A polymer is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits. Due to their broad range of properties, both synthetic and natural polymers play essential and ubiquitous roles in everyday life. Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers, their large molecular mass relative to small molecule compounds produces unique physical properties, including toughness, a tendency to form glasses and semicrystalline structures rather than crystals. The terms polymer and resin are synonymous with plastic; the term "polymer" derives from the Greek word πολύς and μέρος, refers to a molecule whose structure is composed of multiple repeating units, from which originates a characteristic of high relative molecular mass and attendant properties. The units composing polymers derive or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.
The term was coined in 1833 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius, though with a definition distinct from the modern IUPAC definition. The modern concept of polymers as covalently bonded macromolecular structures was proposed in 1920 by Hermann Staudinger, who spent the next decade finding experimental evidence for this hypothesis. Polymers are studied in the fields of biophysics and macromolecular science, polymer science. Products arising from the linkage of repeating units by covalent chemical bonds have been the primary focus of polymer science. Polyisoprene of latex rubber is an example of a natural/biological polymer, the polystyrene of styrofoam is an example of a synthetic polymer. In biological contexts all biological macromolecules—i.e. Proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides—are purely polymeric, or are composed in large part of polymeric components—e.g. Isoprenylated/lipid-modified glycoproteins, where small lipidic molecules and oligosaccharide modifications occur on the polyamide backbone of the protein.
The simplest theoretical models for polymers are ideal chains. Polymers are of two types: occurring and synthetic or man made. Natural polymeric materials such as hemp, amber, wool and natural rubber have been used for centuries. A variety of other natural polymers exist, such as cellulose, the main constituent of wood and paper; the list of synthetic polymers in order of worldwide demand, includes polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, synthetic rubber, phenol formaldehyde resin, nylon, polyacrylonitrile, PVB, many more. More than 330 million tons of these polymers are made every year. Most the continuously linked backbone of a polymer used for the preparation of plastics consists of carbon atoms. A simple example is polyethylene. Many other structures do exist. Oxygen is commonly present in polymer backbones, such as those of polyethylene glycol, DNA. Polymerization is the process of combining many small molecules known as monomers into a covalently bonded chain or network. During the polymerization process, some chemical groups may be lost from each monomer.
This happens in the polymerization of PET polyester. The monomers are terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol but the repeating unit is —OC—C6H4—COO—CH2—CH2—O—, which corresponds to the combination of the two monomers with the loss of two water molecules; the distinct piece of each monomer, incorporated into the polymer is known as a repeat unit or monomer residue. Laboratory synthetic methods are divided into two categories, step-growth polymerization and chain-growth polymerization; the essential difference between the two is that in chain growth polymerization, monomers are added to the chain one at a time only, such as in polyethylene, whereas in step-growth polymerization chains of monomers may combine with one another directly, such as in polyester. Newer methods, such as plasma polymerization do not fit neatly into either category. Synthetic polymerization reactions may be carried out without a catalyst. Laboratory synthesis of biopolymers of proteins, is an area of intensive research. There are three main classes of biopolymers: polysaccharides and polynucleotides.
