Thrash metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music characterized by its overall aggression and fast tempo. The songs use fast percussive beats and low-register guitar riffs, overlaid with shredding-style lead work; the lyrics deal with social issues and criticism of The Establishment, using direct and denunciatory language, an approach borrowed from hardcore punk. The genre evolved in the early 1980s from combining the fast drum beats and attitude of hardcore with the double bass drumming and heavy, complex guitar style of the new wave of British heavy metal, it emerged as a reaction to the more conventional and acceptable glam metal, a less aggressive, pop music–infused heavy metal subgenre which appeared simultaneously. Thrash metal was an inspiration for subsequent extreme genres such as black metal. Thrash metal features fast tempos, low-register, complex guitar riffs, high-register guitar solos and double bass drumming; the genre evolved in the early 1980s from combining the drum beats of hardcore punk with the guitar style of the new wave of British heavy metal.
It emerged as a reaction to the more conventional and acceptable glam metal, a less aggressive, pop-infused heavy metal subgenre which appeared simultaneously. The rhythm guitar parts are played with heavy distortion and palm muted to create a tighter and more precise sound. Vocally, thrash metal can employ anything from melodic singing to shouted vocals. Most guitar solos are played at high speed and technically demanding, as they are characterized by shredding, use advanced techniques such as sweep picking, legato phrasing, alternate picking, tremolo picking, string skipping, two-hand tapping; the guitar riffs use chromatic scales and emphasize the tritone and diminished intervals, instead of using conventional single scale based riffing. For example, the intro riff of Metallica's "Master of Puppets" is a chromatic descent, followed by a chromatic ascent based on the tritone. Speed and time-changes define thrash metal. Thrash tends to have an accelerating feel which may be due in large part to its aggressive drumming style.
For example, drummers use two bass drums, or a double-bass pedal, in order to create a relentless, driving beat. Cymbal stops/chokes are used to transition from one riff to another or to precede an acceleration in tempo; some common characteristics of the genre are fast guitar riffs with aggressive picking styles and fast guitar solos, extensive use of two bass drums as opposed to the conventional use of only one, typical of most rock music. To keep up with the other instruments, many bassists use a plectrum. However, some prominent thrash metal bassists have used their fingers, such as Frank Bello, Greg Christian, Steve DiGiorgio, Robert Trujillo and Cliff Burton. Several bassists use a distorted bass tone, an approach popularized by Motörhead's Lemmy. Lyrical themes in thrash metal include warfare, injustice, suicide, alienation and other maladies that afflict the individual and society. In addition, politics pessimism and dissatisfaction towards politics, are common themes among thrash metal bands.
Humor and irony can be found, but they are limited, are exception rather than a rule. Among the earliest songs to be labeled thrash metal was Queen's "Stone Cold Crazy", recorded and released in 1974; the song was described as being thrash metal "before the term had been invented". Black Sabbath's "Symptom of the Universe", released in 1975, was the inspiration for Diamond Head's "Am I Evil?". Since NWOBHM bands directly influenced the development of early thrash; the early work of artists such as Diamond Head, Iron Maiden, Judas Priest, Motörhead, Tygers of Pan Tang and Angel Witch, among others, introduced the fast-paced instrumentation that became an essential aspect of thrash. Void is hailed as one of the earliest examples of hardcore/heavy metal crossover, whose chaotic musical approach is cited as influential, their 1982 split LP with fellow Washington band The Faith showed both bands exhibiting quick, high-speed punk rock. It has been argued that those recordings laid the foundation for early thrash metal, at least in terms of selected tempos.
