Ballet is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the fifteenth century and developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread technical form of dance with its own vocabulary based on French terminology, it has been globally influential and has defined the foundational techniques used in many other dance genres and cultures. Ballet has been taught in various schools around the world, which have incorporated their own cultures and as a result, the art has evolved in a number of distinct ways. See glossary of ballet. A ballet, a work, consists of the music for a ballet production. Ballets are performed by trained ballet dancers. Traditional classical ballets are performed with classical music accompaniment and use elaborate costumes and staging, whereas modern ballets, such as the neoclassical works of American choreographer George Balanchine are performed in simple costumes and without the use of elaborate sets or scenery.
Ballet is a French word which had its origin in Italian balletto, a diminutive of ballo which comes from Latin ballo, meaning "to dance", which in turn comes from the Greek "βαλλίζω", "to dance, to jump about". The word came into English usage from the French around 1630. Ballet originated in the Italian Renaissance courts of the sixteenth centuries. Under Catherine de' Medici's influence as Queen, it spread to France, where it developed further; the dancers in these early court ballets were noble amateurs. Ornamented costumes were meant to impress viewers, but they restricted performers' freedom of movement; the ballets were performed in large chambers with viewers on three sides. The implementation of the proscenium arch from 1618 on distanced performers from audience members, who could better view and appreciate the technical feats of the professional dancers in the productions. French court ballet reached its height under the reign of King Louis XIV. Louis founded the Académie Royale de Danse in 1661 to establish standards and certify dance instructors.
In 1672, Louis XIV made Jean-Baptiste Lully the director of the Académie Royale de Musique from which the first professional ballet company, the Paris Opera Ballet, arose. Pierre Beauchamp served as Lully's ballet-master. Together their partnership would drastically influence the development of ballet, as evidenced by the credit given to them for the creation of the five major positions of the feet. By 1681, the first "ballerinas" took the stage following years of training at the Académie. Ballet started to decline in France after 1830, but it continued to develop in Denmark and Russia; the arrival in Europe of the Ballets Russes led by Sergei Diaghilev on the eve of the First World War revived interest in the ballet and started the modern era. In the twentieth century, ballet had a wide influence on other dance genres, Also in the twentieth century, ballet took a turn dividing it from classical ballet to the introduction of modern dance, leading to modernist movements in several countries. Famous dancers of the twentieth century include Anna Pavlova, Galina Ulanova, Rudolf Nureyev, Maya Plisetskaya, Margot Fonteyn, Rosella Hightower, Maria Tall Chief, Erik Bruhn, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Suzanne Farrell, Gelsey Kirkland, Natalia Makarova, Arthur Mitchell.
Stylistic variations and subgenres have evolved over time. Early, classical variations are associated with geographic origin. Examples of this are Russian ballet, French ballet, Italian ballet. Variations, such as contemporary ballet and neoclassical ballet, incorporate both classical ballet and non-traditional technique and movement; the most known and performed ballet style is late Romantic ballet. Classical ballet is based on vocabulary. Different styles have emerged in different countries, such as French ballet, Italian ballet, English ballet, Russian ballet. Several of the classical ballet styles are associated with specific training methods named after their creators; the Royal Academy of Dance method is a ballet technique and training system, founded by a diverse group of ballet dancers. They merged their respective dance methods to create a new style of ballet, unique to the organization and is recognized internationally as the English style of ballet; some examples of classical ballet productions are: the Nutcracker.
Romantic ballet was an artistic movement of classical ballet and several productions remain in the classical repertoire today. The Romantic era was marked by the emergence of pointe work, the dominance of female dancers, longer, flowy tutus that attempt to exemplify softness and a delicate aura; this movement occurred during the early to mid-nineteenth century and featured themes that emphasized intense emotion as a source of aesthetic experience. The plots of many romantic ballets revolved around spirit women who enslaved the hearts and senses of mortal men; the 1827 ballet La Sylphide is considered to be the first, the 1870 ballet Coppélia is considered to be the last. Famous ballet dancers of the Romantic era include Marie Taglioni, Fanny Elssler, Jules Perrot. Jules Perrot is known for his choreography that of Giselle considered to be the most celebrated romantic ballet. Neoclassical ballet is abstract, with no clear plot, costumes or scenery. Music choice can be diverse and will include music, neoclassical.
