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Darien, Connecticut

Darien is a town in Fairfield County, United States 37 miles northeast of New York City. With a population of 20,732 for the 2010 census and a land area of just under 13 square miles, it is the smallest town on Connecticut's "Gold Coast", it has the youngest population of any non-college town in Connecticut and has a high rate of marriage. Darien is one of the wealthiest communities in the U. S.. Bloomberg's 2020 "America's 100 Richest Places" ranking placed Darien in the top 10, with an average household income of $352,839, the highest in Connecticut. Situated on Long Island Sound between the cities of Stamford and Norwalk, the town has few office buildings. Many residents commute to Manhattan with two Metro-North railroad stations – Noroton Heights and Darien – linking the town to Grand Central Station. For recreation, the town boasts eleven parks, two public beaches, the private Tokeneke beach club, three country clubs including the first organized golf club in Connecticut, a hunt club, the public Darien Boat Club, Noroton Yacht Club.

According to early records, the first clearings of land were made by men from the New Haven and Wethersfield colonies and from Norwalk in about 1641. It was not until 1739, that the Middlesex Society of the Town of Stamford built the first community church, now the First Congregational Church of Darien. Tories raided the town several times during the Revolution, at one point taking 26 men in the parish prisoner for five months, including the Reverend Moses Mather, pastor of the parish; the Loyalist-Patriot conflict in Darien is the setting for the novel Tory Hole, the first book by children's author Louise Hall Tharp. Middlesex Parish was incorporated as the Town of Darien in 1820. According to the Darien Historical Society, the name Darien was decided upon when the residents of the town could not agree on a name to replace Middlesex Parish, many families wanting it to be named after themselves; some proposed naming the town "Belleville" in honor of Thaddeus Bell, a veteran of the revolutionary war.

He rejected the honor while supporting the Darien option. A sailor who had traveled to Isthmus of Darien part of the Spanish Empire, suggested the name Darien, adopted by the people of the town; the town name is pronounced, with stress on the last syllable, has been referred to as such at least as far back as 1913. Residents say. "You can always tell when someone is not from here, because they do pronounce it the way it's spelled," Louise Berry, director of the town library, said in a 2006 interview. Ring's End Landing, the original settlement and shipping port for early residents includes a historic stone bridge providing easier access to Long Neck, essential after the creation of the New Haven Railroad; the bridge crosses a dam dividing Gorham's Pond from the Gut. New Haven Railroad station opened in 1848; until the advent of the railroad, Darien remained a small, rural community of about 1,000. After the Civil War, the town became one of the many resorts where New Yorkers built grand, luxurious summer homes.

In the early 1900s, Darien had a well-established reputation as a sundown town, was white Protestant through the middle of the century. While economic diversity remains limited today, the town now has a diversity of ethnicities and religions similar to other affluent towns in the region. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 14.8 square miles, of which 12.9 square miles is land and 2.0 square miles, or 13.41%, is water. The town has four exits on the northbound-traffic side of Interstate 95 and three on the southbound-traffic side, its northern border is just south of the historic Merritt Parkway, where Exits 36 and 37 are closest to the town. It has two Metro-North railroad stations for commuter trains into New York City, with a 38 to 39 miles commute of 46–50 minutes from Noroton Heights and 49–53 minutes from Darien. In addition, the Glenbrook railroad station and the Talmadge Hill railroad station, both on the New Canaan Branch, are within walking distance of homes near the Holmes elementary school and at the far northwestern corner of town.

