Ambient music is a genre of music that emphasizes tone and atmosphere over traditional musical structure or rhythm. A form of slow instrumental music, it uses repetitive, but gentle, soothing sound patterns that can be described as sonic wallpaper to complement or alter one’s space and to generate a sense of calmness; the genre is said to evoke an "unobtrusive" quality. Ambient music focuses on creating a mood or atmosphere through synthesizers and timbral qualities lacking the presence of any net composition, beat, or structured melody, it uses textural layers of sound without prevalent musical tropes, rewarding both passive and active listening. Nature soundscapes are included, the sounds of acoustic instruments such as the piano and flute, among others, may be emulated through a synthesizer. According to Brian Eno, one of its pioneers, "Ambient music must be able to accommodate many levels of listening attention without enforcing one in particular. Eno popularized ambient music in 1978 with his album Ambient 1: Music for Airports.
It saw a revival towards the late 1980s with the prominence of house and techno music, growing a cult following by the 1990s. Ambient music may have elements of new-age music and drone music, as some works may use sustained or repeated notes. Ambient music did not achieve large commercial success, being criticized as having a "boring" and "over-intellectual" sound, it has attained a certain degree of acclaim throughout the years in the Internet age. Due to its open style, ambient music takes influences from many other genres, ranging from classical, avant-garde music, folk and world music, among several others; as an early 20th-century French composer, Erik Satie used such Dadaist-inspired explorations to create an early form of ambient/background music that he labeled "furniture music". This he described as being the sort of music that could be played during a dinner to create a background atmosphere for that activity, rather than serving as the focus of attention. In his own words, Satie sought to create "a music...which will be part of the noises of the environment, will take them into consideration.
I think of it as melodious, softening the noises of the knives and forks at dinner, not dominating them, not imposing itself. It would fill up those heavy silences, it would spare them the trouble of paying attention to their own banal remarks. And at the same time it would neutralize the street noises which so indiscreetly enter into the play of conversation. To make such music would be to respond to a need." In the 1960s, many music groups experimented with unusual methods, with some of them creating what would be called ambient music. In 1969, the group Coum Transmissions were performing sonic experiments in British art schools. Many pieces of ambient music were released in England and the United States of America between the late 1960s and the 1990s; some 1960s music with ambient elements include Music for Zen Meditation by Tony Scott, Soothing Sounds for Baby by Raymond Scott, Music for Yoga Meditation and Other Joys by Tony Scott. Developing in the 1970s, ambient stemmed from the experimental and synthesizer-oriented styles of the period.
Although Jamaican dub musicians such as King Tubby, Japanese electronic music composers such as Isao Tomita, as well as the psychoacoustic soundscapes of Irv Teibel's Environments series, German bands such as Popol Vuh, Ash Ra Tempel and Tangerine Dream, predate him in the creation of ambient music and/or were contemporaneous with him, Brian Eno played a key role in its development and popularization. The concept of background or furniture music had existed some time before, but only in the 70s was ambient music first created, which incorporated New Age ideals with the newly invented modular synthesizer. Eno went on to record 1975's Discreet Music with this in mind, suggesting that it be listened to at "comparatively low levels to the extent that it falls below the threshold of audibility", referring to Satie's quote about his musique d'ameublement; the impact the rise of the synthesizer in modern music had on ambient as a genre cannot be overstated. The only limit is with the composer"; the Yellow Magic Orchestra developed a distinct style of ambient electronic music that would be developed into ambient house music.