In living cells, they may be synthesized by enzyme-mediated processes, such as the formation of DNA catalyzed by DNA polymerase. The synthesis of proteins involves multiple enzyme-mediated processes to transcribe genetic information from the DNA to RNA and subsequently translate that information to synthesize the specified protein from amino acids; the protein may be modified further following translation in order to provide appropriate structure and functioning. There are other biopolymers such as rubber, suberin and lignin. Occurring polymers such as cotton and rubber were familiar materials for years before synthetic polymers such as polyethene and perspex appeared on the market. Many commercially important polymers are synthesized by chemical modification of occurring polymers. Prominent examples inclu
James Martin (engineer)
Sir James Martin CBE DSc CEng FIMechE FRAeS was a Northern Irish engineer whom together with Captain Valentine Baker founded the Martin-Baker aircraft company, now a leading producer of aircraft ejection seats. James Martin was born 11 September 1893 in Glasswater Road, County Down in Ireland, Northern Ireland, he established his own engineering firm in 1929. In 1934, he and Valentine Baker formed Martin-Baker, it was in a crash of the MB 3, that Baker was killed. In 1964 Martin was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Aero Club. In 2004, Martin was inducted into the International Air & Space Hall of Fame at the San Diego Air & Space Museum. Martin's contribution to engineering was commemorated by the Northern Bank in its Inventor series of banknotes, which featured his portrait on the bank's £100 note; the note was discontinued in 2013 when the bank reissued its banknotes under the new Danske Bank brand. Https://web.archive.org/web/20120618182525/http://www.martin-baker.com/Sub-Navigation/History/Sir-James-Martin.aspx
Danske Bank A/S is a Danish bank. It was founded 5 October 1871 as Hypothek - og Vexelbank i København. Headquartered in Copenhagen, it is the largest bank in Denmark and a major retail bank in the northern European region with over 5 million retail customers. Danske Bank was number 454 on the Fortune Global 500 list for 2011; the Danske Bank group operates a number of local banks around the Nordic Region as well as across Ireland. The Danske Bank branches in Baltic states began operating in 2008 after Finnish Sampo Bank was acquired by Danske Bank Group in 2007 for €4.05 billion. In 2018 April Danske Bank announced. In 2014, The Estonian Financial Supervision Authority found "large-scale, long-lasting systemic violations of anti-money laundering rules" in the Estonian branch of Danske Bank and notified the Danish authorities on the findings. According to the Estonian Financial Supervision Authority, the activities decreased after they requested the bank to target the violations. In October 2017, Danske Bank confirmed that French authorities were investigating the bank's involvement in money laundering.
On 31 July 2018, Estonia's prosecutor general, Lavly Perling, opened a criminal investigation following allegations that the bank had facilitated large-scale money laundering through its Estonian branch. On 19 September 2018, Danske Bank confirmed that Thomas Borgen, CEO of the bank, would resign due to the money laundering scandal. In September, Denmark's Financial Supervisory Authority reopened its investigation of the bank, the United Kingdom's National Crime Agency announced that it was investigating the use of UK-registered companies. In October, the bank confirmed that the United States Department of Justice had launched a criminal investigation. In November, Danish prosecutors filed four preliminary charges against the bank. In February 2019, the Estonian Financial Supervisory Authority ordered the bank to cease its operations in the country within 8 months. In 2015 Danske Bank established an IT service centre for its group of companies, Danske Group IT Lietuva, in Vilnius.. During the past years, Danske Bank has employed more than 2,300 employees in Lithuania.
In 2019, Danske Bank announced its intentions of ceasing all banking operations in Lithuania, but keeping the local back-office active for internal activities. Danske Bank Sampo Bank, is Danske Bank's Finnish operations. Danske Bank Finland traces its origins back to 1887, to Postisäästöpankki, a bank associated with the national post office, which accepted deposits from the public at post offices. In 1970, the company was renamed Postipankki. In 1997, the company merged with Suomen Vientiluotto to form Leonia Pankki. Leonia Pankki was merged with Sampo Insurance in 1999, in 2001 was renamed Sampo Pankki. In 2007, there was a demerger: Danske Bank acquired Sampo's banking business while Sampo Group retained its insurance business; the purchase of Sampo Pankki by Danske Bank with €4 billion was the largest purchase in cash to date in Finland. Danske Bank's Northern Irish subsidiary was founded as the Northern Banking Partnership in Belfast in 1809, it became Northern Bank in 1970, after merging with the Belfast Banking Company.
Northern Bank was one of the Big Four banks in Ireland. Danske Bank bought the bank from National Australia Bank in December 2004, Northern Bank continued to operate under its own name until it took on the name of its parent company as its trading name in November 2012; the bank is considered one of the leading retail banks in Northern Ireland with 44 branches and three business centres. Danske Bank is one of the four commercial banks in Northern Ireland which are permitted to issue their own banknotes. Danske Bank's Irish subsidiary was known as the National Irish Bank, was the Republic of Ireland branch network of Northern Bank, one of the oldest banks in Ireland. National Irish Bank was created as a separate entity in 1986, at first under the name Northern Bank Limited, when its owners, UK-based Midland Bank, separated Northern Bank's operations in the Republic of Ireland from its Northern Ireland business. In 1987, both banks were acquired by National Australia Bank. In 1988 the Republic of Ireland operation was renamed National Irish Bank Limited whilst Northern Bank Limited remained the name of the Northern Ireland operation.