A snare drum or side drum is a percussion instrument that produces a sharp staccato sound when the head is struck with a drum stick, due to the use of a series of stiff wires held under tension against the lower skin. Snare drums are used in orchestras, concert bands, marching bands, drumlines, drum corps, more, it is one of the central pieces in a drum set, a collection of percussion instruments designed to be played by a seated drummer and used in many genres of music. Snare drums are played with drum sticks, but other beaters such as the brush or the rute can be used to achieve different tones; the snare drum is a versatile and expressive percussion instrument due to its sensitivity and responsiveness. The sensitivity of the snare drum allows it to respond audibly to the softest strokes with a wire brush, its high dynamic range allows the player to produce powerful accents with vigorous strokes and a thundering crack when rimshot strokes are used. The snare drum originates from the tabor, a drum first used to accompany the flute.
The tabor evolved into more modern versions, such as the kit snare, marching snare, tarol snare, piccolo snare. Each type presents a different style of size; the snare drum that one might see in a popular music concert is used in a backbeat style to create rhythm. In marching bands, it can do the same but is used for a front beat. In comparison with the marching snare, the kit snare is smaller in length, while the piccolo is the smallest of the three; the snare drum is recognizable by its loud cracking sound when struck with a drumstick or mallet. The depth of the sound varies from snare to snare because of the different techniques and construction qualities of the drum; some of these qualities are head material and tension and rim and drum shell materials and construction. The snare drum is constructed of two heads—both made of plastic—along with a rattle of metal wires on the bottom head called the snares; the wires can be placed on the top, as in the tarol snare, or both heads as in the case of the Highland snare drum.
The top head is called the batter head because, where the drummer strikes it, while the bottom head is called the snare head because, where the snares are located. The tension of each head is held constant by tension rods. Tension rod adjustment allows the pitch and tonal character of the drum to be customized by the player; the strainer is a lever that engages or disengages contact between the snares and the head, allows snare tension adjustment. If the strainer is disengaged, the sound of the drum resembles a tom because the snares are inactive; the rim is the metal ring around the batter head, which can be used for a variety of things, although it is notably used to sound a piercing rimshot with the drumstick. The drum can be played by striking it with a drum stick or any other form of beater, including brushes and hands, all of which produce a softer-sounding vibration from the snare wires; when using a stick, the drummer may strike the head of the rim, or the shell. When the top head is struck, the bottom head vibrates in tandem, which in turn stimulates the snares and produces a cracking sound.
The snares can be thrown off with a lever on the strainer so that the drum produces a sound reminiscent of a tom-tom. Rimshots are a technique associated with snare drums in which the head and rim are struck with one stick. In contemporary and/or pop and rock music, where the snare drum is used as a part of a drum kit, many of the backbeats and accented notes on the snare drum are played as rimshots, due to the ever-increasing demand for their typical sharp and high-volume sound. A used alternative way to play the snare drum is known as cross stick or side stick; this is done by holding the tip of the drumstick against the drum head and striking the stick's other end against the rim, using the hand to mute the head. This produces a dry high-pitched click, similar to a set of claves, is common in Latin and jazz music. So-called "ghost notes" are light "filler notes" played in between the backbeats in genres such as funk and rhythm and blues; the iconic drum roll is produced by alternately bouncing the sticks on the drum head, striving for a controlled rebound.
A similar effect can be obtained by playing alternating double strokes on the drum, creating a double stroke roll, or fast single strokes, creating a single stroke roll. The snares are a fundamental ingredient in the pressed drum roll, as they help to blend together distinct strokes that are perceived as a single, sustained sound; the snare drum is the first instrument to learn in preparing to play a full drum kit. Rudiments are sets of basic patterns played on a snare drum. Snare drums may be made from various wood, acrylic, or composite, e.g. fiberglass materials. A typical diameter for snare drums is 14 in. Marching snare drums are deeper in size than snare drums used for orchestral or drum kit purposes measuring 12 in deep. Orchestral and drum kit snare drum shells are about 6 in deep. Piccolo snare drums are shallower at about 3 in deep. Soprano and firecracker snare drums have diameters as small as 8 in and are used for higher-pitched special effects. Most wooden snare drum shells are constructed in plies that are heat- and compression-moulded into a cylinder.