The Rowayton railroad station on the New Haven Line is within walking distance of homes near Raymond Street in the southeastern part of town. Most trains run non-stop after Stamford into New York City's 125th Street Grand Central Terminal. Along with the New Haven Line of Metro-North Railroad and Interstate 95, US Route 1, known locally as the Boston Post Road, or, more the Post Road, runs east–west through the southern side of town. Except for the Noroton Heights business district, commercial zoning is limited outside of the town-wide strip along the Post Road. Darien is bordered on the west by Stamford, on the north by New Canaan, on the east by Norwalk. On the south it faces the North Shore of Long Island, it is part of the "panhandle" of Connecticut jutting into New York state. The town has 16.5 miles of five harbors. In addition to some small neighborhoods, the larger divisions of the town are Downtown Darien, Noroton, Ox Ridge, Noroton Bay, Long Neck Point (

Hendrik Potgieter

Andries Hendrik Potgieter, known as Hendrik Potgieter was a Voortrekker leader and the last known Champion of the Potgieter family. He served as the first head of state of Potchefstroom from 1840 and 1845 and as the first head of state of Zoutpansberg from 1845 to 1852. Potgieter and his party moved inland to the present Free State, where they signed a treaty with the leader of the Barolong, Moroka; the treaty stipulated that Potgieter would protect the Baralong against the Matabele raiders, in exchange for land. The tract of land was from the Vet River to the Vaal River; the Matabele leader, was threatened by the white incursion into what he saw as his sphere of influence, which led to the Matabele's attack on the Potgieter laager in October 1836, at Vegkop, near the present-day town of Heilbron. The attack was beaten off, but the Matabele made off with most of the trekker oxen, crucial draught animals for the wagons; the combined trek groups of Piet Retief and Gerrit Maritz came to Potgieter's rescue.

Moroka helped with oxen. His group joined up with Retief and Maritz at Thaba Nchu, where they formed a Voortrekker government and decided to move to Natal. Potgieter stayed behind in the Free State. In 1838, after Piet Retief and his party were killed by Dingane, other Voortrekker parties were attacked at the Bloukrans and Bushman Rivers and another leader, Pieter Lafras Uys assembled a military force. To prevent schism and discord, the new Voortrekker leader in Natal, diplomatically pronounced that both Uys and Potgieter were to be in command. However, a struggle between the hot-headed Uys and Potgieter ensued; the divided force was lured into an ambush by the Zulus at Italeni, both Uys and his son Dirkie, were killed. The surrounded and outnumbered force fled. Potgieter was criticised for his actions, the force was called "Die Vlugkommado" or Flight Commando, he was further accused, unjustly, of causing the death of Uys by deliberately leading the force into the ambush. He moved to the Transvaal.

Potgieter subsequently went on to found Potchefstroom, by the banks of the Mooi River, served as its first head of state of the Potchefstroom Republic between 1840 and 1845. In 1845, he founded Ohrigstad as a trading station. Owing to a malaria outbreak, the town had to be abandoned; the inhabitants, including Potgieter, moved to the Soutpansberg area, where he founded the town Zoutpansbergdorp renamed Schoemansdal. After the 1842 annexation of Natal by Britain, many Natal Trekkers moved to the Free State and the Transvaal; these newcomers and their leader, Andries Pretorius, refused to accept the authority of Potgieter, a power struggle developed. War was averted, in 1848 a peace treaty was signed in Rustenburg. Potgieter died on 16 December 1852, in Zoutpansbergdorp. A number of African chiefs who held him in high regard came to pay their respects before his death. Blyde River Wiki Tree for full family tree- http://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Potgieter-13

Vista Outdoor

Vista Outdoor Inc. is an American designer and marketer of outdoor sports and recreation products. It operates in two segments, shooting sports and outdoor products, as a "house of brands" with more than 40 labels and subsidiaries, it trades under "VSTO" on the New York Stock Exchange. Alliant Techsystems, entered the ammunition and outdoor products business in 2001. ATK grew through acquisitions and a surge in demand for ammunition for police and other private uses. ATK told its regulators in December 2014 that it intended first to merge its defense and satellite businesses with Orbital Sciences Corp. of Virginia, subsequently spin off its sporting ammunition business as a stand-alone public company to be named Vista Outdoor. Vista Outdoor had signed an agreement for a $350 million secured loan with a term of five years and a $400 million revolving line of credit. Proceeds were used to pay down debt. ATK and Orbital filed a joint proxy statement and prospectus describing the share issuance with the Securities and Exchange Commission on December 17, 2014.