The English producer Brian Eno is credited with coining the term "ambient music" in the mid-1970s. He said that "I just gave it a name. Which is what it needed... By naming something you create a difference. You say. Names are important." He used the term to describe music that can be "actively listened to with attention or as ignored, depending on the choice of the listener", which exists on the "cusp between melody and texture". In the liner notes for his 1978 album Ambient 1: Music for Airports, Eno wrote:Whereas the extant canned music companies proceed from the basis of regularizing environments by blanketing their acoustic and atmospheric idiosyncrasies, Ambient Music is intended to enhance these. Whereas conventional background music is produced by stripping away all sense of doubt and uncertainty from the music, Ambient Music retain
Zoviet France is a music group from Newcastle upon Tyne in north east England. While dissonant and made of industrial textures, their music falls into the ambient music category. Formed in 1980, remaining anonymous, the group has had a number of members. Former members included Neil Ramshaw, Peter Jensen, Robin Storey, Lisa Hale, Paolo Di Paolo, Mark Spybey and Andy Eardley. In 2005 Storey and Eardley formed a new group, Reformed Faction; the packaging of their releases was unconventional, involving materials such as hessian, tar paper and aluminium foil. 29 February 2008: European premiere performance of John Cage's Variations VII with Atau Tanaka and Matt Wand, AV Festival, Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art, Gateshead, UK. List of ambient music artists discogs.com Zoviet France on discogs.com, a community-built database of music information Jim's Music Pages::zoviet*france, a fan site with discography
Electronic musical instrument
An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound using electronic circuitry. Such an instrument sounds by outputting an electrical, electronic or digital audio signal, plugged into a power amplifier which drives a loudspeaker, creating the sound heard by the performer and listener. An electronic instrument might include a user interface for controlling its sound by adjusting the pitch, frequency, or duration of each note. A common user interface is the musical keyboard, which functions to the keyboard on an acoustic piano, except that with an electronic keyboard, the keyboard itself does not make any sound. An electronic keyboard sends a signal to a synth module, computer or other electronic or digital sound generator, which creates a sound. However, it is common to separate user interface and sound-generating functions into a music controller and a music synthesizer with the two devices communicating through a musical performance description language such as MIDI or Open Sound Control.
All electronic musical instruments can be viewed as a subset of audio signal processing applications. Simple electronic musical instruments are sometimes called sound effects. In the 2010s, electronic musical instruments are now used in most styles of music. In popular music styles such as electronic dance music all of the instrument sounds used in recordings are electronic instruments. Development of new electronic musical instruments and synthesizers continues to be a active and interdisciplinary field of research. Specialized conferences, notably the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, have organized to report cutting-edge work, as well as to provide a showcase for artists who perform or create music with new electronic music instruments and synthesizers. In the 18th-century and composers adapted a number of acoustic instruments to exploit the novelty of electricity. Thus, in the broadest sense, the first electrified musical instrument was the Denis d'or keyboard, dating from 1753, followed shortly by the clavecin électrique by the Frenchman Jean-Baptiste de Laborde in 1761.
The Denis d'or consisted of a keyboard instrument of over 700 strings, electrified temporarily to enhance sonic qualities. The clavecin électrique was a keyboard instrument with plectra activated electrically. However, neither instrument used electricity as a sound-source; the first electric synthesizer was invented in 1876 by Elisha Gray. The "Musical Telegraph" was a chance by-product of his telephone technology when Gray accidentally discovered that he could control sound from a self-vibrating electromagnetic circuit and so invented a basic oscillator; the Musical Telegraph used steel reeds oscillated by electromagnets and transmitted over a telephone line. Gray built a simple loudspeaker device into models, which consisted of a diaphragm vibrating in a magnetic field. A significant invention, which had a profound effect on electronic music, was the audion in 1906; this was the first thermionic valve, or vacuum tube and which led to the generation and amplification of electrical signals, radio broadcasting, electronic computation, among other things.
Other early synthesizers included the Telharmonium, the Theremin, Jörg Mager's Spharophon and Partiturophone, Taubmann's similar Electronde, Maurice Martenot's ondes Martenot, Trautwein's Trautonium. The Mellertion used a non-standard scale, Bertrand's Dynaphone could produce octaves and perfect fifths, while the Emicon was an American, keyboard-controlled instrument constructed in 1930 and the German Hellertion combined four instruments to produce chords. Three Russian instruments appeared, Oubouhof's Croix Sonore, Ivor Darreg's microtonal'Electronic Keyboard Oboe' and the ANS synthesizer, constructed by the Russian scientist Evgeny Murzin from 1937 to 1958. Only two models of this latter were built and the only surviving example is stored at the Lomonosov University in Moscow, it has been used in many Russian movies -- like Solaris -- to produce "cosmic" sounds. Hugh Le Caine, John Hanert, Raymond Scott, composer Percy Grainger, others built a variety of automated electronic-music controllers during the late 1940s and 1950s.
