The Dardanelles known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont, is a narrow, natural strait and internationally significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey. One of the world's narrowest straits used for international navigation, the Dardanelles connects the Sea of Marmara with the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas, while allowing passage to the Black Sea by extension via the Bosphorus; the Dardanelles is 61 kilometres long, 1.2 to 6 kilometres wide, averaging 55 metres deep with a maximum depth of 103 metres at its narrowest point abreast the city of Çanakkale. Most of the northern shores of the strait along the Gallipoli Peninsula are sparsely settled, while the southern shores along the Troad Peninsula are inhabited by the city of Çanakkale's urban population of 110,000. Together with the Bosphorus, the Dardanelles forms the Turkish Straits; the contemporary Turkish name Çanakkale Boğazı, meaning'Çanakkale Strait', is derived from the eponymous midsize city that adjoins the strait, itself meaning'pottery fort'—from چاناق + قلعه —in reference to the area's famous pottery and ceramic wares, the landmark Ottoman fortress of Sultaniye.

The English name Dardanelles is an abbreviation of Strait of the Dardanelles. During Ottoman times there was a castle on each side of the strait; these castles together were called the Dardanelles named after Dardanus, an ancient city on the Asian shore of the strait which in turn was said to take its name from Dardanus, the mythical son of Zeus and Electra. The ancient Greek name Ἑλλήσποντος means "Sea of Helle", was the ancient name of the narrow strait, it was variously named in classical literature Hellespontium Pelagus, Rectum Hellesponticum, Fretum Hellesponticum. It was so called from Helle, the daughter of Athamas, drowned here in the mythology of the Golden Fleece; as a maritime waterway, the Dardanelles connects various seas along the Eastern Mediterranean, the Balkans, the Near East, Western Eurasia, connects the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. The Marmara further connects to the Black Sea via the Bosphorus, while the Aegean further links to the Mediterranean. Thus, the Dardanelles allows maritime connections from the Black Sea all the way to the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean via Gibraltar, the Indian Ocean through the Suez Canal, making it a crucial international waterway, in particular for the passage of goods coming in from Russia.

The strait is located at 40°13′N 26°26′E. The strait is 61 kilometres long, 1.2 to 6 kilometres wide, averaging 55 metres deep with a maximum depth of 103 metres at its narrowest point at Nara Burnu, abreast Çanakkale. There are two major currents through the strait: a surface current flows from the Black Sea towards the Aegean Sea, a more saline undercurrent flows in the opposite direction; the Dardanelles is unique in many respects. The narrow and winding shape of the strait is more akin to that of a river, it is considered one of the most hazardous, crowded and dangerous waterways in the world. The currents produced by the tidal action in the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara are such that ships under sail must await at anchorage for the right conditions before entering the Dardanelles; as part of the only passage between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, the Dardanelles has always been of great importance from a commercial and military point of view, remains strategically important today.

It is a major sea access route including Russia and Ukraine. Control over it has been an objective of a number of hostilities in modern history, notably the attack of the Allied Powers on the Dardanelles during the 1915 Battle of Gallipoli in the course of World War I; the ancient city of Troy was located near the western entrance of the strait, the strait's Asiatic shore was the focus of the Trojan War. Troy was able to control the marine traffic entering this vital waterway; the Persian army of Xerxes I of Persia and the Macedonian army of Alexander the Great crossed the Dardanelles in opposite directions to invade each other's lands, in 480 BC and 334 BC respectively. Herodotus says that, circa 482 BC, Xerxes I had two pontoon bridges built across the width of the Hellespont at Abydos, in order that his huge army could cross from Persia into Greece; this crossing was named by Aeschylus in his tragedy The Persians as the cause of divine intervention against Xerxes. According to Herodotus, both bridges were destroyed by a storm and Xerxes had those responsible for building the bridges beheaded and the strait itself whipped.

