Inner Harbour ferry services
Inner Harbour ferry services connect suburbs on the foreshore of the inner Sydney Harbour with Circular Quay by commuter ferry. The services are provided by Sydney Ferries, an agency of the Government of New South Wales and these routes are coloured various shades of green on the current Sydney Ferries network map. Vessels in the First Fleet and Lady class generally service these routes, the current Sydney Ferries timetable divides Inner harbour ferry services into three sections, each operating independently. The Cahill Expressway is a prominent feature of the quay, running from the east, Sydney Cove was the site of the initial landing of the First Fleet in Port Jackson. Circular Quay was originally used for shipping and slowly developed into a transport, leisure. Sydney Ferries services use wharves 2,3,4 and 5 at Circular Quay, each wharf has ticket vending machines and ticket barriers, and is wheelchair-accessible. Balmain East- This wharf serves the suburb of Balmain East and is located on Darling Street, Cremorne Point- This wharf serves the suburb of Cremorne Point and is located on Milsons Road.
There is a cafe on the wharf that serves food. Darling Harbour- This wharf serves Darling Harbour, kirribilli- This wharf serves the suburb of Kirribilli and is located on Holbrook Street. Kirribilli wharf is home to a small gourmet eatery, the Kirribilli Wharf Café, the café is a popular destination for both members of the local community and international tourists alike. Kurraba Point- This wharf serves the suburb of Kurraba Point and is located on Kurraba Road, McMahons Point- This wharf serves the suburb of McMahons Point and is located on Henry Lawson Avenue. The wharf is located near the controversial Blues Point Tower, Milsons Point- This wharf serves the suburb of Milsons Point and is located on Alfred Street South. The wharf is located beside the Luna Park amusement park and the Sydney Harbour Bridge, during mid-late 2010, this wharf was closed for refurbishment. All services used Jeffreys Street Wharf instead, North Sydney- This wharf serves the suburb of North Sydney and is located on High Street.
Neutral Bay- This wharf serves the suburb of Neutral Bay and is located on Hay Street, Mosman Bay- This wharf serves the suburb of Mosman and is located on Avenue Street. Old Cremorne- This wharf serves the suburb of Cremorne Point and is located on Green Street, Pyrmont Bay- This wharf serves the suburb of Pyrmont and is near the Australian Maritime Museum and the The Star casino. South Mosman- This wharf serves the suburb of Mosman and is located on Musgrave Street
Governor of New South Wales
The Governor of New South Wales is the viceregal representative of the Australian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, in the state of New South Wales. In an analogous way to the Governor-General of Australia at the national level, the Governor is appointed by the queen on the advice of the Premier of New South Wales, for an unfixed period of time—known as serving At Her Majestys pleasure—though five years is the norm. The current Governor is retired General David Hurley, who succeeded Dame Marie Bashir on 2 October 2014, the office has its origin in the 18th-century colonial governors of New South Wales upon its settlement in 1788, and is the oldest continuous institution in Australia. The office of Governor is required by the New South Wales Constitution Act,1902, besides the administration of the oaths of office, there is no set formula for the swearing-in of a governor-designate. The sovereign will hold an audience with the appointee and will at that time induct the governor-designate as a Companion of the Order of Australia.
The incumbent will generally serve for at least five years, though this is only a convention. The premier may therefore recommend to the Queen that the remain in her service for a longer period of time. A governor may resign and three have died in office, furthermore, if the Lieutenant Governor becomes incapacitated while serving in the office of Governor, the next most senior judge of the Supreme Court is sworn in as the Administrator. Between 1788 and 1957, all governors were born outside of New South Wales and were members of the Peerage. Taylor once noted that out and governing New South Wales became the British aristocracys abiding consolation. Coincidentally the first Australian-born Governor, Sir John Northcott on 1 August 1946, was the first Australian-born Governor of any state, the first Governors were all military officers and the majority of governors since have come from a military background, numbering 19. Samuels was the first governor in New South Wales history without either a political, public service or military background, the first woman to hold this position is the first Lebanese-Australian governor, Dame Marie Bashir.