Nonetheless, a single management team continued to run both banks, which shared many services and back office functions. During this era, the logo of the National Irish Bank was that of the National Australia Bank, except that the red star had been recoloured green, "Irish Bank" was added alongside the word "National"; the original Northern Bank logo had been the Midland Bank griffin. On 10 May 2012, Danske Bank announced that Northern Bank and National Irish Bank would be merged on 1 June 2012, under the Northern Bank management team and the Danske Bank name reversing the separation between the two; the rebrand was completed on 18 November 2012. At the time the bank closed its 27 branches to focus on private clients. On 31 October 2013 Danske Bank announced it would be withdrawing all personal banking services in the Republic of Ireland on a phased basis in the first half of 2014. Danske Bank has set up its own captive technology centre in India called Danske IT Services India Pvt Ltd. Authorities in Denmark, Estonia and the United Kingdom have launched investigations related to large-scale money laundering through Danske Bank.
In 2018 the bank faced a criminal investigation from the
Samuel Cleland Davidson
Sir Samuel Cleland Davidson, KBE was a British inventor and engineer. Through his career in the tea import business he invented and patented a number of industrial machines and developed the earliest air conditioning systems, he founded the Sirocco Works in Belfast in 1881. Davidson was born in County Down on 18 November 1846, the youngest child of a family of Ulster Scots, he was educated at the Royal Belfast Academical Institution and left at the age of 15 to work at a Belfast civil engineering firm, William Hastings. As a teenager he gained experience as an apprentice to a surveyor in Belfast, visited his uncle John Davidson's flax mill in Drumaness the first in Ulster to be equipped with power machinery, he became familiar with John's experimental approach using scientific methods to increase crop yields in flax farming for the linen industry. These early experiences gave Sam a lifelong appreciation for learning through personal hands-on experience, innovation in commercial agriculture and engineering.
In 1864 he left his job to work for his father, James Davidson who owned a flour mill close to the site of the Sirocco works. The Indian government had discovered wild tea growing in the Assam region and was determined to initiate a massive tea-growing operation there with the potential to generate huge wealth for the British Empire as it consolidated its hold on the economy of India; the opportunity to have its own tea industry and become less dependent on importing the Empire's favourite drink from China was too important to ignore. The government paid for and organised clearing the forest and the planting and management of tea'gardens', as the large plantations were called. Once they were established they were sold to private investors to consolidate and expand, develop a commercially viable industry. Samuel's father and uncle set up a business importing tea and bought a share in a tea estate in Cachar, 300 miles north-east of Calcutta in India. Samuel's cousin James went to India to manage the estate and invited 17 year old Samuel and some other local young men to join him.
Samuel Davidson gained a reputation as a hard working and successful estate manager. He applied his agricultural and engineering knowledge to improve crop yields, to begin mechanising every stage of the archaic and labour-intensive processes involved in turning plucked tea leaves into a marketable product of consistent quality; as a person who had not pursued higher education at home, Samuel's innovations came about through persistent experimentation, his greatest successes were sometimes counter-intuitive to the assumptions of engineers at the time. Not knowing that what he was trying to achieve with centrifugal fans was considered impossible by more educated mechanical engineers turned out to be a great blessing; when he travelled to America to prove to sceptical patent authorities that his design worked he said "An ounce of fact is worth a ton of theory." He sold the property in India in 1874 and returned to Ireland where he began to manufacture his patented tea machinery with Combe and Coombe of Belfast.