In Europe, the earliest band of the emerging thrash movement was Venom from Newcastle upon Tyne, formed in 1979. Their 1982 album Black Metal has been cited as a major influence on many subsequent genres and bands in the extreme metal world, such as Bathory, Hellhammer and Mayhem; the European scene was exclusively influenced by the most aggressive music Germany and England were producing at the time. British bands such as Tank and Raven, along with German band Accept, motivated musicians from central Europe to start bands of their own producing groups such as Sodom and Destruction from Germany, as well as Switzerland's Coroner; the Swedish punk band Warheads have been described as a proto-thrash band. In 1981, a Southern California band Leather Charm wrote a song entitled "Hit the Lights". Leather Charm soon disbanded and the band's primary songwriter, vocalist/rhythm guitarist James Hetfield met drummer Lars Ulrich through a classified advertisement. Together and Ulrich formed Metallica, the first of the "Big Four" thrash bands, with lead guitarist Dave Mustaine, who would form Megadeth, another of the "Big Four" originators of thrash, bassist Ron McGovney.
Metallica relocated to the San Francisco Bay Area. McGovney was replaced with Cliff Burton, Mustaine was replaced with Kirk Hammett. "Hit the Lights" was featured on th
A Grammy Award, or Grammy, is an award presented by The Recording Academy to recognize achievements in the music industry. The annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists, the presentation of those awards that have a more popular interest; the Grammys are the second of the Big Three major music awards held annually. It shares recognition of the music industry as that of the other performance awards such as the Academy Awards, the Emmy Awards, the Tony Awards, the Game Awards; the first Grammy Awards ceremony was held on May 4, 1959, to honor and respect the musical accomplishments by performers for the year 1958. Following the 2011 ceremony, the Academy overhauled many Grammy Award categories for 2012; the 61st Annual Grammy Awards, honoring the best achievements from October 1, 2017 to September 30, 2018, were held on February 10, 2019, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles. The Grammys had their origin in the Hollywood Walk of Fame project in the 1950s; as the recording executives chosen for the Walk of Fame committee worked at compiling a list of important recording industry people who might qualify for a Walk of Fame star, they realized there were many more people who were leaders in their business who would never earn a star on Hollywood Boulevard.
The music executives decided to rectify this by creating an award given by their industry similar to the Oscars and the Emmys. This was the beginning of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. After it was decided to create such an award, there was still a question of, they settled on using the name of the invention of Emile Berliner, the gramophone, for the awards, which were first given for the year 1958. The first award ceremony was held in two locations on May 4, 1959 - Beverly Hilton Hotel in Beverly Hills California, Park Sheraton Hotel in New York City, 28 Grammys were awarded; the number of awards given grew and fluctuated over the years with categories added and removed, at one time reaching over 100. The second Grammy Awards held in 1959, was the first ceremony to be televised, but the ceremony was not aired live until the 13th Annual Grammy Awards in 1971; the gold-plated trophies, each depicting a gilded gramophone, are made and assembled by hand by Billings Artworks in Ridgway, Colorado.
In 1990 the original Grammy design was revamped, changing the traditional soft lead for a stronger alloy less prone to damage, making the trophy bigger and grander. Billings developed a zinc alloy named grammium, trademarked; the trophies with the recipient's name engraved on them are not available until after the award announcements, so "stunt" trophies are re-used each year for the broadcast. By February 2009, a total of 7,578 Grammy trophies had been awarded; the "General Field" are four awards. Record of the Year is awarded to the performer and the production team of a single song if other than the performer. Album of the Year is awarded to the performer and the production team of a full album if other than the performer. Song of the Year is awarded to the writer/composer of a single song. Best New Artist is awarded to a promising breakthrough performer who releases, during the Eligibility Year, the first recording that establishes the public identity of that artist; the only two artists to win all four of these awards are Christopher Cross, who won all four in 1980, Adele, who won the Best New Artist award in 2009 and the other three in 2012 and 2017.
