Virginia and Truckee Railroad
The Virginia and Truckee Railroad is a owned historical heritage railroad, headquartered in Virginia City, Nevada in the United States. Its route is 14.1 miles long. The railroad owns and uses the service mark "Queen of the Short Lines"; the V&T Railroad runs up to seven trains per day, many in steam behind locomotive #29, a 2-8-0 Consolidation, or an ex-US Army GE 80-ton diesel from Virginia City from Memorial Day until the end of October each year. When first constructed in the 19th century, it was a commercial freight railroad, built to serve the Comstock Lode mining communities of northwestern Nevada. At its height, the railroad's route ran from Reno south to the state capital at Carson City. In Carson City, the mainline split into two branches. One branch continued south to Minden; the first section from Virginia City to Carson City was constructed beginning in 1869 to haul ore and supplies for the famous Comstock Lode silver mines. The railroad was abandoned in 1950 after years of declining revenue.
Much of the rail infrastructure was pulled up and sold, along with the remaining locomotives and railcars. In the 1970s, with public interest in historic railroads on the rise, the old lines were rebuilt by private investors, with an eye towards re-opening the lines; the public Nevada Commission for the Reconstruction of the V&T Railway has rebuilt the line from Gold Hill to Carson City, running the first train over the line in 68 years on August 14, 2009. The Commission acquired a 1914 2-8-2 Mikado steam locomotive, in use by the Sierra Railroad, out of Oakdale, California, on special lunch and dinner trains; when the no. 18 arrived on the V&T, boiler problems were discovered, the locomotive awaited repair at the Virginia and Truckee shops in Virginia City. She went to Hollywood for the filming of Water for Elephants, she returned after her scenes were filmed and had her first revenue run on July 24, 2010. Cars and locomotives from the original railroad are on display at the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Carson City, at the Comstock History Center on C Street in Virginia City, at the California State Railroad Museum in Sacramento and at the Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania in Strasburg.
In order to ascend the mountain to Virginia City it was necessary to build an enormous trestle. Popular Nevada mythology says Crown Point Trestle was considered to be such a feat of engineering that it is featured on the Nevada State Seal; this myth is mentioned by Lucius Beebe. Former Nevada State Archivist Guy Rocha debunks this myth on the state's Myth-a-Month page, pointing out that the state seal predates the trestle and shows a viaduct, not a trestle. Gold was discovered in Nevada in spring 1850, by a company of Mormon emigrants on their way to the California Gold Rush; these early travelers only lingered in Nevada. By 1858 prospectors were soon permanently camping in the area around. In 1859, gold was found in outcroppings in the hills and canyons just outside what is now Virginia City. Among the gold ore in these outcroppings were bluish chunks of silver ore which clogged the rockers. Silver was not recognized in this form, so it was overlooked in favor of the gold, found to be quite valuable.
This was the first of the silver from. Numerous mills appeared along the Carson River from Dayton to Brunswick to process the ore from the Comstock Lode. Low interest rates enticed mill owners alike to finance through the bank. Many of these mills and some mines were built with loans from the Bank of California, whose Nevada agent, William Sharon, would foreclose upon the mines or mills when their owners defaulted on payments; the bank came into possession of many important mining and ore-processing facilities. Sharon, along with business partners Darius Ogden Mills and William Ralston, formed the bank-owned Union Mill & Mining Company to process the ore from the mills, foreclosed upon; the Comstock Lode was a boon for the Virginia City area, as the city grew to over 25,000 inhabitants at its height, was among the largest and wealthiest towns in the West. However, from the beginning, the costs to transport Comstock ore to the mills from points on the Lode became so great that many mines were closed and only the higher quality ores were worth processing in the mines that stayed open.
