the role of Luke Skywalker, after which he became a teen idol and appeared on teen magazine covers such as Tiger Beat and others, he attempted to avoid typecasting by appearing in the 1978 film Corvette Summer and the better-known 1980 World War II film The Big Red One. In 1980, he made a guest appearance on The Muppet Show, both as himself and as Luke Skywalker in The Stars of Star Wars. Other film appearances around this time include The Night the Lights Went Out in Georgia in 1981 and Britannia Hospital in 1982. To further distance himself from his early blockbuster role, Hamill started acting on Broadway, starring in plays such as The Elephant Man in 1979, Amadeus in 1983, Harrigan'N Hart in 1985, Room Service in 1986 and The Nerd in 1987–88; when Amadeus was adapted to film in 1984, Hamill auditioned to reprise the role for the big screen but lost the part to Tom Hulce.
A studio executive told the producers of the film, "I don't want Luke Skywalker in this film". He made television
Sabrina the Teenage Witch
Sabrina the Teenage Witch is a comic book series published by Archie Comics about the adventures of a fictional American teenager named Sabrina Spellman. Sabrina was created by writer George Gladir and artist Dan DeCarlo, first appeared in Archie's Madhouse #22. Storylines of the character at elementary-school-age appear under the title "Sabrina -- That Cute Little Witch" in all of the Little Archie comics; the series' premise is that Sabrina, a "half-witch" – her mother is an ordinary human, or "mortal" as witches refer to them, while her father is a witch – lives with her two aunts and Zelda Spellman, both witches themselves, in the fictional town of Greendale, located somewhere near Riverdale, the home of Archie Andrews. Living with the three women as the family pet is Salem Saberhagen, a witch who's been turned into a cat as punishment for world domination attempts. Sabrina's primary romantic interest is her mortal boyfriend Harvey Kinkle who, like nearly all the other mortals in Sabrina's world, is unaware his girlfriend is a witch.
Most of Sabrina's adventures consist of Sabrina either trying to use her powers in secret to help others – witches are not allowed to tell mortals about their abilities or existence – or dealing with the day-to-day trials of being a teenager. A recurring theme in Sabrina's stories is her learning more about the proper use of her powers, either through her aunts or from trips to a magical dimension, the home of various magical/mythological creatures, including other witches. Various names are given to this dimension; the comic's characters have appeared in various other media formats. The live-action sitcom, in which Sabrina discovers her powers at the age of sixteen, aired for seven seasons on ABC and the WB. Earlier, there had been an animated series produced by Filmation Associates. Another format was a series of paperback novels written by various authors, including Nancy Holder, Diana G. Gallagher, Mel Odom, as well as a late 1990s/early 2000s animated series set in the original Archie Comics continuity, where Sabrina knows about her powers while in junior high.
Sabrina the Teenage Witch debuted in Archie's Madhouse #22. Created by writer George Gladir and artist Dan DeCarlo, she first appeared in that humor anthology's lead story, became one of Archie Comics' major characters, appearing in an animated series and a television sitcom. Gladir recalled in 2007, "I think we both envisioned it as a one-shot and were surprised when fans asked for more. We continued to do Sabrina stories off and on in Mad House until 1969 when we were flabbergasted to hear it was to become an animated; when it came to naming Sabrina I decided to name her after a woman I recalled from my junior high school days..., active in school affairs, who assigned a number of us to interview prominent people in the media. In addition, the woman's name had a New England ring to it; some years I recalled the woman's name was not Sabrina, but Sabra Holbrook." Sabrina made regular appearances in the comic book Archie's TV Laugh-Out. The title was published from 1969 to 1985, consisted of 106 issues.
The first volume of Sabrina The Teenage Witch was published from 1971 to 1983, ran for 77 issues. A new "Sabrina" comic series was introduced shortly after the debut of the 1996 live-action sitcom; this series ran for 32 issues, between 1997 and December 1999. The new series incorporated elements from the live-action sitcom, including modernized fashions and appearances for the aunts, Sabrina's last name and Salem's personality and backstory. Starting in January 2000, Archie rebooted the series from #1, this time based upon the 2000 animated series; this new title was titled Sabrina and lasted for 37 issues. However, elements of the live-action sitcom were retained, along with the name of Sabrina's hometown from Sabrina the Animated Series being incorporated into the comics; the conventional setting lasted until issue #57, published in 2004, when the comic underwent a manga makeover. The series ended with issue #104 in September 2009. Sabrina occasionally appears in other Archie Comics as a visiting acquaintance of Archie, Betty Cooper, Veronica Lodge, Jughead Jones.
In Jughead #200, Sabrina reveals to Jughead that she's a witch, made use of in a follow-up story. Sabrina and Salem make a notable appearance in the 2012 Archie issue #636, where Salem, as a plot device, performs a spell that gender-bends the entire town of Riverdale without the characters noticing the change. Issue #28 of Sabrina, as well as the Sonic Super Special Crossover Chaos, featured a crossover with Sonic the Hedgehog, in which Sonic was brought to Greendale from Mobius by one of Sabrina's enemies and subsequently brainwashed into attacking Sabrina herself. In this issue, it is mentioned that Salem is a fan of Sonic and has all of his comics and watches Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog. In 2004, beginning with issue #58, the comics were taken over by Tania del Rio with her manga-inspired art and design style. Concurrent with this, the comic ceased to be c