Other awards are given for performance and production in specific genres, as well as for other contributions such as artwork and video. Special awards are given for longer-lasting contributions to the music industry; because of the large number of award categories, the desire to feature several performances by various artists, only the ones with the most popular interest - about 10 to 12, including the four General Field categories and one or two categories in the most popular music genres - are presented directly at the televised award ceremony. The many other Grammy trophies are presented in a pre-telecast'Premiere Ceremony' earlier in the afternoon before the Grammy Awards telecast. On April 6, 2011, The Recording Academy announced a drastic overhaul of many Grammy Award categories for 2012; the number of categories was cut from 109 to 78. The most important change was the elimination of the distinction between male and female soloists and between collaborations and duo/groups in various genre fields.
Several categories for instrumental soloists were discontinued. Recordings in these categories now fall under the general categories for best solo performances. In the rock field, the separate categories for hard rock and metal albums were combined and the Best Rock Instrumental Performance category was eliminated due to a waning number of entries. In R&B, the distinction between best contemporary R&B album and other R&B albums has been eliminated, they now feature in general Best R&B Album category. In rap, the categories for best rap soloist and best rap duo or group have been merged into the new Best Rap Performance category; the most eliminations occurred in the roots category. Up to and including 2011, there were separate categories for various regional American music forms, such as Hawaiian music, Native American music and Zydeco/Cajun music. Due to the low number
Theatre of Tragedy
Theatre of Tragedy was a Norwegian band from Stavanger, active between 1993 and 2010. They are best known for their earlier albums. Theatre of Tragedy was founded on 2 October 1993 by vocalist Raymond István Rohonyi, guitarists Pål Bjåstad and Tommy Lindal. Drummer Hein Frode Hansen had quit his former band Phobia and started looking for a new musical project to play in. A friend of his told Hein that a band called Suffering Grief was looking for a new drummer, after contacting them, he joined the band. At the time, Suffering Grief was composed of vocalist Raymond István Rohonyi and guitarists Pål Bjåstad and Tommy Lindal. No bassist had joined the band yet, but Eirik T. Saltrø had agreed to play with them in live concerts. After finding a rehearsal place, the band decided to work upon a couple of piano arrangements composed by Lorentz Aspen; the vocals, at the time, were entirely composed of raw death grunts. After composing their first song, "Lament of the Perishing Roses", the band changed its name to La Reine Noir and to Theatre of Tragedy.
They subsequently invited singer Liv Kristine Espenæs - Rohonyi's girlfriend - to do female vocals for one song, but invited her to join the band permanently. In 1994, their first studio demo was recorded, in 1995, the debut album Theatre of Tragedy was released, followed by Velvet Darkness They Fear in 1996 and the A Rose for the Dead EP in 1997, which contained unreleased material from Velvet Darkness They Fear. Arguably, the band reached the apogee of its career in 1998, with the release of the critically acclaimed album Aégis. Released in 2000, Musique was a massive departure from the gothic metal sound that Theatre of Tragedy had developed over the previous three albums; the heavy guitars and Early Modern English lyrics were replaced by electropop and industrial-influenced metal. It was met with a mixed reception, while some older fans were understandably shocked by the new direction of the band, it did gain them a number of new fans. With 2002's Assembly, the band continued along the same musical path as on their previous album.
It was seen as a more confident electropop record than its predecessor. It was the first album to feature their long-time session guitarist, Vegard K. Thorsen, as a full member of the band. In August 2003, the band declared in an official statement on their website that Liv Kristine was removed from the band's line-up due to "musical differences which could not be bridged". Female singer Nell Sigland joined Theatre of Tragedy on the following year. In winter 2004/2005, the band performed a short concert tour with Sigland singing; the band released their sixth studio album Storm on 24 March 2006, a European tour followed, with Gothminister as supporting act. The album's title song was released as a single on 24 February 2006. While still keeping on the industrial and electronic roots of the last two albums, the album showed a return to some of the sounds developed in their first albums. On 2 October 2008, Theatre of Tragedy celebrated their 15th anniversary. In December 2008 the band posted a snippet of new track "Frozen,", expected to be on the new album, on their MySpace music page: "Time for some updates.