Being in control of mines and mills with his partners, Sharon realized that a cheap form of transportation between the mines, the mills, the cities would allow the banks holdings to be more profitable. There were many propositions starting as early as 1861 for railroads to service the area and decrease costs. Sharon envisioned a railroad to run from Virginia City, through Gold Hill where the first of the Comstock Lode was mined, passing the mills along the river, ending at the state capital, Carson City; when finished, this route would cover 21 miles, descend 1,575 feet of elevation and have so many curves as to make 17 full circles in the thirteen and a half miles from the river to Virginia City. Ground was broken on February 18, 1869, two miles below Gold Hill on American Flats when grading crews went to work. There were seven tunnels on the line requiring 2 – 5 months each to hole through and an 85 ft tall, 500 ft long trestle to be built over the Crown Point ravine; the first track and ceremonial first spike was driven on September 28, 1869 by su
Sleepy Hollow Cemetery
Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in Sleepy Hollow, New York, is the final resting place of numerous famous figures, including Washington Irving, whose story "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" is set in the adjacent burying ground at the Old Dutch Church of Sleepy Hollow. Incorporated in 1849 as Tarrytown Cemetery, the site posthumously honored Irving's request that it change its name to Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2009. The cemetery is a non-sectarian burying ground of about 90 acres, it is contiguous with, but separate from, the churchyard of the Old Dutch Church, the colonial-era church, a setting for "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow". The Rockefeller family estate, whose grounds abut Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, contains the private Rockefeller cemetery. Numerous notable people are interred at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, such as: Viola Allen, actress John Dustin Archbold, a director of the Standard Oil Company Elizabeth Arden, businesswoman who built a cosmetics empire Brooke Astor and socialite Vincent Astor, philanthropist.
The murder of his grandson's wife Barbara by his great-grandson, Tony, is told in the book Savage Grace Robert Livingston Beeckman, American politician and Governor of Rhode Island Holbrook Blinn, American actor Henry E. Bliss, devised the Bliss library classification system Artur Bodanzky, conductor at New York Metropolitan Opera Major Edward Bowes, early radio star, he hosted Major Bowes' Amateur Hour Alice Brady, American actress Andrew Carnegie and philanthropist. S. Representative from New York Maud Earl, British-American painter of canines Parker Fennelly, American actor Malcolm Webster Ford, champion amateur athlete and journalist. Paul Leicester Ford, bibliographer and biographer; the Mark Hellinger Theatre in New York City is named for him. Leona famously bequeathed $12 million to her dog. Eliza Hamilton Holly, younger daughter of Alexander Hamilton Raymond Mathewson Hood, architect William Howard Hoople, a leader of the nineteenth-century American Holiness movement. S. Congressman from New York George Jones, one of the founders of The New York Times Albert Lasker, pioneer of the American advertising industry, part owner of baseball team the Chicago Cubs, wife Mary Lasker, an American health activist and recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal Walter W. Law, Jr. lawyer and politician, son of Briarcliff Manor founder Walter W. Law Lewis Edward Lawes, Reformist warden of Sing Sing prison William E.
Le Roy, United States Navy rear admiral Ann Lohman, a.k.a. Madame Restell, 19th century purveyor of patent medicine and abortions Charles D. Millard, member of U. S. House of Representatives from New York Darius Ogden Mills, made a fortune during California's gold rush and expanded his wealth further through New York City real estate Belle Moskowitz, political advisor and social activist Robertson Kirtland Mygatt, noted American Landscape painter, part of the Tonalist movement in Impressi
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Sacramento is the capital city of the U. S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County. Located at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in Northern California's Sacramento Valley, Sacramento's estimated 2018 population of 501,334 makes it the sixth-largest city in California and the ninth largest capital in the United States. Sacramento is the seat of the California Assembly, the Governor of California, Supreme Court of California, making it the state's political center and a hub for lobbying and think tanks. Sacramento is the cultural and economic core of the Sacramento metropolitan area, which had 2010 population of 2,414,783, making it the fifth largest in California. Sacramento is the fastest-growing major city in California, owing to its status as a notable financial center on the West Coast and as a major educational hub, home of Sacramento State University and University of California, Davis. Sacramento is a major center for the California healthcare industry, as the seat of Sutter Health, the world-renowned UC Davis Medical Center, the UC Davis School of Medicine, notable tourist destination in California, as the site of The California Museum, the Crocker Art Museum, California Hall of Fame, the California State Capitol Museum, the Old Sacramento State Historic Park.