In 1959 Daphne Oram produced a novel method of synthesis, her "Oramics" technique, driven by drawings on a 35 mm film strip. This workshop was responsible for the theme to the TV series Doctor Who, a piece created by Delia Derbyshire, that more than any other ensured the popularity of electronic music in the UK. In 1897 Thaddeus Cahill patented. Using tonewheels to generate musical sounds as electrical signals by additive synthesis, it was capable of producing any combination of notes and overtones, at any dynamic level; this technology was used to design the Hammond organ. Between 1901 and 1910 Cahill had three progressively larger and more complex versions made, the first weighing seven tons, the last in excess of 200 tons. Portability was managed only with the use of thirty boxcars. By 1912, public interest had waned, Cahill's enterprise was bankrupt. Another development, which aroused the interest of many composers, occurred in 1919-1920. In Leningrad, Leon Theremin built and demonstrated his Etherophone, renamed the Theremin.
This led to the first composi
Chaos magic spelled chaos magick, is a contemporary magical practice. It was developed in England in the 1970s, drawing from the philosophy of artist and occultist Austin Osman Spare. Sometimes referred to as "success magic" or "results-based magic", chaos magic claims to emphasize the attainment of specific results over the symbolic, theological or otherwise ornamental aspects of other occult traditions. Chaos magic has been described as a union of traditional occult techniques and applied postmodernism – a postmodernist skepticism concerning the existence or knowability of objective truth. Chaos magicians subsequently treat belief as a tool creating their own idiosyncratic magical systems and borrowing from other magical traditions, religious movements, popular culture and various strands of philosophy. Early leading figures include Ray Sherwin. Chaos magic differs from other occult traditions such as Thelema or Wicca in that it rejects the existence of absolute truth, views all occult systems as arbitrary symbol-systems that are only effective because of the belief of the practitioner.
Chaos magic thus takes an explicitly agnostic position on whether or not magic exists as a supernatural force, with many chaos magicians expressing their acceptance of a psychological model as one possible explanation. It is unknown when the term "chaos magic" first emerged, with the earliest texts on the subject referring only to "magic" or "the magical art" in general. Furthermore, they claimed to state principles universal to magic, as opposed to a new specific style or tradition, describing their innovations as efforts to rid magic of superstitious and religious ideas; the word chaos was first used in connection with magic by Peter J. Carroll in Liber Null & Psychonaut, where it is described as "the'thing' responsible for the origin and continued action of events." Carroll goes on to say that "It could as well be called'God' or'Tao', but the name'Chaos' is meaningless and free from the anthropomorphic ideas of religion." Other magical traditions like Wicca, Qabalah or the Golden Dawn system combine techniques for bringing about change with "beliefs, attitudes, a conceptual model of the universe, a moral ethic, a few other things besides."
Chaos magic grew out of the desire to strip away all of these extraneous elements, leaving behind only the techniques for affecting change. This "pick'n'mix/D. I. Y" approach means that the working practices of different chaos magicians look drastically different, with many authors explicitly encouraging readers to invent their own magical style; the central defining tenet of chaos magic is arguably the "meta-belief" that "belief is a tool for achieving effects". In chaos magic, complex symbol systems like Qabalah, the Enochian system, astrology or the I Ching are treated as maps or "symbolic and linguistic constructs" that can be manipulated to achieve certain ends but that have no absolute or objective truth value in themselves – a position referred to by religious scholar Hugh Urban as a "rejection of all fixed models of reality", summarised with the phrase "nothing is true everything is permitted"; some commentators have traced this position to the influence of postmodernism on contemporary occultism.
Another influence comes from the magical system of Austin Osman Spare, who believed that belief itself was a form of "psychic energy" that became locked up in rigid belief structures, that could be released by breaking down those structures. This "free belief" could be directed towards new aims. Other writers have highlighted the influence of occultist Aleister Crowley, who wrote of the occult: In this book it is spoken of the Sephiroth and the Paths, it is immaterial. By doing certain things certain results will follow. Within the magical system of Austin Osman Spare, magic was thought to operate by using symbols to communicate desire to something Spare termed "Kia" via the "passage" of the unconscious – hence the need for complex systems of symbolism. Provided there was enough "free belief" to feed them, these desires would grow, into "obsessions", which would culminate in magical results occurring in reality. Peter J. Carroll inherited this model from Spare, but used the term "Kia" to refer to the consciousness of the individual: "the elusive'I' which confers self-awareness".