Things are moving forward with the next album. As usual with the Theatre machinery there is many things to take into consideration when doing stuff and we were forced to change collaborators for the production of the album, postpone the recordings, but fear not the heavy responsibility has been entrusted to Alexander Møklebust and the ToT crew will enter Room 13 in May and June for recordings and general mayhem! Estimated release from AFM is end of September. Rumor has it. We will keep you posted." In June 2009 saw. Their 7th album was released in Europe on 21 September 2009, with the band making a step towards their earlier sound of Aégis. A special tour edition of Forever Is the World was issued on 12 March 2010; the tour edition contained a bonus CD known as the Addenda EP, which contains song reworkings and unreleased tracks. Metal Mind Productions issued a press release in July stating that they were, with the co-operation of the band, re-releasing Musique and Assembly. Both albums will be backed with bonus tracks.
New liner notes and artwork are said to be a part of the package. Each album is limited to 2000 numbered copies. On 1 March 2010, Theatre of Tragedy issued a statement informing fans of their decision to split on 2 October 2010; the statement cited personal desires to spend more time with family and an inability to juggle their everyday working lives with a "rock and roll" lifestyle. On 12 March, Theatre of Tragedy kicked off their farewell tour, "Forever is the World Tour"; the Norwegian symphonic goth metal band Where Angels Fall opened for them on the European part of the tour. In September, fans helped the band to secure funds to finish their first and last DVD by making donations when the label pulled out most of the funding for the production; the result was Last Curtain Call, a concert film from their last show on 2 October 2010 in their hometown Stavanger. On 5 July 2013, the band's first three albums were remastered. In December 2015, Liv Kristine did a tour across Germany, Russia, Poland and United Kingdom, with her own solo project.
She performed songs from her solo project and from Theatre of Tragedy like she does in solo concerts. Moreover, Raymond István Rohonyi joined her on this tour, she played at the Metal Female Voices Fe
Haven (Dark Tranquillity album)
Haven is the fifth full-length studio album by the band Dark Tranquillity, released on July 7, 2000. This release is the first to feature Mikael Niklasson and Martin Brändström, the first release with Martin Henriksson on guitar, switching from his previous position on bass. Haven retains the electronic music elements of past albums, along with appealing song composition and more polished production; as with the previous album, Mikael Stanne uses harsh vocals. All lyrics written by Mikael Stanne. Videos "Therein" Like the previous album, critical reception was mixed. Guitarist Niklas Sundin has been quite critical of the album, stating that this is his least favourite Dark Tranquillity album, considering it "too safe in places" and stating that the album "could benefit from more variation". Despite the mixed feelings towards Haven, MetalGuru listed it #5 in its "Retro 2000 Top 5 Albums." AllMusic called it "inspired" and a "career milestone"
Death (metal band)
Death was an American death metal band from Orlando, founded in 1983 by guitarist and vocalist Chuck Schuldiner. Death is considered to be among the most influential bands in heavy metal and a pioneering force in the extreme metal subgenre of death metal, their debut album, Scream Bloody Gore, has been regarded as the first death metal record. Death had a revolving lineup, with Schuldiner being the sole consistent member; the group's style progressed, from the raw sound on its first two albums to a more sophisticated one in its stage. The band ceased to exist after Schuldiner died of glioma and pneumonia in December 2001, but remains an enduring influence on heavy metal. Founded in 1983 or 1984 by Chuck Schuldiner under the original name of Mantas in Orlando, Death was among the more known, early pioneers of the death metal sound along with California's Possessed. In the late 80s, the band was both a part of and integral in defining the death metal scene which gained international recognition with the release of albums by a number of area acts.
