Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, median household income in the United States, it is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital is Hartford and its most populous city is Bridgeport, it is part of New England, although portions of it are grouped with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-state area. The state is named for the Connecticut River which bisects the state; the word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for "long tidal river". Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutchmen who established a small, short-lived settlement called Fort Hoop in Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut Rivers. Half of Connecticut was part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, although the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English.
Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony. The Connecticut and New Haven colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter; this was one of the Thirteen Colonies. Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, the fourth most densely populated of the 50 states, it is known as the "Constitution State", the "Nutmeg State", the "Provisions State", the "Land of Steady Habits". It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States; the Connecticut River, Thames River, ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County. Landmarks and cities of Connecticut Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, on the east by Rhode Island.
The state capital and fourth largest city is Hartford, other major cities and towns include Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury, Danbury, New Britain and Bristol. Connecticut is larger than the country of Montenegro. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut; the highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut and New York meet, on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. At the opposite extreme, many of the coastal towns have areas that are less than 20 feet above sea level. Connecticut has a long maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront; the coast of Connecticut sits on Long Island Sound, an estuary. The state's access to the open Atlantic Ocean is both to the east; this situation provides many safe harbors from ocean storms, many transatlantic ships seek anchor inside Long Island Sound when tropical cyclones pass off the upper East Coast.
The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley. Despite Connecticut's small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape. Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast with its industrial cities such as Stamford and New Haven, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns in northeastern and northwestern Connecticut center around a green, such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green, Wethersfield Green. Near the green stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or inn, several colonial houses, so on, establishing a scenic historical appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism. Many of the areas in southern and coastal Connecticut have been built up and rebuilt over the years, look less visually like traditional New England.
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an 2.5 miles square detour into Connecticut. The origin of this anomaly is established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which were concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick's residents sought to leave Massachusetts, the town was split in half; the southwestern border of Connecticut where it abuts New York State is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, New Canaan and parts of Norwalk and Wilton. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating
Lake Nebagamon, Wisconsin
Lake Nebagamon is a village in Douglas County, United States. The population was 1,069 at the 2010 census. U. S. Highway 2, U. S. Highway 53, Wisconsin Highway 27 are located in the Lake Nebagamon area. County Road F, County Road P, County Road B are three of the main routes in the community; the name Nebagamon is derived from the Chippewa Indian phrase "Nee-bay-go-moh-win", translated as "place to hunt deer by fire on the water." Lake Nebagamon is located at 46°30′46″N 91°42′1″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 14.34 square miles, of which, 12.60 square miles of it is land and 1.74 square miles is water. Lake Nebagamon is located 26 miles east of the city of Superior; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,069 people, 446 households, 321 families residing in the village. The population density was 84.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 775 housing units at an average density of 61.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 95.9% White, 0.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.6% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.7% of the population. There were 446 households of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.8% were married couples living together, 5.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 28.0% were non-families. 21.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.75. The median age in the village was 47.5 years. 22.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 52.5% male and 47.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,015 people, 428 households, 294 families residing in the village; the population density was 80.2 people per square mile. There were 746 housing units at an average density of 58.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.52% White, 0.20% African American, 0.69% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 0.30% from other races, 0.20% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.79% of the population. There were 428 households out of which 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.3% were married couples living together, 6.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.1% were non-families. 27.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.85. In the village, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 4.0% from 18 to 24, 26.1% from 25 to 44, 29.5% from 45 to 64, 14.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.3 males. The median income for a household in the village was $48,333, the median income for a family was $59,792. Males had a median income of $41,302 versus $30,156 for females; the per capita income for the village was $23,665.