In this capacity, the governor will issue royal proclamations and sign orders in council, the Governor alone is constitutionally mandated to summon parliament. The governor grants Royal Assent in the Queens name, legally, if the governor withholds the Queens assent, the sovereign may within two years disallow the bill, thereby annulling the law in question. No modern viceroy has denied Royal Assent to a bill, with most constitutional functions delegated to Cabinet, the governor acts in a primarily ceremonial fashion. He or she will host members of Australias royal family, as well as foreign royalty, as part of international relations, the governor receives letters of credence and of recall from foreign consul-generals appointed to Sydney. The governor is tasked with fostering unity and pride, the governor traditionally serves as Honorary and Regimental Colonel in the Royal New South Wales Regiment and as Honorary Air Commodore of No.22 Squadron, Royal Australian Air Force. Since 1946, the governor has always made the Chief Scout of New South Wales
Railway Square, Sydney
Railway Square is a plaza at the southern end of the Sydney central business district, formed by the confluence of Broadway, Lee Street, Pitt Street and George Street. The square itself is a busy intersection and is the site of a large bus terminus. The University of Technology, Central railway station and the now-closed Kent Brewery are adjacent to Railway Square, Railway Square was originally known as Central Square. The Marcus Clark department stores were located in a number of buildings at Central Square, the Parcel Post Office in Lee Street was built in 1913, having been designed by George McRae, the government architect. It was restored and converted to the Medina Hotel, the area was previously a busy nexus for the electric tramways of Sydney until the systems closure in the late 1950s. Until the 1990s, Railway Square had a bus terminal in its centre. The platforms were connected to one another, as well as the sides of Lee Street and Broadway. The tunnel was accessible by escalator, the site was redeveloped in 1999 to incorporate two platforms, lifts, a cafe and access to the University of Technology.
The site was fitted with public artwork created by Merilyn Fairskye, including murals, illuminated wall panels and four towers with coloured steel ribbons inside, Railway Square is dominated by the rising glass bus terminal structure, and by four sculpture light towers. The area is now an interchange for State Transit Authority bus routes, Railway Square is not only traversed underneath by the extension of the Devonshire Street pedestrian tunnel, but by a railway tunnel that runs underneath at the southern end of the square. The tunnel was part of the Metropolitan Goods line linking the lines south from Central with Darling Harbour. This tunnel is the oldest railway tunnel in New South Wales and is now disused, the section of the rail line between the tunnel and the Powerhouse Museum is now a park and pedestrian pathway called The Goods Line. The section beyond the Powerhouse Museum has been converted to light rail, Sydney Parramatta Road Great Western Highway
Central railway station, Sydney
The Central railway station is a railway station located at the southern end of the central business district in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Often abbreviated as Central or Central station, the station is the largest and busiest railway station in New South Wales and it services almost all of the lines on the Sydney Trains network, and is the major terminus for NSW TrainLink services. Actual patronage was 11.35 million passenger movements in 2013, there have been three terminal stations in Sydney. The original Sydney station was opened on 26 September 1855 in a known as Cleveland Fields. This station, called Redfern, had Devonshire Street as its northern boundary, when this station became inadequate for the traffic it carried, a new station was built in 1874 on the same site and called Redfern. This was a building with two platforms. It grew to 14 platforms before it was replaced by the station to the north of Devonshire Street. The new station was built on a site occupied by the Devonshire Street Cemetery, a convent, a female refuge, a police barracks, a parsonage.
The remains exhumed from the cemetery were re-interred at several other Sydney cemeteries including Rookwood, bodies were moved to Botany by steam tram motors and flat cars. The present station was opened on 4 August 1906 and opening for passengers on 5 August 1906. The new station included the previous Mortuary railway station used to transport funeral parties to Rookwood Cemetery, the last train departed platform 5 of the 1874 station at midnight. During the remainder of that night, the concourse was demolished. The Western Mail arrived at 05,50 on 5 August 1906 at the new station, Devonshire Street, which separated the two stations, became a pedestrian underpass to allow people to cross the railway line and is now known by many as the Devonshire Street Tunnel. An 85. 6-metre-tall clock tower in the Free Classical style was added at the corner of the station. The clock was designed by Richard Lamb and Alfred Fairfax, the co-founders of Fairfax & Roberts, Central station was designed by the Government Architect, Walter Liberty Vernon.