Together with Kam Lee, Rick Rozz, Schuldiner started to compose songs that were released on several rehearsal tapes in 1984. These tapes, along with the Death by Metal demo, circulated through the tape-trader world establishing the band's name. In 1984, Schuldiner dissolved Mantas and started a new band under the name Death. Tim Aymar, in an article written in December 2010, states that Chuck Schuldiner renamed the band Death in order to turn his experience of the death of his brother Frank years earlier into "something positive", its members included the same Rick Kam Lee. Another demo was released, called Reign of Terror. In 1985, the Infernal Death tape was released. Rick Rozz was out of the band by early 1985. Kam Lee played with Scott Carlson and Matt Olivo and guitarist of the band Genocide for a short time. However, Kam had some "personal problems". Olivo and Carlson left soon afterward. Schuldiner moved to the San Francisco Bay Area and recruited Dirty Rotten Imbeciles drummer Eric Brecht recorded the Back from the Dead demo.
However, Chuck was not happy with this incarnation of Death and moved back to Florida without a band. In 1986, Schuldiner got an invitation from early Canadian thrash metal band Slaughter to play on their album, which he accepted, moving to Canada. However, this only lasted two weeks, he returned to the States, he returned to Florida moved back to the San Francisco Bay Area again, where he joined with 17-year-old drummer Chris Reifert. They recorded the Mutilation demo, which led to a deal with Combat Records, owned by Important Distribution, that enabled them to record the first LP. Scream Bloody Gore was released in 1987 considered a genre template for death metal. Schuldiner had a second guitar player, John Hand, but Hand did not appear on the album. By this time Schuldiner had moved back to Florida, splitting with Reifert who had elected to remain in California, where he went on to form Autopsy. There, Schuldiner teamed up with former bandmate Rick Rozz and two members of Rozz's band Massacre, Terry Butler and Bill Andrews.
In 1988, that line-up recorded Leprosy. After much touring in support of the album, including a quick and ill-planned tour of Europe, Rick Rozz was fired in 1989. After a tour of Mexico featuring guitarist Paul Masvidal, a replacement was found in James Murphy, with whom the third album Spiritual Healing was recorded in Tampa in the summer of 1989. Murphy left the band quickly. By this time Schuldiner abandoned the "gore" lyrical theme for more social critique and melody was added to the band's sound. In 1990, on the eve of a European tour, Schuldiner decided against traveling, claiming at the last minute that he felt the tour was not adequately organized. Andrews and Butler continued with the tour of Europe as'Death' to fulfill the band's contractual obligations, recruited roadies Walter Trachsler and Louie Carrisalez to replace Schuldiner, much to Schuldiner's shock and disgust. Schuldiner took legal action and Butler and Andrews were fired from the band. Schuldiner abandoned the idea of a band set-up altogether and began working with session musicians only.
Schuldiner hired Steve Di Giorgio and recruited Sean Reinert and Paul Masvidal from underground Florida band Cynic. In 1991, Death released Human, considered a more technical and progressive album than their previous works, incorporating complex rhythms and song structures. Human was Death's best-selling album yet, receiving many accolades and some MTV play for the group's first video, directed by David Bellino, for the track "Lack of Comprehension". Due to obligations with his primary band Sadus, Di Giorgio was forced to depart after the recording of Human and new bassist Skott Carino did Death's extensive world tour, from October 1991 until March 1992, in addition to appearing in the music video for "Lack of Comprehension". Schuldiner fired his manager Eric Greif after Spiritual Healing but settled and re-hired him before the recording of Human. Although there were at least two lawsuits between Greif and Schuldiner, Schuldiner was characteristically mellow in an interview with Thrash'n Burn about what the writer referred to as his "gruesome collaboration" with Greif: "We just came to the conclusion t