Sacramento is known for its evolving contemporary culture, dubbed the most "hipster city" in California. In 2002, the Harvard University Civil Rights Project conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento "America's Most Diverse City". Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area was inhabited by the Nisenan people indigenous peoples of California. Spanish cavalryman Gabriel Moraga surveyed and named the Rio del Santísimo Sacramento in 1808, after the Blessed Sacrament, referring to the Eucharist in the Catholic Church. In 1839, Juan Bautista Alvarado, Mexican governor of Alta California granted the responsibility of colonizing the Sacramento Valley to Swiss-born, Mexican citizen John Augustus Sutter, who subsequently established Sutter's Fort and the settlement at the Rancho Nueva Helvetia. Following the American Conquest of California and the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, the waterfront developed by Sutter began to be developed and incorporated in 1850 as the City of Sacramento; as a result of the California Gold Rush, Sacramento became a major commercial center and distribution point for Northern California, serving as the terminus for the Pony Express and the First Transcontinental Railroad.
Nisenan and Plains Miwok Native Americans had lived in the area for thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would make Sacramento their home, these Native Americans left little evidence of their existence. Traditionally, their diet was dominated by acorns taken from the plentiful oak trees in the region, by fruits, bulbs and roots gathered throughout the year. In 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga discovered and named the Sacramento Valley and the Sacramento River. A Spanish writer with the Moraga expedition wrote: "Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths; the air was like champagne, drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. "¡Es como el sagrado sacramento!" The valley and the river were christened after the "Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ", referring to the Catholic sacrament of the Eucharist. John Sutter Sr. first arrived in the area on August 13, 1839, at the divergence of the American and Sacramento Rivers with a Mexican land grant of 50,000 acres.
The next year, he and his party established Sutter's Fort, a massive adobe structure with walls eighteen feet high and three feet thick. Representing Mexico, Sutter Sr. called his colony New Helvetia, a Swiss inspired name, was the political authority and dispenser of justice in the new settlement. Soon, the colony began to grow as more pioneers headed west. Within just a few short years, Sutter Sr. had become a grand success, owning a ten-acre orchard and a herd of thirteen thousand cattle. Fort Sutter became a regular stop for the increasing number of immigrants coming through the valley. In 1847 Sutter Sr. received 2,000 fruit trees, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. That same year, Sutter Sr. hired James Marshall to build a sawmill so that he could continue to expand his empire, unbeknownst to many, Sutter Sr.'s "empire" had been built on some thin margins of credit. In 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, a large number of gold-seekers came to the area, increasing the population.
In August 1848 Sutter Sr.'s son, John Sutter Jr. arrived in the area to assist his father in relieving his indebtedness. Now compounding the problem of his father's indebtedness, was the additional strain placed on the Sutters by the ongoing arrival of thousands of new gold miners and prospectors in the area, many quite content to squat on unwatched portions of the vast Sutter lands, or to abscond with various unattended Sutter properties or belongings if they could. In Sutter's case, rather than being a'boon' for Sutter, his employee's discovery of gold in the area turned out to be more of a personal'bane' for him. By December 1848, John Sutter Jr. in association with Sam Brannan, began laying out the City of Sacramento, 2 miles south of his father's settlement of New Helvetia. This venture was undertaken against the wishes of Sutter Sr. however the father, being in debt, was in no position to stop the venture. For
Subdivision is the act of dividing land into pieces that are easier to sell or otherwise develop via a plat. The former single piece as a whole is known in the United States as a subdivision. If it is used for housing it is known as a housing subdivision or housing development, although some developers tend to call these areas communities. Subdivisions may be for the purpose of commercial or industrial development, the results vary from retail shopping malls with independently owned out parcels, to industrial parks. In the United States, the creation of a subdivision was the first step toward the creation of a new incorporated township or city. Contemporary notions of subdivisions rely on the Lot and Block survey system, which became used in the 19th century as a means of addressing the expansion of cities into surrounding farmland. While this method of property identification was useful for purposes of conveyancing, it did not address the overall impacts of expansion and the need for a comprehensive approach to planning communities.