The more general universal force, of which Kia is an aspect, Carroll termed "Chaos". In his own words: Chaos... is the force which has caused life to evolve itself out of dust, is most concentratedly manifest in the human life force, or Kia, where it is the source of consciousness... To the extent that the Kia can become one with Chaos it can extend its will and perception into the universe to accomplish magic. Chaos magicians have stressed that this basic operating process can be explained in multiple different ways, from within different paradigms. For example: Within a spirit model, the job of a shaman is to communicate their intentions to their spirit helpers, who work magic on their behalf. Within an energy model, a magician might direct their own qi/ch'i towards specific aims. Within a psychological model, a magician uses symbols to cond
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases and solids including topics such as vibration, sound and infrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician while someone working in the field of acoustics technology may be called an acoustical engineer; the application of acoustics is present in all aspects of modern society with the most obvious being the audio and noise control industries. Hearing is one of the most crucial means of survival in the animal world, speech is one of the most distinctive characteristics of human development and culture. Accordingly, the science of acoustics spreads across many facets of human society—music, architecture, industrial production and more. Animal species such as songbirds and frogs use sound and hearing as a key element of mating rituals or marking territories. Art, craft and technology have provoked one another to advance the whole, as in many other fields of knowledge. Robert Bruce Lindsay's'Wheel of Acoustics' is a well accepted overview of the various fields in acoustics.
The word "acoustic" is derived from the Greek word ἀκουστικός, meaning "of or for hearing, ready to hear" and that from ἀκουστός, "heard, audible", which in turn derives from the verb ἀκούω, "I hear". The Latin synonym is "sonic", after which the term sonics used to be a synonym for acoustics and a branch of acoustics. Frequencies above and below the audible range are called "ultrasonic" and "infrasonic", respectively. In the 6th century BC, the ancient Greek philosopher Pythagoras wanted to know why some combinations of musical sounds seemed more beautiful than others, he found answers in terms of numerical ratios representing the harmonic overtone series on a string, he is reputed to have observed that when the lengths of vibrating strings are expressible as ratios of integers, the tones produced will be harmonious, the smaller the integers the more harmonious the sounds. If, for example, a string of a certain length would sound harmonious with a string of twice the length. In modern parlance, if a string sounds the note C when plucked, a string twice as long will sound a C an octave lower.
In one system of musical tuning, the tones in between are given by 16:9 for D, 8:5 for E, 3:2 for F, 4:3 for G, 6:5 for A, 16:15 for B, in ascending order. Aristotle understood that sound consisted of compressions and rarefactions of air which "falls upon and strikes the air, next to it...", a good expression of the nature of wave motion. In about 20 BC, the Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius wrote a treatise on the acoustic properties of theaters including discussion of interference and reverberation—the beginnings of architectural acoustics. In Book V of his De architectura Vitruvius describes sound as a wave comparable to a water wave extended to three dimensions, when interrupted by obstructions, would flow back and break up following waves, he described the ascending seats in ancient theaters as designed to prevent this deterioration of sound and recommended bronze vessels of appropriate sizes be placed in theaters to resonate with the fourth, fifth and so on, up to the double octave, in order to resonate with the more desirable, harmonious notes.
During the Islamic golden age, Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī is believed to postulated that the speed of sound was much slower than the speed of light. The physical understanding of acoustical processes advanced during and after the Scientific Revolution. Galileo Galilei but Marin Mersenne, discovered the complete laws of vibrating strings. Galileo wrote "Waves are produced by the vibrations of a sonorous body, which spread through the air, bringing to the tympanum of the ear a stimulus which the mind interprets as sound", a remarkable statement that points to the beginnings of physiological and psychological acoustics. Experimental measurements of the speed of sound in air were carried out between 1630 and 1680 by a number of investigators, prominently Mersenne. Meanwhile, Newton derived the relationship for wave velocity in solids, a cornerstone of physical acoustics; the eighteenth century saw major advances in acoustics as mathematicians applied the new techniques of calculus to elaborate theories of sound wave propagation.