The Histories of Herodotus vii.33–37 and vii.54–58 give details of building and crossing of Xerxes' Pontoon Bridges. Xerxes is said to have thrown fetters into the strait, given it three hundred lashes and branded it with red-hot irons as the soldiers shouted at the water. Herodotus commented that this was a "highly presumptuous way to address the Hellespont" but in no way atypical of Xerxes. Harpalus the engineer helped the invading armies to cross by lashing the ships together with their bows facing the current and, so it is said, two additional anchors. From the perspective of ancient Greek mythology, it was said that Helle, the daughter of Athamas, was drowned at the Dardanelles in the legend of the Golden Fleece. Likew


A winemaker or vintner is a person engaged in winemaking. They are employed by wineries or wine companies, where their work includes: Cooperating with viticulturists Monitoring the maturity of grapes to ensure their quality and to determine the correct time for harvest Crushing and pressing grapes Monitoring the settling of juice and the fermentation of grape material Filtering the wine to remove remaining solids Testing the quality of wine by tasting Placing filtered wine in casks or tanks for storage and maturation Preparing plans for bottling wine once it has matured Making sure that quality is maintained when the wine is bottledToday, these duties require an increasing amount of scientific knowledge, since laboratory tests are supplementing or replacing traditional methods. Winemakers can be referred to as oenologists as they study oenology – the science of wine. A vintner is a wine merchant. In some modern use in American English, the term is used as a synonym for "winemaker"; the term started in Middle English.

Due to the close political and commercial ties between Bordeaux and England during the 14th and early 15th centuries, vintners were among the more important people in London with winemakers being four times mayor of the city under the reign of Edward II. The Worshipful Company of Vintners is one of the oldest livery companies in London. A vigneron is someone; the word connotes or emphasizes the critical role that vineyard placement and maintenance has in the production of high-quality wine. The term, French for someone who grows grapes or makes wine, is used in Australia to describe a winemaker, involved as an owner or manager as opposed to a person, employed only to make wine, referred to as a winemaker, it is used when referring to a winemaker from France. Vincent of Saragossa is the patron saint of vignerons. A négociant is the French term for a wine merchant who assembles the produce of smaller growers and winemakers and sells the result under its own name. Négociants buy everything from grapes to grape must to wines in various states of completion.

In the case of grapes or must, the négociant performs all the winemaking. If he buys fermented wine in barrels or en-vrac—basically in bulk containers, he may age the wine further, blend in other wines or bottle and sell it as is; the result is sold under the name of the négociant, not the name of the original grape or wine producer. Some négociants have a recognizable house style. Négociants, who are called wine merchants/traders, were the dominant force in the wine trade until the last 25 years for various reasons: Historically the owners of vineyards and producers of wine had no direct access to buyers, it was too expensive for growers to purchase the wine presses and bottling lines necessary to produce a finished wine. Owning only a small portion of a particular high-quality single vineyard meant that a grower had insufficient wine from a parcel to vinify on its own. Under French inheritance laws, vineyard holdings were split until offspring owned no more than a single row of grapes, not enough to fill a barrel.

Since prices for a premier cru are higher than for wines from a larger area like a village or region, the grower could make more money selling off the production as the premier cru rather than blending it into a less specific appellation. Many négociants are vineyard owners in their own right. In Burgundy for instance, négociants as Bouchard Père et Fils and Faiveley are among the largest owners of vineyards. Well-known négociants in Burgundy are Maison Louis Jadot, Joseph Drouhin, Vincent Girardin. Muse Oenology Vignerons indépendants de France Viticulture Wine fraud Winemaking cooperative Media related to Winemakers at Wikimedia Commons The new vignerons: a new generation of Spanish viticulteurs Luis Gutiérrez, Wine Advocate

Neal Fredericks

Neal Leslie Fredericks was an American cinematographer best known for the 1999 horror film The Blair Witch Project. Born in California, Fredericks grew up in Maryland, where he attended Montgomery College and graduated from Towson University in 1991, he moved to Florida, shooting films for students at the University of Central Florida. Fredericks met his partners on The Blair Witch Project at Central Florida and they filmed in MarylandFredericks's other credits include Dreamers, Killer Me, The Stonecutter, The Burkittsville 7, Abominable. Fredericks died. A Cessna 206, the private aircraft he and the film's writer/director Daniel Zirilli were using to obtain aerial footage near the Dry Tortugas crashed into the sea when its engine failed. Though Zirilli, the pilot, two other crew members were able to escape, Fredericks had tied himself into the airplane while he operated the camera, he was unable to free himself before the aircraft submerged. Official website Neal Fredericks on IMDb