Agglutination Metal Festival
Agglutination Metal Festival is an Italian metal festival held annually in Basilicata, among the towns of Senise and Sant'Arcangelo. Born in 1995 as an event to promote emerging groups, it is one of the first metal festivals in Italy and one of the most long-lived metal events in Europe, it has hosted bands such as Overkill, Cannibal Corpse, Stratovarius, Exodus, Gamma Ray, Dark Tranquillity and Marduk. Among the Italian bands that performed at the Agglutination are Rhapsody of Fire, Necrodeath, Stormlord and Theatres des Vampires. August in Chiaromonte Marshall and other local bands August in Chiaromonte White Skull, Lost Innocence and other local bands 12 August in Chiaromonte Overkill, White Skull, Aggressive Fear, In Human Memories, Black Sunrise, Flash Terrorist, Lost Innocence, Funeral Fuck 11 August in Chiaromonte Athena, Lacrima Christi, Glacial Fear, Hastings, Memories of a Lost Soul, Black Sunrise, Funeral Fuck 13 August in Chiaromonte White Skull, Moonlight Comedy, Tenebrae Oburiuntur, Obscure Devotion, 3rd, Kiss of Death, Pino Miale 12 August in Chiaromonte Domine, Vision Divine, Glacial Fear, Art Inferno, Steel Cage, Eclipse, Eden Shape 11 August in Chiaromonte Ancient, White Skull, Secret Sphere, The Black, Schizo, Glacial Fear, Requiem K626, Enemynside, Dark Secret, Rainy Night 12 August Chiaromonte Destruction, Vicious Rumors, Undertakers, Heimdall, Infernal Poetry, Holy Knights, Adimiron 9 August in Chiaromonte Virgin Steele, Theatres des Vampires, Fire Trails, Marshall, Rosae Crucis, Requiem K626, Hunchback 12 August in Chiaromonte Iron Savior, Crystal Ball, Centurion, Thy Majestie, Nameless Crime, Walkyrya 13 August in Chiaromonte Mayhem, Freedom Call, Mesmerize, Valiance 10 August in Chiaromonte Vision Divine, Majesty, Dark Lunacy, Pandaemonium, Aleph, Infernal Angels, Megawatt 11 August in Sant'Arcangelo Gamma Ray, Infernal Death, Kaledon, Dark Lunacy, Fire Trails, Tankard 9 August 2008 in Sant'Arcangelo Dark Tranquility, Vision Divine, Domine, Metal Gang with Pino Scotto, DGM, Savior from Anger, Nefertum 10 August in Sant'Arcangelo U.
D. O. Vader, Fabio Lione, Forgotten Tomb, Fratello Metallo, Trick or Treat, Symbolyc 9 August in Sant'Arcangelo Cannibal Corpse, Pino Scotto, Handful of Hate, Marshall, Ver Sacrum, Solisia 20 August in Chiaromonte Bulldozer, Majesty, Bömbers, Node, PTSD, Tyrannizer Order, Stige 25 August in Chiaromonte Dark Tranquillity, Rhapsody of Fire, Rotting Christ, Vexed, Poemisia, Twilight Gate, Ghost Booster 10 August in Senise Overkill, Marduk, Folkstone, Blind Horizon, Rebürn 23 August in Senise Carcass, Entombed A. D. Belphegor, Buffalo Grillz, Eversin, Lehman 9 August in Chiaromonte Obituary, Inquisition, Forgotten Tomb, Feline Melinda, Carthagods 21 August in Chiaromonte Therion, Taake, Fleshgod Apocalypse, Nanowar of Steel, Dewfall, De La Muerte, Real Chaos 19 August in Chiaromonte Venom, White Skull, In. Si. Dia, Gravestone, Ghost of Mary, Memories of a Lost Soul 19 August in Chiaromonte Death SS, Folkstone, Witchunter, Ad Noctem Funeriis, Circle of Witches, Rome in Monochrome Official website
A music video is a short film that integrates a song with imagery, is produced for promotional or artistic purposes. Modern music videos are made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings. There are cases where songs are used in tie-in marketing campaigns that allow them to become more than just a song. Tie-ins and merchandising can be used for food or other products. Although the origins of the music video date back to musical short films that first appeared in the 1920s, they again came into prominence in the 1980s when the channel MTV based their format around the medium. Prior to the 1980s, these kinds of videos were described by various terms including "illustrated song", "filmed insert", "promotional film", "promotional clip", "promotional video", "song video", "song clip" or "film clip". Music videos use a wide range of styles and contemporary video-making techniques, including animation, live action and non-narrative approaches such as abstract film.