In the nineteenth century the major figures of mathematical acoustics were Helmholtz in Germany, who consolidated the field of physiological acoustics, Lord Rayleigh in England, who combined the previous knowledge with his own copious contributions to the field in his monumental work The Theory of Sound. In the 19th century, Wheatstone and Henry developed the analogy between electricity and acoustics; the twentieth century saw a burgeoning of technological applications of the large body of scientific knowledge, by in place. The first such application was Sabine’s groundbreaking work in architectural acoustics, many others followed. Underwater acoustics was used for detecting submarines in the first World War. Sound recording and the telephone played important roles in a global transformation of society. Sound measurement and analysis reached new levels of accuracy and sophistication through the use of electronics and computing; the ultrasonic frequency range enabled wholly new kinds of application in industry.
New kinds of transducers were put to use. Acoustics is defined by ANSI/
Daniel Menche is an American experimental musician and multidisciplinary artist from Portland, Oregon. Since 1989 he has recorded many albums that are categorized as electro-acoustic, noise music, dark ambient music, avant-garde, field recordings, minimalist music and soundtrack film music, his music has a range minimalist quiet to densely loud. The sound sources of his music are wide diverse, they include manipulation of acoustic and electronic instruments, field recordings such as storms and nature sounds, feedback noise, electric Rhodes pianos, pipe organs, brass horns, granular synthesis, effects pedals, vocal choirs, prepared guitar and cellos. The core instrumentation continues to be far ranging. Recordings are created with digital technology. Daniel Menche has performed hundreds of concerts since 1991. Countries that he has performed in are: USA, Canada, UK, Australia, New Zealand, France, Switzerland, Norway, Belgium, Portugal and Spain. Multimedia art and music festivals specializing in experimental music and video art have showcased Menche’s work since 1995.
Daniel Menche has collaborated with many artists in recording and performance such as: Mamiffer, Aaron Turner, KK Null, Zbigniew Karkowski, Anla Courtis, Damion Romero, Andrew Liles, Kiyoshi Mizutani, Kevin Drumm, Mike Shiflet, John Weise, Joe Preston, John Haughm, Arcn Templ. Menche has contributed vocals to Sunn O))) song Hunting&Gathering on the Monoliths & Dimensions album. Since 2008 Daniel Menche has created abstract video art with his own music as the soundtrack; the style of his videos can be described as stop motion photo animation. Black and white photos of nature are animated in a abstract manner. Menche has created music videos with other musical artists such as: Mamiffer, Nordra, William Fowler Collins and Oakeater and John Haughm. Menche's videos were presented at the 2012 MUTEK festival at Canada. Daniel Menche’s music has been used for several short movie soundtracks, they include: Maudite Poutine by Karl Lemieux, The Reed Trains by Amir Husak and Soulmate by Chel White and Prey by Vanessa RenwickBEAST is a band, formed in 2013 by Daniel Menche along with various other guest musicians.
It is a rhythmic noise band that has themes of animalism and is focused on polyrhythmic beat patterns. BEAST is a an online digital only music entity without any physical media releases, his pet Chihuahua dog "Arrow" contributes vocals. Menche manipulated his dog’s noises to be mixed with the drum beats. Arrow has become a cult icon in the social media world for his involvement with BEAST and he was profiled in SPIN magazine for the "Pet Sounds" segment. In 2017 BEAST was featured in an online Adult Swim compilation called NOISE. Daniel Menche has appeared four times as a guest in the studio at WFMU radio. Daniel Menche has never received any music composition schooling, he is regarded as a self-taught artist. In 1980 to 1985 Daniel Menche was a successful juggler, he appeared on children’s television shows such as Bumpity. He juggled as a street artist and at children's theaters throughout Portland, Oregon. Since 2007 Daniel Menche has been employed as a school librarian and is a literacy advocate for children.
Daniel Menche's official website Daniel Menche at Bandcamp BEAST at Bandcamp Daniel Menche at Facebook Daniel Menche discography at Discogs
Aleister Crowley was an English occultist, ceremonial magician, painter and mountaineer. He founded the religion of Thelema, identifying himself as the prophet entrusted with guiding humanity into the Æon of Horus in the early 20th century. A prolific writer, he published over the course of his life. Born to a wealthy family in Royal Leamington Spa, Crowley rejected his parent's fundamentalist Christian Plymouth Brethren faith to pursue an interest in Western esotericism, he was educated at the University of Cambridge, where he focused his attentions on mountaineering and poetry, resulting in several publications. Some biographers allege that here he was recruited into a British intelligence agency, further suggesting that he remained a spy throughout his life. In 1898 he joined the esoteric Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, where he was trained in ceremonial magic by Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers and Allan Bennett. Moving to Boleskine House by Loch Ness in Scotland, he went mountaineering in Mexico with Oscar Eckenstein, before studying Hindu and Buddhist practices in India.