After a year of manufacturing the first versions of his tea machinery in Belfast, Samuel returned to India in 1878 and toured the major centres of tea production with a portable tea factory which he set up in each remote location to demonstrate to the planters what his products could achieve. The orders started to flood in and his machines became the standard for the whole industry over the following years, his expertise in every aspect of the industry was so respected that tea companies paid him to spend time in each area he took his factory to making assessments of the local estates and recommendations for how they could best raise their productivity. He paid for the trip by selling hundreds if another invention of his - a simple wheeled hoe which the planters loved. In 1881 he started his own manufacturing operation in Belfast; the success of his innovative use of stoves to move hot air led him to develop a convection heating system for use in human environments, by the end of the 1880s his Sirocco stoves were in popular use in schools, church halls and workrooms.
He developed his invention further with the introduction in 1898 of a forward-bladed centrifugal fan, more powerful than conventional fan designs. This innovation designed for drying tea, evolved into the first air conditioning system; the powerful force of moving hot air across a room with one of his centrifugal fans led one of Davidson's planter colleagues to remark that it reminded him of the Sirocco, the hot wind that blows across the North African desert, Davidson adopted Sirocco as his brand name, applying it to his products and to the firm's Belfast factory, the Sirocco Engineering Works. Davidson & Co grew into one of the largest engineering firms in Ireland and exporting equipment for cooling, dust collecting, ventilating, pneumatic conveyance, mechanical handling, all invented by Davidson himself, he supplied ventillation fans for the Titanic, built next door to the Sirocco works at the Harland and Wolff shipyard, have been photographed on the wreck. During World War I the Sirocco works supplied the Royal Merchant Navy.
When the German fleet was scuttled at Scapa Flow in 1919, it was discovered that nearly every German ship was equipped with Sirocco fans manufactured before the war. Desperate to use his inventing skills to aid the war effort in World War 1, he designed and made prototypes of a hand-held grenade-launching pistol or'Hand Howit
A promissory note, sometimes referred to as a note payable, is a legal instrument, in which one party promises in writing to pay a determinate sum of money to the other, either at a fixed or determinable future time or on demand of the payee, under specific terms. The terms of a note include the principal amount, the interest rate if any, the parties, the date, the terms of repayment and the maturity date. Sometimes, provisions are included concerning the payee's rights in the event of a default, which may include foreclosure of the maker's assets. For loans between individuals and signing a promissory note are instrumental for tax and record keeping. A promissory note alone is unsecured; the term note payable is used in accounting or as just a "note", it is internationally defined by the Convention providing a uniform law for bills of exchange and promissory notes, but regional variations exist. A banknote is referred to as a promissory note, as it is made by a bank and payable to bearer on demand.
Mortgage notes are another prominent example. If the promissory note is unconditional and saleable, it is called a negotiable instrument. Demand promissory notes are notes that do not carry a specific maturity date, but are due on demand of the lender; the lender will only give the borrower a few days' notice before the payment is due. Promissory notes may be used in combination with security agreements. For example, a promissory note may be used in combination with a mortgage, in which case it is called a mortgage note. In common speech, other terms, such as "loan", "loan agreement", "loan contract" may be used interchangeably with "promissory note"; the term "loan contract" is used to describe a contract, lengthy and detailed. A promissory note is similar to a loan; each is a binding contract to unconditionally repay a specified amount within a defined time frame. However, a promissory note is less detailed and less rigid than a loan contract. For one thing, loan agreements require repayment in installments, while promissory notes do not.
Furthermore, a loan agreement includes the terms for recourse in the case of default, such as establishing the right to foreclose, while a promissory note does not. Promissory notes differ from IOUs in that they contain a specific promise to pay along with the steps and timeline for repayment as well as consequences if repayment fails. IOUs only acknowledge. Negotiable instruments are unconditional and impose few to no duties on the issuer or payee other than payment. In the United States, whether a promissory note is a negotiable instrument can have significant legal impacts, as only negotiable instruments are subject to Article 3 of the Uniform Commercial Code and the application of the holder in due course rule; the negotiability of mortgage notes has been debated due to the obligations and "baggage" associated with mortgages. In the United States, the Non-Negotiable Long Form Promissory Note is not required. Promissory notes are a common financial instrument in many jurisdictions, employed principally for short time financing of companies.