In the 1920s, the Coolidge administration formed the Advisory Committee on City Planning and Zoning, which undertook as its first task the publication of The Standard State Zoning Enabling Act in 1926, model enabling legislation for use by state legislatures. This was followed by publication of the Standard City Planning Enabling Act in 1928; the SCPEA covered six subjects: the organization and power of planning commissions, directed to prepare and adopt a master plan. The SCPEA included the following definition: "Subdivision" means the division of a lot, tract, or parcel of land into two or more lots, sites, or other divisions of land for the purpose, whether immediate or future, of sale or of building development, it includes resubdivision and, when appropriate to the context, relates to the process of subdividing or to the land or territory subdivided. Attached to this definition was the following footnote: for the purpose of sale or of building development: Every division of a piece of land into two or more lots, parcels or parts is, of course, a subdivision.
The intention is to cover all subdivision of land where the immediate or ultimate purpose is that of selling the lots or building on them. The object of inserting a definition in the text of the act is to avoid the inclusion, within the planning commission's control, of such cases as a testator's dividing his property amongst his children, partners' dividing firm property amongst themselves on dissolution, or cases of that nature. A subdivision does not need to be sold, in whole or in part, for its resulting pieces to be considered separate parcels of land. A subdivision plat approved by a local planning commission, once recorded in a registry of deeds, is deemed to have created the parcels of land identified on the plat itself; the problem of testamentary division of property was identified by the SCPEA in the footnote to the definition of subdivision, but not clarified by it. In some jurisdictions, a testamentary division of property does not constitute a legal subdivision for purposes of separate conveyancing of the "subdivided" parcels.
Furthermore, the SCPEA's definition leaves ambiguous the notion of'building development' and whether the identification of multiple construction sites on a single parcel of land constitutes a subdivision subject to the review and approval authority of the planning commission. Interpretations of this vary among American jurisdictions. Subdivision developers may use an architect’s services only once, with the rest of the tract houses using the same master template: the resulting houses all look similar as in the above photograph of Markham, Ontario; the overall purpose of a subdivision is to create an environment conducive to overall development and sustained growth, with development defined as: … the design work of lot layout, the construction of drainage structures, the construction of buildings or public use areas, the planning and construction of public streets and public roads, the placement of public utilities. In the Philippines, subdivisions are areas of land that have been subdivided into individual residential plots.
Whereas some subdivisions comprise exclusive gated communities, others are demarcations denoting a specific neighborhood. Some subdivisions may conduct autonomous security, or provide basic services such as water and refuse management. Most subdivisions are governed by associations made up of members who are residents of the subdivision. In the Philippines, subdivisions are known as villages. In Alberta, subdivision is the dividing of a single parcel of land into two or more parcels, each to be given a separate title. Subdivision is used for existing lot line adjustments. Notwithstanding a few exceptional circumstances, subdivision approval and endorsement by the local municipality must always be received before the subdivision can be registered at the Land Titles Office and titles issued. Exceptions may occur with parcels of land that contain more than one quarter section, a river lot, a lake lot, or some settlement lots created prior to July 1, 1950. Condominium conversion Gated community Levittown, New York Homeowners' association Housing estate Severance Terraced house Tract housing Urban planning Urban sprawl Urbanization Zoning Standard State Zoning Enabling Act and Standard City Planning Enabling Act - American Planning Assoc
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Sleepy Hollow, New York
Sleepy Hollow is a village in the town of Mount Pleasant, in Westchester County, New York. The village is located on the east bank of the Hudson River, about 30 miles north of New York City, is served by the Philipse Manor stop on the Metro-North Hudson Line. To the south of Sleepy Hollow is the village of Tarrytown, to the north and east are unincorporated parts of Mount Pleasant; the population of the village at the 2010 census was 9,870. Incorporated as North Tarrytown in the late 19th century, in 1996 the village adopted the traditional name for the area; the village is known to many via "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow", a short story about the local area and its infamous specter, the Headless Horseman, written by Washington Irving, who lived in Tarrytown and is buried in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery. Owing to this story, as well as the village's roots in early American history and folklore, Sleepy Hollow is considered by some to be one of the "most haunted places in the world"; the village is home to the Philipsburg Manor House and the Old Dutch Church of Sleepy Hollow, as well as the Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, where in addition to Washington Irving, numerous other notable people are buried.