Steam-bent shells consist of one ply of wood tha
The harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard. Harps have been known since antiquity in Asia and Europe, dating back at least as early as 3500 BC; the instrument had great popularity in Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, where it evolved into a wide range of variants with new technologies, was disseminated to Europe's colonies, finding particular popularity in Latin America. Although some ancient members of the harp family died out in the Near East and South Asia, descendants of early harps are still played in Myanmar and parts of Africa, other defunct variants in Europe and Asia have been utilized by musicians in the modern era. Harps vary globally in many ways. In terms of size, many smaller harps can be played on the lap, whereas larger harps are quite heavy and rest on the floor. Different harps may use strings of catgut, metal, or some combination. While all harps have a neck and strings, frame harps have a pillar at their long end to support the strings, while open harps, such as arch harps and bow harps, do not.
Modern harps vary in techniques used to extend the range and chromaticism of the strings, such as adjusting a string's note mid-performance with levers or pedals which modify the pitch. The pedal harp is a standard instrument in the orchestra of the Romantic music era and the contemporary music era; the earliest harps and lyres were found in Sumer, 3500 BC, several harps were found in burial pits and royal tombs in Ur. The oldest depictions of harps without a forepillar can be seen adjacent to the Near East, in the wall paintings of ancient Egyptian tombs in the Nile Valley, which date from as early as 3000 BC; these murals show an instrument that resembles the hunter's bow, without the pillar that we find in modern harps. The chang flourished in Persia in many forms from its introduction, about 4000 BC, until the 17th century. Around 1900 BC arched harps in the Iraq–Iran region were replaced by angular harps with vertical or horizontal sound boxes. By the start of the Common Era, "robust, angular harps", which had become predominant in the Hellenistic world, were cherished in the Sasanian court.
In the last century of the Sasanian period, angular harps were redesigned to make them as light as possible. At the height of the Persian tradition of illustrated book production, such light harps were still depicted, although their use as musical instruments was reaching its end; the works of the Tamil Sangam literature describe the harp and its variants, as early as 200 BC. Variants were described ranging from 14 to 17 strings, the instrument used by wandering minstrels for accompaniment. Iconographic evidence in of the yaal appears in temple statues dated as early as 500 BC One of the Sangam works, the Kallaadam recounts how the first yaaḻ harp was inspired by an archer's bow, when he heard the musical sound of its twang. Another early South Asian harp was the ancient veena; some Samudragupta gold coins show of the mid-4th century AD show the king Samudragupta himself playing the instrument. The ancient veena survives today in the form of the saung harp still played there; the harp was popular in ancient China and neighboring regions, though harps are extinct in East Asia in the modern day.
The Chinese konghou harp is documented as early as the Spring and Autumn period, became extinct during the Ming Dynasty. A similar harp, the gonghu was played in ancient Korea, documented as early as the Goguryeo period. Harps are triangular and made of wood. Strings are made of gut or wire replaced in the modern day by nylon, or metal; the top end of each string is secured on the crossbar or neck, where each will have a tuning peg or similar device to adjust the pitch. From the crossbar, the string runs down to the sounding board on the resonating body, where it is secured with a knot, it is the distance between the tuning peg and the soundboard, as well as tension and weight of the string, which decide the pitch of the string. The body is hollow, when a taut string is plucked, the body resonates, projecting sound; the longest side of the harp is called the column or pillar, though some earlier harps, such as a "bow harp", lack a pillar. On most harps the sole purpose of the pillar is to hold up the neck against the great strain of the strings.
On harps which have pedals, the pillar is a hollow column and encloses the rods which adjust the pitches, which are levered by pressing pedals at the base of the instrument. On harps of earlier design, a given string can play only a single note without retuning. In many cases this means such a harp can only play in one key at a time and must be manually retuned to play in another key. Various remedies to this limitation evolved: the addition of extra strings to cover chromatic notes, addition of small levers on the crossbar which when actuated raise the pitch of a string by a set interval, or use of pedals at the base of the instrument which change the pitch of a string when pressed with the foot; these solutions increase the versatility of a harp at the cost of adding complexity and expense. While the angle and bow harps held popularity
The tuba is the largest and lowest-pitched musical instrument in the brass family. As with all brass instruments, the sound is produced by lip vibration into a large mouthpiece, it first appeared in the mid-19th century, making it one of the newer instruments in the modern orchestra and concert band. The tuba replaced the ophicleide. Tuba is Latin for'trumpet'. In America, a person who plays the tuba is known as a tubist. In the United Kingdom, a person who plays the tuba in an orchestra is known as a tuba player. Prussian Patent No. 19 was granted to Wilhelm Friedrich Wieprecht and Johann Gottfried Moritz on September 12, 1835 for a "bass tuba" in F1. The original Wieprecht and Moritz instrument used five valves of the Berlinerpumpen type that were the forerunners of the modern piston valve; the first tenor tuba was invented in 1838 by son of Johann Gottfried Moritz. The addition of valves made it possible to play low in the harmonic series of the instrument and still have a complete selection of notes.