He married Rose Edith Kelly and in 1904 they honeymooned in Cairo, where Crowley claimed to have been contacted by a supernatural entity named Aiwass, who provided him with The Book of the Law, a sacred text that served as the basis for Thelema. Announcing the start of the Æon of Horus, The Book declared that its followers should "Do what thou wilt" and seek to align themselves with their True Will through the practice of magick. After an unsuccessful attempt to climb Kanchenjunga and a visit to India and China, Crowley returned to Britain, where he attracted attention as a prolific author of poetry and occult literature. In 1907, he and George Cecil Jones co-founded an esoteric order, the A∴A∴, through which they propagated Thelema. After spending time in Algeria, in 1912 he was initiated into another esoteric order, the German-based Ordo Templi Orientis, rising to become the leader of its British branch, which he reformulated in accordance with his Thelemite beliefs. Through the O. T. O. Thelemite groups were established in Britain and North America.
Crowley spent the First World War in the United States, where he took up painting and campaigned for the German war effort against Britain revealing that he had infiltrated the pro-German movement to assist the British intelligence services. In 1920 he established the Abbey of Thelema, a religious commune in Cefalù, Sicily where he lived with various followers, his libertine lifestyle led to denunciations in the British press, the Italian government evicted him in 1923. He divided the following two decades between France and England, continued to promote Thelema until his death. Crowley gained widespread notoriety during his lifetime, being a recreational drug experimenter, bisexual and an individualist social critic, he was denounced in the popular press as "the wickedest man in the world" and a Satanist. Crowley has remained a influential figure over Western esotericism and the counterculture, continues to be considered a prophet in Thelema, he is the subject of academic studies. Crowley was born as Edward Alexander Crowley at 30 Clarendon Square in Royal Leamington Spa, Warwickshire, on 12 October 1875.
His father, Edward Crowley, was trained as an engineer, but his share in a lucrative family brewing business, Crowley's Alton Ales, had allowed him to retire before his son was born. His mother, Emily Bertha Bishop, came from a Devonshire-Somerset family and had a strained relationship with her son; the couple had been married at London's Kensington Registry Office in November 1874, were evangelical Christians. Crowley's father had been born a Quaker, but had converted to the Exclusive Brethren, a faction of a Christian fundamentalist group known as the Plymouth Brethren, with Emily joining him upon marriage. Crowley's father was devout, spending his time as a travelling preacher for the sect and reading a chapter from the Bible to his wife and son after breakfast every day. Following the death of their baby daughter in 1880, in 1881 the Crowleys moved to Surrey. At the age of 8, Crowley was sent to H. T. Habershon's evangelical Christian boarding school in Hastings, to Ebor preparatory school in Cambridge, run by the Reverend Henry d'Arcy Champney, whom Crowley considered a sadist.
In March 1887, when Crowley was 11, his father died of tongue cancer. Crowley described this as a turning point in his life, he always maintained an admiration of his father, describing him as "my hero and my friend". Inheriting a third of his father's wealth, he began misbehaving at school and was harshly punished by Champney, he attended Malvern College and Tonbridge School, both of which he despised and left after a few terms. He became skeptical regarding Christianity, pointing out inconsistencies in the Bible to his religious teachers, went against the Christian morality of his upbringing by smoking and having sex with prostitutes from whom he contracted gonorrhea. Sent to live with a Brethren tutor in Eastbourne, he undertook chemistry courses at Eastbourne College. Crowley developed interests in chess and mountain climbing, in 1894 climbed Beachy Head before visiting the Alps and joining the Scottish Mountaineering Club; the following year he returned to the Bernese Alps, climbing the Eiger, Jungfrau, Mönch, Wetterhorn.
Having adopted the name of Aleister over Edward, in October 1895 Crowley began a three-year course at Trin