The same month, the Department of Justice approved to the spinoff. ATK spun-off Vista Outdoor upon closing its merger with Orbital Sciences and became Orbital ATK on February 9, 2015. Anyone holding ATK common stock at the end of the business day on February 2, 2015, received two shares of Vista Outdoor common stock. Eligible shareholders had their brokerage account credited or received a book-entry account statement reflecting their ownership. Vista Outdoor was thus 100% owned by ATK shareholders. Vista Outdoor stock traded on a "when-issued" basis from January 29, 2015, to February 9, 2015, it began "regular way" trading on the New York Stock Exchange on February 10, 2015, under the ticker symbol "VSTO." Shareholders were not required to take action of any kind. This transaction was conducted on a tax-free basis. U. S. shareholders did not have to recognize a gain or loss for federal tax purposes. On February 25, 2016, BRG Sports announced its acceptance of a $400-million cash and earn-out deal to sell its "Action Sports" business to Vista Outdoor.

Vista gained control of the Bell Sports, Blackburn, C-Preme brands. On May 1, 2018, Vista Outdoor announced that it would consider selling off its gun manufacturing subsidiaries and Bell, Giro and Jimmy Styks, to focus on its core brands for outdoors enthusiasts. Months earlier, Vista announced that it was attempting to sell eyewear brands Bolle and Cebe; the company said. CEO Christopher Metz said the move had been planned in advance and that Savage Arms and Stevens would require too much investment to rectify their lack of handguns, which make up half the gun market in the US. Metz said. Metz said the company would focus on what it called its "heritage ammunition business."Vista Outdoor announced on July 9, 2018 that it had reached an agreement with a European private equity fund to sell the Bollé, Cébé and Serengeti eyewear brands. On July 9, 2019, Vista Outdoor completed the sale of Savage Arms and Stevens Arms for $170 million to a group of investors led by Savage's management. Vista received immediate gross proceeds of a $12-million five-year note.

Vista said. For fiscal year 2015, Vista Outdoor reported earnings of $79.5 million or $1.25 per share on $2.08 billion in revenue. In a January 11, 2017 press release, Vista Outdoor disclosed that it expected to record "a material asset impairment charge in its hunting and shooting accessories reporting unit" for the third quarter of its fiscal year 2017. Vista reported that "the Company's preliminary analysis indicates the impairment charge will be in the range of $400 million to $450 million."For fiscal year 2018, Vista Outdoor had sales of $2.31 billion. It had gross earnings of $520.96 million dollars leading to a gross profit margin of 22.57%. Free cash flow was $206 million compared to $41 million for the prior fiscal year. For fiscal year 2019, Vista Outdoor had sales of $2.1 billion. It posted a loss of $648 million. Vista reduced its debt load from $738 million to $581 million due to its sale of Savage Arms. Many of Vista's brands are associated with hunting; the company makes gear for camping, hiking and biking such as flashlights, lanterns, goggles, GPS locators, etc.

As of 2019, Vista Outdoor earned about 50% of its profits from businesses units related to shooting sports, such as ammunition makers Federal Premium and CCI. Known as Bushnell Outdoor Products, Bushnell specializes in optics, its products include binoculars, spotting scopes, night vision equipment, GPS devices, laser rangefinders, holographic weapon sights, game cameras, other high-end optical equipment. David P. Bushnell founded Bushnell Corporation in 1948 during his service in Allied-occupied Japan. In 1999, private equity firm Windpoint Partners acquired Bushnell. In 2007, Bushnell was acquired by MidOcean Partners, another private equity firm, in a leveraged buyout. In 2008, Bushnell acquired the assets of Simmons Outdoor Corporation from Meade Instruments. ATK announced its acquisition of Bushnell on September 5, 2013, for $985 million in cash, subject to post-closing adjustments. Cascade Cartridge called CCI Ammunition, is based in Lewiston, Idaho. CCI made centerfire primers for government use.

As of March 2015, it manufactures rimfire ammunition but makes centerfire handgun ammunition, primers for reloading and industrial purposes, shotgun shells. CCI was founded in 1951 by Di