Prior to the invention of valves, brass instruments were limited to notes in the harmonic series, were thus played high with respect to their fundamental pitch. Harmonics starting three octaves above the fundamental pitch are about a whole step apart, making a useful variety of notes possible; the ophicleide used a bowl-shaped brass instrument mouthpiece but employed keys and tone holes similar to those of a modern saxophone. Another forerunner to the tuba was the serpent, a bass instrument, shaped in a wavy form to make the tone holes accessible to the player. Tone holes changed the pitch by providing an intentional leak in the bugle of the instrument. While this changed the pitch, it had a pronounced effect on the timbre. By using valves to adjust the length of the bugle the tuba produced a smoother tone that led to its popularity. Adolphe Sax, like Wieprecht, was interested in marketing systems of instruments from soprano to bass, developed a series of brass instruments known as saxhorns; the instruments developed by Sax were pitched in E♭ and B♭, while the Wieprecht "basstuba" and the subsequent Cerveny contrabass tuba were pitched in F and C.
Sax's instruments gained dominance in France, in Britain and America, as a result of the popularity and movements of instrument makers such as Gustave Auguste Besson and Henry Distin. An orchestra has a single tuba, though an additional tuba may be requested, it serves as the bass of the orchestral brass section and it can reinforce the bass voices of the strings and woodwinds. It provides the bass of brass choirs, it is the principal bass instrument in concert bands, brass bands and military bands, those ensembles have two to four tubas. It is a solo instrument. Tubas are used in marching bands and bugle corps and in many jazz bands. In British style brass bands, two E ♭ and two B ♭ tubas are referred to as basses. Well known and influential parts for the tuba include: Modest Mussorgsky: Pictures at an Exhibition - Bydło, Night On Bald Mountain Richard Strauss: Also sprach Zarathustra, Eine Alpensinfonie, Till Eulenspiegel Shostakovich: All Symphonies, except for the Fourteenth symphony Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring, Petroushka Edgard Varèse: Déserts Richard Wagner: Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, Ride of the Valkyries, Faust Overture Sergei Prokofiev: Fifth Symphony George Gershwin: An American in Paris Silvestre Revueltas: Sensemayá, La noche de los mayas, Homenaje a Federico García Lorca Gustav Holst: The Planets Gustav Mahler: First Symphony, Second Symphony, Fifth Symphony, Sixth Symphony, Eighth Symphony Ottorino Respighi: Fountains of Rome, Pines of Rome Hector Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique, Hungarian March Paul Hindemith: Symphonic MetamorphosisConcertos have been written for the tuba by many notable composers, including Ralph Vaughan Williams, Edward Gregson, John Williams, Alexander Arutiunian, Eric Ewazen, James Barnes, Joseph Hallman, Martin Ellerby, Philip Sparke, Kalevi Aho, Josef Tal, Bruce Broughton and David Carlson.
Tubas are found in various pitches, most in F, E♭, C, or B♭. The main tube of a B♭ tuba is 18 feet long, while that of a C tuba is 16 feet, of an E♭ tuba 13 feet, of an F tuba 12 feet; the instrument has a conical bore, meaning the bore diameter increases as a function of the tubing length from the mouthpiece to the bell. The conical bore. A tuba with its tubing wrapped for placing the instrument on the player's lap is called a concert tuba or a tuba. Tubas with the bell pointing forward instead of upward are called recording tubas because of their popularity in the early days of recorded music, as their sound could more be directed at the recording microphone; when wrapped to surround the body for cavalry bands on horseback or marching, it is traditionally known as a hélicon. The modern sousaphone, named after American bandmaster John Philip Sousa, resembles a hélicon with the bell pointed up and curved to point forward; some ancestors of the tuba, such as the military bombardon, had unusual valve and bore arrangements compared to modern tubas.
