Dar es Salaam is the largest city and former capital of Tanzania. It is the largest city in East Africa and the seventh-largest in Africa, with a population of 6,701,650. Located on the Swahili coast, Dar es Salaam is an important economic centre and one of the fastest growing cities in the world; until 1974, Dar es Salaam served as Tanzania's capital city, at which point the capital city commenced transferring to Dodoma, by order of then-president Julius Nyerere, completed in 1996. However, as of 2018, it remains a focus of central government bureaucracy, although this is in the process of moving to Dodoma, it is Tanzania's most prominent city in arts, media, music and television, is a leading financial centre. The city is the leading arrival and departure point for most tourists who visit Tanzania, including the national parks for safaris and the islands of Unguja and Pemba, it is the capital of the co-extensive Dar es Salaam Region, one of Tanzania's 31 administrative regions and consists of five districts: Kinondoni in the north, Ilala in the centre and Temeke in the south and Kigamboni in the east across the Kurasini creek.
In the 19th century, Mzizima was a coastal fishing village on the periphery of Indian Ocean trade routes. In 1865 or 1866, Sultan Majid bin Said of Zanzibar began building a new city close to Mzizima and named it Dar es Salaam; the name is translated as "abode/home of peace", based on the Arabic dar, the Arabic es salaam. Dar es Salaam fell into decline after Majid's death in 1870, but was revived in 1887 when the German East Africa Company established a station there; the town's growth was facilitated by its role as the administrative and commercial centre of German East Africa and industrial expansion resulting from the construction of the Central Railway Line in the early 1900s. German East Africa was captured by the British during World War I and became Tanganyika with Dar es Salaam remaining the administrative and commercial centre. Under British indirect rule, separate European and African areas developed at a distance from the city centre; the city's population included a large number of workers from British India, many of whom came to take advantage of the trade and commercial opportunities presented to them.
After World War II, Dar es Salaam experienced a period of rapid growth. Political developments, including the formation and growth of the Tanganyika African National Union, led to Tanganyika attaining independence from colonial rule in December 1961. Dar es Salaam continued to serve as its capital when in 1964 Tanganyika and People's Republic of Zanzibar merged to form Tanzania. In 1973, provisions were made to relocate the capital to Dodoma, a more centrally located city in the interior; the relocation process has not yet been completed, Dar es Salaam remains Tanzania's primary city. In 1967, the Tanzanian government declared the Ujamaa policy, which set Tanzania into a socialist path; the move slowed down the potential growth of the city as the government encouraged people not to move in cities but stay in Ujamaa socialist villages. However, by the 1980s the Ujamaa policy proved to be a failure in combating increasing poverty and hunger that Tanzania faced, delayed the development that it needed.
This led to the 1980s liberalization policy that ended socialism and its proponents within Tanzania's government. Until the late 1990s, Dar es Salaam was not put into the same category as Africa's leading cities like Nairobi, Lagos, or Addis Ababa; the 2000s became the turning point when the city experienced one of Africa's fastest urbanization rates. Businesses were opened and prospered, growth expanded in the construction sector with new multi-story buildings and roads, Tanzanian banks headquartered in the city began to be run with better regulation, the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange expanded and the Dar es Salaam harbour continued to be the most important in Tanzania; the port is prominent for entrepot trade with landlocked countries like eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Zambia. The CBD skyline hosts tall buildings, among them the 35-floor PSPF Tower, finished in 2015, the Tanzania Ports Authority Tower under construction. Dar es Salaam is located at 6°48' South, 39°17' East, on a natural harbour on the eastern coast of East Africa, with sandy beaches in some areas.
The region of Dar es Salaam is divided into five districts. Dar es Salaam Region is divided into five administrative districts. All five are governed as municipal councils, so all of the city's suburbs or wards are affiliated with them; the regional commissioner is Paul Makonda. Kinondoni is the most populated amongst the districts, with half of the city's population residing within it, it is home to high-income suburbs. These include: Masaki and Ada Estate are the high-income suburbs located along the central beach. During the Colonial Era, they were the major European suburbs of the city. Now diplomats and expatriates reside in these areas. Oysterbay Beach known as Coco Beach, is the only white sandy beach east of Kinondoni. Mikocheni and Regent Estate are suburbs within the district. According to the 2012 census, the Mikocheni ward had a population of 32,947. Msasani is a peninsula to the northeast of the city center, it is home to expatriates from other western countries. Msasani contains a mixture of western-oriented resorts and stores.
Mbezi Beach is the beachfront suburb located along the northern Dar es Salaam Beach. It contains s
Fortress is the fourth studio album by the American rock band Alter Bridge, released by Roadrunner Records on September 25, 2013. Michael Baskette, who produced Alter Bridge's previous two albums, Blackbird and AB III, returned as the producer, it was released by Roadrunner Records worldwide except in the United States, where it was self-released on October 8, 2013, through EMI. The lead single, "Addicted to Pain", was released on August 12, 2013; the album was acclaimed, with several critics calling it the band's best album to date and giving praise to each of the band members' musical skills displayed on the record. Fortress was recorded between July 2, 2013, at Studio Barbarosa in Orlando, Florida; the album was written over the three previous years while the band toured, as well as during Alter Bridge's hiatus due to singer Myles Kennedy touring with Slash, guitarist Mark Tremonti releasing his debut solo album All I Was, drummer Scott Phillips recording with his band Projected. In the month, Tremonti announced the band had approved the cover art and had mastered the new album.