The seller or provider of a service is not paid upfront by the buyer, but within a period of time, the length of, agreed upon by both the seller and the buyer. The reasons for this may vary. Depending on the jurisdiction, this deferred payment period can be regulated by law; when a company engages in many of such transactions, for instance by having provided services to many customers all of whom deferred their payment, it is possible that the company may be owed enough money that its own liquidity position is hampered, finds itself unable to honour their own debts, despite the fact that by the books, the company remains solvent. In those cases, the company has the option of asking the bank for a short-term loan, or using any other such short-term financial arrangements to avoid insolvency. However, in jurisdictions where promissory notes are commonplace, the company can ask one of its debtors to accept a promissory note, whereby the maker signs a binding agreement to honour the amount established in the promissory note within the agreed period of time.
The lender can take the promissory note to a financial institution, that will exchange the promissory note for cash. Once the promissory note reaches its maturity date, its current holder can execute it over the emitter of the note, who would have to pay the bank the amount promised in the note. If the maker fails to pay, the bank retains the right to go to the company that cashed the promissory note in, demand payment. In the case of unsecured promissory notes, the lender accepts the promissory note based on the maker's ability to repay. In the case of a secur
The Space Shuttle was a reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the Space Shuttle program, its official program name was Space Transportation System, taken from a 1969 plan for a system of reusable spacecraft of which it was the only item funded for development. The first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982. In addition to the prototype whose completion was cancelled, five complete Shuttle systems were built and used on a total of 135 missions from 1981 to 2011, launched from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Operational missions launched numerous satellites, interplanetary probes, the Hubble Space Telescope; the Shuttle fleet's total mission time was 19 hours, 21 minutes and 23 seconds. Shuttle components included the Orbiter Vehicle with three clustered Rocketdyne RS-25 main engines, a pair of recoverable solid rocket boosters, the expendable external tank containing liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen.
The Space Shuttle was launched vertically, like a conventional rocket, with the two SRBs operating in parallel with the OV's three main engines, which were fueled from the ET. The SRBs were jettisoned before the vehicle reached orbit, the ET was jettisoned just before orbit insertion, which used the orbiter's two Orbital Maneuvering System engines. At the conclusion of the mission, the orbiter fired its OMS to re-enter the atmosphere; the orbiter glided as a spaceplane to a runway landing to the Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida or Rogers Dry Lake in Edwards Air Force Base, California. After landing at Edwards, the orbiter was flown back to the KSC on the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, a specially modified Boeing 747; the first orbiter, was built in 1976, used in Approach and Landing Tests and had no orbital capability. Four operational orbiters were built: Columbia, Challenger and Atlantis. Of these, two were lost in mission accidents: Challenger in 1986 and Columbia in 2003, with a total of fourteen astronauts killed.
A fifth operational orbiter, was built in 1991 to replace Challenger. The Space Shuttle was retired from service upon the conclusion of Atlantis's final flight on July 21, 2011; the U. S. has since relied on the Russian Soyuz spacecraft to transport astronauts to the International Space Station, pending the Commercial Crew Development and Space Launch System programs on schedule for first flights in 2019 and 2020. The Space Shuttle was a reusable human spaceflight vehicle capable of reaching low Earth orbit and operated by the U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration from 1981 to 2011, it resulted from shuttle design studies conducted by NASA and the U. S. Air Force in the 1960s and was first proposed for development as part of an ambitious second-generation Space Transportation System of space vehicles to follow the Apollo program in a September 1969 report of a Space Task Group headed by Vice President Spiro Agnew to President Richard Nixon. Nixon's post-Apollo NASA budgeting withdrew support of all system components except the Shuttle, to which NASA applied the STS name.
The vehicle consisted of a spaceplane for orbit and re-entry, fueled from an expendable External Tank containing liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, with two reusable strap-on solid rocket boosters. The first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982, all launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida; the system was retired from service in 2011 after 135 missions, with Atlantis making the final launch of the three-decade Shuttle program on July 8, 2011. The program ended after Atlantis landed at the Kennedy Space Center on July 21, 2011. Major missions included launching numerous satellites and interplanetary probes, conducting space science experiments, servicing and construction of space stations; the first orbiter vehicle, named Enterprise, was used in the initial Approach and Landing Tests phase but installation of engines, heat shielding, other equipment necessary for orbital flight was cancelled. A total of five operational orbiters were built, of these, two were destroyed in accidents.