The land that would become Sleepy Hollow was first bought from Adriaen van der Donck, a patroon in New Netherland before the English takeover in 1664. Starting in 1672 Frederick Philipse began acquiring large parcels of land in today's southern Westchester County. Comprising some 52,000 acres of land, it was bounded by the Spuyten Duyvil Creek, the Croton River, the Hudson River, the Bronx River. Philipse was granted a royal charter in 1693, creating the Manor of Philipsburg and establishing him as first lord. In today's Sleepy Hollow he established an upper mill and shipping depot, today part of the Philipse Manor House historic site. A pious man, he was architect and financier of the town's Old Dutch Church, said to have built the pulpit with his own hands; when Philipse died in 1702, the manor was divided between his son, Adolphus Philipse, his grandson, Frederick Philipse II. Adolph received the Upper Mills property. Frederick II was given the Lower Mills at the confluence of the Saw Mill and Hudson Rivers, the two parcels being reunited on his uncle's death.
His son, Frederick III, became the third lord of the manor in 1751. In 1779, Frederick Philipse III, a Loyalist, was attained for treason, The manor was confiscated and sold at public auction, split between 287 buyers; the largest tract of land was at the Upper Mills. Thanks to the philanthropy of John D. Rockefeller Jr. about 20 acres were restored as today's historic site. Sleepy Hollow is located at 41°5′31″N 73°51′52″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 5.1 square miles, of which 2.3 square miles is land and 2.8 square miles, or 55.58%, is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 9,870 people, 3,181 households, 2,239 families residing in the village; the population density was 4,054.7 people per square mile. There were 3,253 housing units at an average density of 1,431.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 61.01% Caucasian, 6.21% African American, 0.83% Native American, 3.25% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 23.47% from other races, 5.22% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 51.04% of the population, many of whom are Ecuadorian, Dominican and Puerto Rican. There were 3,181 households out of which 36.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 13.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.6% were non-families. 23.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.89 and the average family size was 3.37. In the village, the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 36.7% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, 10.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.9 males. The median income for a household in the village was $54,201, the median income for a family was $63,889. Males had a median income of $39,923 versus $32,146 for females.
The per capita income for the village was $28,325. About 5.7% of families and 7.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.3% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over. The Edward Harden Mansion, now serving as the administration building for the Public Schools of the Tarrytowns, Patriot's Park, Philipse Manor Railroad Station, Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, the Tarrytown Light are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Old Dutch Church of Sleepy Hollow and Philipsburg Manor House are listed as National Historic Landmarks. Of note are Kingsland Point Park, Philipse Manor Beach Club, the Rockefeller State Park Preserve. In 2017, former FDNY fireboat John D. McKean will be opened as a floating museum, near Tarrytown Lighthouse; as of 2014, the village's police department had 27 officers, four school crossing guards, three civilian employees. The village is served by the New York State Police and Westchester County Department of Public Safety. Police officers from the villages of Sleepy Hollow and Dobbs Ferry, the town of Greenburgh, the New York State Police make up a Marine / H.
E. A. T. Unit; as of 2006, police base salaries in Sleepy Hollow were low compared to other Westchester County forces, in par