About 2.1% of families and 5.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.0% of those under age 18 and 4.2% of those age 65 or over. The village is the home of Camp Nebagamon, a boys' overnight camp founded in 1929; the camp is located on property owned by Weyerhauser Paper Company. Lake Nebagamon is one of the places claiming to be the home of the world's heaviest ball of twine; each year in early July, the town hosts a 5-mile run, known as the "Dragin' Tail Run." Starting at the town's Dairy Queen, the run allows contestants to see the entire town, which consists of Camp Nebagamon, a lake that serves as the town's namesake, Patti's Dockside Bar and Grill, Bridge's Indianhead Tavern, Sharon's Café, Lawn Beach Supper Club, Midland Market, the Imogene McGrath Memorial Library, three churches that the town houses, the Historic Lakefront Auditorium. Participants receive a T-shirt depicting a fireman using a dragon's tail as a fire hose, representing the Lake Nebagamon Fire Dept.'s heavy sponsorship of the event.
The 2009 race was held on July 4. The winner finished in 52 seconds, at a 5:22 mile pace. Noel Wien, Alaska aviator, was born in Lake Nebagamon. Nebagamon Community Association Nebagamon Lake Association
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Citi Field is a baseball park located in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in New York City. Completed in 2009, it is the home field of the New York Mets of the National League division of Major League Baseball; the stadium was built as a replacement for and adjacent to Shea Stadium, which opened in 1964 next to the site of the 1964 New York World's Fair. Citi Field was designed by Populous, is named after Citigroup, a New York financial services company which purchased the naming rights; the $850 million baseball park was funded with $615 million in public subsidies, including the sale of New York City municipal bonds which are to be repaid by the Mets plus interest. The payments will offset property taxes for the lifetime of the park; the Mets are receiving $20 million annually from Citibank in exchange for naming the stadium Citi Field. The first game at Citi Field was on March 29, 2009, with a college baseball game between St. John's and Georgetown; the Mets played their first two games at the ballpark on April 3 and 4, 2009 against the Boston Red Sox as charity exhibition games.
The first regular season home game was played on April 2009, against the San Diego Padres. Citi Field hosted the 2013 Major League Baseball All-Star Game, marking the second time the Mets have hosted the event. Since the 1990s, the Mets had been looking to replace Shea Stadium, it had been built as a multi-purpose stadium in 1964. While it had been retrofitted as a baseball-only stadium after the NFL's New York Jets left for Giants Stadium after the 1983 season, it was still not optimized for baseball, with seating located farther away from the playing field compared to other major league ballparks; the team unveiled a preliminary model of the ballpark in 1998. The Mets considered moving to Mitchel Field or Belmont Park in Nassau County, Long Island. In December 2001, shortly before leaving office, New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani announced "tentative agreements" for both the Mets and New York Yankees to build new stadiums. Of the $1.6 billion sought for the stadiums and state taxpayers would pick up half the tab for construction, $800 million, along with $390 million on extra transportation.
The plan said that the teams would be allowed to keep all parking revenues, which state officials had said they wanted to keep to compensate the state for building new garages for the teams. The teams would keep 96% of ticket revenues and 100% of all other revenues, not pay sales tax or property tax on the stadium, would get low-cost electricity from New York state. Business officials criticized the plan as giving too much money to successful teams with little reason to move to a different city. Michael Bloomberg, who succeeded Giuliani as mayor, exercised the escape clause in the agreements to back out of both deals, saying that the city could not afford to build new stadiums for the Mets and Yankees. Bloomberg said that unbeknownst to him, Giuliani had inserted a clause in this deal which loosened the teams' leases with the city and would allow the Mets and Yankees to leave the city on 60 days' notice to find a new home elsewhere if the city backed out of the agreement. At the time, Bloomberg said.
Under Bloomberg, the New York City government would only offer public financing for infrastructure improvements. Bloomberg called the former mayor's agreements "corporate welfare." Giuliani had been instrumental in the construction of taxpayer-funded minor league baseball facilities MCU Park for the Mets' minor league Brooklyn Cyclones and Richmond County Bank Ballpark for the Staten Island Yankees. The final plans for what is now Citi Field were created as part of the unsuccessful New York City 2012 Olympic bid. After plans for a West Side Stadium fell through, New York looked for an alternate stadium to host the opening and closing ceremonies and track and field; the Olympic Stadium project on the West Side was estimated to cost $2.2 billion, with $300 million provided by New York City and an additional $300 million from New York State. If New York had won the bid, Citi Field would have been expanded to Olympic events while the Mets would have played at Yankee Stadium in the Bronx for the 2012 season.