In July, in an interview with MusicRadar.com Tremonti revealed that he would sing lead vocals on one track called "The Waters Rise", which appears on the album as "Waters Rising". The official track listing and cover art for Fortress was revealed on July 31, 2013 along with the track listing, consisting of twelve songs; the artwork was designed by Dan Tremonti. On August 4, the cover art for the lead single "Addicted to Pain" was revealed, a day the band confirmed that the lead single "Addicted to Pain" would be released on August 12, in Europe, on August 20, in the US; the single was made available for streaming a few days before release. On September 5, the official video for "Addicted to Pain" was released; the official video was shot by award-winning director Dan Catullo. On September 23, the band streamed the album in its entirety for a limited time on the Metal Hammer website as a UK exclusive. During an interview with Bravewords on October 24, Myles Kennedy stated that the Best Buy B-side track, "Outright", had been incorrectly titled.
During production, the working title of the song was "Outright Two" because it featured parts of an unreleased song recorded by the band called "Outright" during the Blackbird recording sessions. When it went into the mastering stage, the title of the new song was never changed and was incorrectly listed on the album as "Outright"; the song is titled "Never Say Die" and was listed with the correct title on printings. Fortress received critical acclaim upon its release, it holds a score of 81 out of 100 on the review aggregator Metacritic, indicating "universal acclaim". Allmusic gave the album 4 out of 5 stars, saying, "Fortress is a driving album that not only doesn't feel tired or stale, but is a monster of an album that makes a pretty solid case for being some of Alter Bridge's strongest and most dynamic work to date." In their review, International Business Times proclaimed the album "a delight to the ears". Melodic said, " ability is undeniable at this point, Fortress proves they are one of the best rock/metal acts of today's generation and only moving forward."
Rock Sins stated that "Alter Bridge are the hard rock band the world needs and with Fortress they have their invitation to the top table of rock music" and gave the album a 9/10 score. Kerrang! gave the album a perfect 5/5 score, saying that "on Fortress, with Myles and Mark both operating at the peak of their powers, there may be no limit to where Alter Bridge can go from here." Classic Rock praised the album, ending their review with "Myles Kennedy says he never wants to be the guy who says each record is the best thing they've done. But in this case he should make an exception; because it is." Loudwire said of the band and album that "the substance and technicality that they have immersed into their music have elevated them to a whole new level. Fortress proves to be the next impressive chapter in an epic adventure that shows no sign of ending any time soon."However, Revolver were not as impressed by the album, feeling that although it showed off the band's skills, the album became "predictable and monotonous".
The album entered at number 6 in the UK album chart, making it the band's highest charting album in the UK to date. It entered at number 1 in the rock chart; the album opened at number 1 in the US, Sweden in sales on iTunes. Fortress debuted at number 12 on the Billboard 200 and sold 30,000 copies in its first week of release; the album has sold 101,000 copies in the US as of August 2016. All tracks are written by Alter Bridge. Alter BridgeMyles Kennedy – lead vocals and lead guitar, backing vocals on "Waters Rising" Mark Tremonti – lead and rhythm guitar, backing vocals, lead vocals on "Waters Rising" Brian Marshall – bass Scott Phillips – drums, percussionProductionMichael Baskette – production, string arrangements Jef Moll – engineering, digital editing Ted Jensen – mastering Dan Tremonti – cover art The songs "Addicted to Pain" and "Cry of Achilles" were featured in the video game Guitar Hero Live in 2015. Official Alter Bridge website
Live 1977 is a live album by the Fall, first released in March 2000. Although the sound quality is dreadful and live documents of The Fall are plentiful, this is of particular note as it is the earliest available recording of the group in action, apart from two tracks on the Short Circuit: Live at the Electric Circus compilation, it dates from December 1977, about six weeks after the group recorded their debut single "Bingo-Master's Break-Out!". It is the only release where early song "Hey! Fascist" can be heard, although it was reworked as "Hey! Student" and released on Middle Class Revolt seventeen years later. There are very early versions of the 1984 single "Oh! Brother" and "Cop It" found on The Wonderful And Frightening World Of The Fall but retitled "Copped It"; the group’s reworking of "Louie Louie", with John the Postman, is featured only on this recording. This was Tony Friel’s last performance with the band. After a couple of short-stay replacements, his place as bassist was taken by Marc Riley.
"Psycho Mafia" "Last Orders" "Repetition" "Dresden Dolls" "Hey! Fascist" "Frightened" "Industrial Estate" "Stepping Out" "Bingo-Master's Break-Out!" "Oh! Brother" "Cop It" "Futures and Pasts" "Louie Louie" The FallMark E. Smith - vocals Martin Bramah - guitar, backing vocals Tony Friel - bass guitar Una Baines - keyboard Karl Burns - drums John the Postman - vocals on "Louie Louie"