During the Am
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Pierre Benjamin Monteux was a French conductor. After violin and viola studies, a decade as an orchestral player and occasional conductor, he began to receive regular conducting engagements in 1907, he came to prominence when, for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes company between 1911 and 1914, he conducted the world premieres of Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring and other prominent works including Petrushka, Ravel's Daphnis et Chloé, Debussy's Jeux. Thereafter he directed orchestras around the world for more than half a century. From 1917 to 1919 Monteux was the principal conductor of the French repertoire at the Metropolitan Opera in New York, he led the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Amsterdam Concertgebouw Orchestra, Orchestre Symphonique de Paris and San Francisco Symphony. In 1961, aged eighty-six, he accepted the chief conductorship of the London Symphony Orchestra, a post which he held until his death three years later. Although known for his performances of the French repertoire, his chief love was the music of German composers, above all Brahms.
He disliked recording, finding it incompatible with spontaneity, but he made a substantial number of records. Monteux was well known as a teacher. In 1932 he began a conducting class in Paris, which he developed into a summer school, moved to his summer home in Les Baux in the south of France. After moving permanently to the US in 1942, taking American citizenship, he founded a school for conductors and orchestral musicians in Hancock, Maine. Among his students in France and America who went on to international fame were Lorin Maazel, Igor Markevitch, Neville Marriner, Seiji Ozawa, André Previn and David Zinman; the school in Hancock has continued since Monteux's death. Pierre Monteux was born in Paris, the third son and the fifth of six children of Gustave Élie Monteux, a shoe salesman, his wife, Clémence Rebecca née Brisac; the Monteux family was descended from Sephardic Jews. The Monteux ancestors included at least one rabbi, but Gustave Monteux and his family were not religious. Among Monteux's brothers were Henri, who became an actor, Paul, who became a conductor of light music under the name Paul Monteux-Brisac.
Gustave Monteux was not musical, but his wife was a graduate of the Conservatoire de Musique de Marseille and gave piano lessons. Pierre took violin lessons from the age of six; when he was nine years old Monteux was admitted to the Conservatoire de Paris. He studied the violin with Jules Garcin and Henri Berthelier, composition with Charles Lenepveu, harmony and theory with Albert Lavignac, his fellow violin students included Carl Flesch, Fritz Kreisler and Jacques Thibaud. Among the piano students at the Conservatoire was Alfred Cortot, with whom he developed a lifelong friendship. At the age of twelve, Monteux organised and conducted a small orchestra of Conservatoire students to accompany Cortot in performances of concertos in and around Paris, he attended the world premiere of César Franck's Symphony in February 1889. From 1889 to 1892, while still a student, he played in the orchestra of the Folies Bergère. At the age of fifteen, while continuing his violin studies, Monteux took up the viola.
He studied with Benjamin Godard, with whom he performed in the premiere of Saint-Saëns's Septet, with the composer at the keyboard. Monteux joined the Geloso Quartet as violist. On another occasion he was the violist in a private performance of a Brahms quartet given before the composer in Vienna. Monteux recalled Brahms's remark; the Germans all play it much too heavily." Monteux remained a member of the Geloso Quartet until 1911. With Johannes Wolff and Joseph Hollman he played chamber music for Grieg. Years in his seventies, Monteux deputised with the Budapest Quartet without rehearsal or score. With her he played the complete Beethoven violin sonatas in public. Neither family approved of the marriage. There were a daughter from the union. During his formative years Monteux belonged to a group which toured with the Casadesus family of musicians and the pianist Alfredo Casella; the combination played supposed "ancient pieces" discovered in libraries by one or other of the Casadesus family. While still a student, in 1893 Monteux was successful in the competition for the chair of first viola of the Concerts Colonne, of which he became assistant conductor and choirmaster the following year.
This gave him a link via Édouard Colonne, to Berlioz. Colonne had known Berlioz, through the older conductor Monteux was able to mark his scores with notes based on the composer's intentions, he was employed on a freelance basis at the Opéra-Comique, where he continued to play from time to time for several years. In 1896 he graduated from the Conservatoir