Some music videos combine different styles with the music, such as animation and live action. Combining these styles and techniques has become more popular because of the variety for the audience. Many music videos interpret images and scenes from the song's lyrics, while others take a more thematic approach. Other music videos may not have any concept, being a filmed version of the song's live concert performance. In 1894, sheet music publishers Edward B. Marks Joe Stern hired electrician George Thomas and various performers to promote sales of their song "The Little Lost Child". Using a magic lantern, Thomas projected a series of still images on a screen simultaneous to live performances; this would become a popular form of entertainment known as the illustrated song, the first step toward music video. In 1926, with the arrival of "talkies" many musical short films were produced. Vitaphone shorts featured many bands and dancers. Animation artist Max Fleischer introduced a series of sing-along short cartoons called Screen Songs, which invited audiences to sing along to popular songs by "following the bouncing ball", similar to a modern karaoke machine.
Early 1930s cartoons featured popular musicians performing their hit songs on-camera in live-action segments during the cartoons. The early animated films by Walt Disney, such as the Silly Symphonies shorts and Fantasia, which featured several interpretations of classical pieces, were built around music; the Warner Bros. cartoons today billed as Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies, were fashioned around specific songs from upcoming Warner Bros. musical films. Live action musical shorts, featuring such popular performers as Cab Calloway, were distributed to theaters. Blues singer Bessie Smith appeared in a two-reel short film called St. Louis Blues featuring a dramatized performance of the hit song. Numerous other musicians appeared in short musical subjects during this period. Soundies and released from 1940 to 1947, were musical films that included short dance sequences, similar to music videos. In the mid-1940s, musician Louis Jordan made short films for his songs, some of which were spliced together into a feature film, Lookout Sister.
These films were, according to music historian Donald Clarke, the "ancestors" of music video. Musical films were another important precursor to music video, several well-known music videos have imitated the style of classic Hollywood musicals from the 1930s to the 1950s. One of the best-known examples is Madonna's 1985 video for "Material Girl", modelled on Jack Cole's staging of "Diamonds Are A Girl's Best Friend" from the film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. Several of Michael Jackson's videos show the unmistakable influence of the dance sequences in classic Hollywood musicals, including the landmark "Thriller" and the Martin Scorsese-directed "Bad", influenced by the stylised dance "fights" in the film version of West Side Story. According to the Internet Accuracy Project, disc jockey–singer J. P. "The Big Bopper" Richardson was the first to coin the phrase "music video", in 1959. In his autobiography, Tony Bennett claims to have created "...the first music video" when he was filmed walking along the Serpentine in Hyde Park, London in 1956, with the resulting clip being set to his recording of the song "Stranger in Paradise".
The clip was sent to UK and US television stations and aired on shows including Dick Clark's American Bandstand. The oldest example of a promotional music video with similarities to more abstract, modern videos seems to be the Czech "Dáme si do bytu" created in 1958 and directed by Ladislav Rychman. In the late 1950s the Scopitone, a visual jukebox, was invented in France and short films were produced by many French artists, such as Serge Gainsbourg, Françoise Hardy, Jacques Dutronc, the Belgian Jacques Brel to accompany their songs, its use spread to other countries, similar machines such as the Cinebox in Italy and Color-Sonic in the USA were patented. In 1961, for the Canadian show Singalong Jubilee, Manny Pittson began pre-recording the music audio, went on-location and taped various visuals with the musicians lip-synching edited the audio and video together. Most music numbers were taped in-studio on stage, the location shoot "videos" were to add variety. In 1964, Kenneth Anger's experimental short film, Scorpio Rising used popular songs instead of dialog.
In 1964, The Moody Blues producer, Alex Murray, wanted to promote his version of "Go Now". The short film clip he produced and directed to promote the single has a striking visual style that predates Queen's similar "Bohemian Rhapsody" vid