The projected cost of the new ballpark and other infrastructure improvements is $610 million, with the Mets picking up $420 million of that amount. The agreement includes a 40-year lease that will keep the Mets in New York until 2049; the Mets own the stadium through Queens Ballpark Company. On March 18, 2006, the New York Mets unveiled the official model for the new ballpark. By July 2006, initial construction of the new park was underway in the parking lot beyond Shea Stadium's left-field, with a projected finish ahead of Opening Day 2009 in late March. By April 13, 2008, all of the structure for the Jackie Robinson Rotunda was in place with the arched windows receiving their paneling and glass. By September 2008, most of the Citi Field signage had been installed. By December 1, 2008, all of the seats and the playing field had been installed. During the 2010 offseason, the bullpen area in right-center field underwent a complete renovation; when the edifice opened in time for the start of the 2009 MLB season, the Mets' bullpen was in front of the visiting bullpen, leading to an obstructed view of the field from the visiting bullpen, which the San Diego Padres complained about during the Mets' first regular-season home series.
The bullpens were turn
Catering is the business of providing food service at a remote site or a site such as a hotel, pub, cruise ship, filming site or studio, entertainment site, or event venue. The earliest account of major services being catered in the United States is a 1778 ball in Philadelphia catered by Caesar Cranshell to celebrate the departure of British General William Howe. Catering business began centering in Philadelphia. Catering became a profitable business; the early catering industry was disproportionately founded by African-Americans. The industry began to professionalize under the reigns of Robert Bogle, recognized as "the originator of catering." By 1840, the second generation of Philadelphia black caterers formed, who began to combine their catering businesses with restaurants they owned. Common usage of the word "caterer" came about in the 1880s at which point local directories began listing numerous caterers. White businessmen moved into the industry and by the 1930s, the black businesses had disappeared.
In the 1930s, the Soviet Union, creating more simple menus, began developing state public catering establishments as part of its collectivization policies. A rationing system was implemented during World War II, people became used to public catering. After the Second World War, many businessmen embraced catering as an alternative way of staying in business after the war. By the 1960s, the home-made food was overtaken by eating in public catering establishments. By the 2000s, personal chef services started gaining popularity, with more women entering the workforce. People between 15 and 24 years of age spent as little as 11-17 minutes daily on food preparation and clean-up activities in 2006-2016, according to figures revealed by the American Time Use Survey conducted by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. A mobile caterer serves food directly from a vehicle, cart or truck, designed for the purpose. Mobile catering is common at outdoor events such as concerts and downtown business districts. Seat-back catering was a service offered by some charter airlines in the United Kingdom that involved embedding two meals in a single seat-back tray.
"One helping was intended for each leg of a charter flight, but Alan Murray, of Viking Aviation, had earlier revealed that'with the ingenious use of a nail file or coin, one could open the inbound meal and have seconds'. The intention of participating airlines was to "save money, reduce congestion in the cabin and give punters the chance to decide when to eat their meal". By requiring less galley space on board, the planes could offer more passenger seats. According to TravelUpdate's columnist, "The Flight Detective", "Salads and sandwiches were the usual staples," and "a small pellet of dry ice was put into the compartment for the return meal to try to keep it fresh." However, in addition to the fact that passengers on one leg were able to consume the food intended for other passengers on the following leg, there was a "food hygiene" problem, the concept was discontinued by 1975. Merchant ships – ferries, cruise liners, large cargo ships - carry Catering Officers. In fact, the term "catering" was in use in the world of the merchant marine long before it became established as a land-bound business.