It was used for orbital space missions by NASA, the U. S. Department of Defense, the European Space Agency and Germany; the United States funded Shuttle development and operations except for the Spacelab modules used on D1 and D2—sponsored by Germany. SL-J was funded by Japan. At launch, it consisted of the "stack", including the dark orange external tank; some payloads were launched into higher orbits with either of two different upper stages developed for the STS. The Space Shuttle was stacked in the Vehicle Assembly Building, the stack mounted on a mobile launch platform held down by four frangible nuts on each SRB, which were detonated at launch; the Shuttle stack launched vertically like a conventional rocket. It lifted off under the power of its two SRBs and three main engines, which were fueled by liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen from the ET; the Space Shuttle had a two-stage ascent. The SRBs provided additional thrust during first-stage flight. About two minutes after liftoff, frangible nuts were fired, releasing the SRBs, which parachuted into the ocean, to
Crocker National Bank
Crocker National Bank was a United States bank headquartered in San Francisco, California. It was acquired by and merged into Wells Fargo Bank in 1986; the bank traces its history to the Woolworth National Bank in San Francisco. Charles Crocker, one of The Big Four of the Central Pacific Railroad and who constructed America's First Transcontinental Railroad, acquired a controlling interest in Woolworth for his son William Henry Crocker; the bank was renamed Crocker Woolworth National Bank Crocker-Anglo Bank, Crocker-Citizens National Bank Crocker First National Bank and Crocker National Bank. It had many branches in the northern half of California. In 1963, Crocker-Anglo Bank merged with Los Angeles' Citizens National Bank, to become Crocker-Citizens Bank, and Crocker Bank. In the 1970s and early 1980s, Crocker cultivated a reputation for customer service and convenience, including expanded hours; as a part of its promotional campaign, the bank gave "Crocker" Spaniel plush toys to parents who opened an account in the early 1980s.
It was one of the first California banks to offer automated teller machine service. One early television commercial showed a young businessman confidently using the machine, while speaking to it as if it were a person, he was followed by an elderly woman approaching it for the first time, greeting it with a uncertain "Hello." Crocker National Bank was purchased by the British financial institution Midland Bank in 1981, but after a series of financial losses it was sold on to Wells Fargo Bank in 1986. Crocker's president and over eighty vice presidents left the bank after the merger. A Carmichael, California branch of the bank was robbed by several members of the Symbionese Liberation Army on April 21, 1975. A 42-year-old woman named Myrna Opsahl was killed during the robbery when SLA member Emily Harris fired her shotgun. In the early 1970s Crocker ran a series of television commercials produced by Hal Riney, featuring a commissioned song "We've Only Just Begun," written by Paul Williams and Roger Nichols.
This was re-recorded by The Carpenters and sold as a single: it became the duo's signature song. The ads showed three pivotal moments in a young couple's life: their wedding, a husband's first day at a new job, the first home move for a family with a small boy; the commercials ended with the tag line ``. We'd like to help you get there; the Crocker Bank." As of January 2012 Wells maintains the Crocker name as a current federally registered trademark at its "Crocker Office Branch" at 1 Montgomery St. San Francisco, California in a wall display of the Crocker Bank history. Scott Adams worked at Crocker during his first years in the business world, it is said to have inspired the evil Bank of Ethel in Adams' Dilbert comic strip. A Crocker Bank sign appears in the movie Death Wish 2 as Paul Kersey is trying to get home from the Mental Hospital murder. Appears in the Clint Eastwood movie “Sudden Impact” 47:02 James Sterngold. "4 Former Radicals Are Charged In 1975 Killing in Bank Robbery". The New York Times.
Retrieved 1 February 2011. 1970 famous wedding commercial featuring the song "We've Only Just Begun" Nightclub opens in a former Crocker branch: Crocker Club LA Times report on Crocker Bank history Picture of the ornate lobby at Crocker Bank and Post Streets, San Francisco