A wedding caterer provides food to the wedding party. The wedding caterer can be part of a package designed by the venue. Aircraft ground handling Airline meal Food trucks Gastronorm sizes Online food ordering
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Alpha Delta Phi
Alpha Delta Phi known as Alpha Delt, ADPhi, or ADP, is a North American Greek-letter secret and social college fraternity. Alpha Delta Phi was founded as a literary society by Samuel Eells in 1832 at Hamilton College in Clinton, New York, its more than 50,000 alumni include former presidents and senators of the United States, justices of the Supreme Court. In 1992, five chapters withdrew from the male-only organization to become gender-inclusive, formed the Alpha Delta Phi Society, a separate and independent organization; when Samuel Eells arrived on campus at Hamilton College, he found two existing literary societies, the Phoenix and the Philopeuthian, the latter of which he reluctantly joined. Eells became disenchanted with both societies' unscrupulous recruiting tactics and considered creating his own society which would disavow what he described as jealous and angry competition between the two. Eells proposed to select members from both the Phoenix and the Philopeuthian and found a new society of limited membership based on "the loftiest of intellectual and moral ideals."
On October 29, 1832, Eells gathered four other members, two from the Phoenix and two from the Philopeuthian, to a meeting in his room. The other men were Lorenzo Latham, John Curtiss Underwood, Oliver Andrew Morse and Henry Lemuel Storrs. At that meeting Eells wrote the constitution and he and Latham designed the fraternity's emblem and symbols. In the year, other members were added and the first chapter of the Alpha Delta Phi was in full operation by the beginning of 1833. Alpha Delta Phi was the first fraternity to establish a chapter west of the Appalachian Mountains when it formed a chapter at Miami University in 1835; this chapter preceded the formation of three national fraternities at Miami University known as the Miami Triad in the years that followed. The Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity is a charter member of the North-American Interfraternity Conference. A Brother of Alpha Delta Phi, Hamilton W. Mabie, was the first President of the NIC; the Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity is today still a member of the NIC.
Alpha Delta Phi is both a literary society. As part of this focus, the Samuel Eells Literary and Educational Foundation makes educational grants and sponsors annual literary competitions, which award cash prizes. In August 2015, the fraternity had 31 chapters and 3 affiliates, the oldest of, at Hamilton College, its regional alumni organization, the Midwest Association of Alpha Delta Phi, is more than 125 years old. Alpha Delta Phi has the third oldest continuously-operating chapter in the North American Fraternity System, the second oldest Alpha chapter, placed at Hamilton College. At Yale University, it was brothers of Alpha Delta Phi who were invited to join the university's top-ranked senior society Skull and Bones. Issues with the number of Alpha Delta Phis tapped for Skull and Bones led to the creation of Yale's second society and Key. Students at Harvard formed a chapter of Alpha Delta Phi but disaffiliated to form the independent final club, the A. D. In 1877, the Cornell University chapter's alumni group built its first house for the undergraduates, described as the "first house in America built for fraternity use."
The chapter has since moved to a different location on campus - into a house designed by John Russell Pope - but the original chapter house and built by William Henry Miller, still stands. Alpha Delta Phi's Dartmouth College chapter was the inspiration for National Lampoon's Animal House; the movie was co-written by Doug Kenney. Miller based his writings on his own fraternity experiences at the chapter; the chapter was affiliated with Alpha Delta Phi from 1846 until 1969, when it broke away from the national organization and formed an independent one, Alpha Delta. The Fraternity is a retronym used now to distinguish the all-male Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity from the gender-inclusive Alpha Delta Phi Society. In general parlance, the Fraternity refers to itself as the "Alpha Delta Phi"; the Brunonian chapter first initiated women into its local membership in November 1973, this was followed by a proposal at the 1974 national convention to either allow individual chapters to admit women or to do so fraternity-wide.
This debate was contentious, with most chapters opposed, some members lobbying for full admission of women, but a larger number wanting to ban women altogether or grant them some form of associate membership. In 1992, at the Fraternity's 160th Annual Convention held in Brainerd, Minnesota, an agreement allowed five chapters to withdraw from the fraternity and to allow those chapters wishing to be gender-inclusive to create their own organization, which resulted in the legal formation of two separate organizations, the all-male Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity and the Alpha Delta Phi Society, the latter of which granted each of its chapters "home rule" permission to determine its gender make-up. Under the terms of this agreement, the Fraternity and the Society would be separate and independent legal entities, with separate governing bodies; the two organizations were not part of the same entity and did not share membership, except for male members of the Society who joined before 1992. Both groups would be licensees who share the Greek letters and intellectual