It is listed on the NSW State Heritage Register and the now defunct Register of the National Estate, a riot, dubbed the Battle of Central Station, took place in 1916. Soldiers rebelling against camp conditions had raided hotels in Liverpool and travelled to the city by commandeered trains, upon arrival at Central station, the rioters set about destroying the station facilities, and fire was exchanged between rampaging rioters and military police. One rioter was shot dead and several were injured, the only remaining evidence of the gun battle is a small bullet-hole in the marble by the entrance to platform 1
Australian National Maritime Museum
The Australian National Maritime Museum is a federally operated maritime museum in Darling Harbour, Sydney. One of six museums operated by the federal government, the ANMM is the only one located outside of the Australian Capital Territory. The last gallery was funded by the United States government, and is the national museum gallery in the world funded by a foreign nation. Four additional gallery spaces are used for temporary exhibits, of the six museums operated directly by the Federal government, the ANMM is the only one located outside the Australian Capital Territory. The museum is administered by the Department of Communications and the Arts on behalf of the Australian Government, in June 1985, the federal government announced the establishment of a national museum focusing on Australias maritime history and the nations ongoing involvement and dependence on the sea. Proposals for the creation of such a museum had been under consideration over the preceding years, after lobbying by New South Wales Premier Neville Wran, the decision was made to situate the new museum at Darling Harbour, and construct it as part of the areas redevelopment.
The museum building was designed by Philip Cox, Richardson Taylor & Partners, the roof was shaped to invoke the image of billowing sails, the corrugated metal roof stands over 25 metres tall on the west side, but drops significantly on the east. During development, the museum ran into a series of difficulties, in March 1998, the three top members of the ANMM interim council were sacked by the federal government and replaced. The acceptance of a US$5 million grant for a gallery showing the links between the US and Australia resulted in the displacement of much of the staff and research areas. Most of these were established in the nearby Wharf 7 building. It was resolved that New South Wales was responsible for the funding, and in October 1990. The ANMM was opened on 30 November 1991, the entry fee for the museum itself was dropped in 2004, was re-added in December 2011. During the museums first ten years of operation,3.3 million visitors attended, in 2010, Londons The Sunday Times listed the ANMM in its Worlds 10 Coolest Museums.
At the start of 2014, the ANMM announced that it would build a pavilion to showcase exhibits related to the Royal Australian Navy, the pavilion, which will be located near the museums naval vessels, will be built between July 2014 and September 2015. Eora-First People Australian Aborigines and their relationship with the water, passengers Looks at the journeys made to Australia by various groups, from the original settlers to war brides and cruise ship visitors. Watermarks Celebrates Australias love affair with the water in terms of recreation, Navy The role of the Royal Australian Navy in the defence of the nation. Includes the Sydney Series and histories of the four Australian warships named after the city of Sydney, australia–US relationship The gallery looks at the links and commonalities between Australia and the US. A US$5 million endowment to the ANMM was the United States gift for Australias bicentenary, the gallery itself was designed by the Burley Katon Halliday firm
2000 Summer Olympics
It was the second time that the Summer Olympics were held in Australia, and the Southern Hemisphere, the first being in Melbourne, Victoria, in 1956. Sydney was selected as the host city for the 2000 games in 1993, the United States won the most medals with 93, while Australia came in 4th with 58. The games cost was estimated to be A$6.6 billion, the Games received universal acclaim, with the organisation, volunteers and Australian public being lauded in the international media. Bill Bryson from The Times called the Sydney Games one of the most successful events on the world stage, admit there can never be a better Olympic Games, and be done with it, as Sydney was both exceptional and the best. These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch and these were the second Olympic Games to be held in spring. The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by Russia, several World and Olympic records were broken during the games. With little or no controversies, the games were deemed successful with the rising standard of competition amongst nations across the world.
The Australian city of Melbourne had lost out to Atlanta for the 1996 Summer Olympics four years earlier, the Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics at USD5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 90% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the committee for the purpose of staging the Games. The competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which are required to host the Games. The cost and cost overrun for Sydney 2000 compares with a cost of USD4.6 billion, average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is USD5.2 billion, average cost overrun is 176%. In 2000, the Auditor-General of New South Wales reported that the Sydney Games cost A$6.6 billion, many venues were constructed in the Sydney Olympic Park, which failed in the years immediately following the Olympics to meet the expected bookings to meet upkeep expenses. In the years leading up to the games, funds were shifted from education and it has been estimated that the economic impact of the 2000 Olympics was that A$2.1 billion has been shaved from public consumption.
Economic growth was not stimulated to a net benefit and in the years after 2000, in the years after the games, infrastructure issues have been of growing concern to citizens, especially those in the western suburbs of Sydney. Proposed rail links to Sydneys west have been estimated to cost in the order of magnitude as the public expenditure on the games. Although the Olympic Games Opening Ceremony was not scheduled until 15 September, among the pre-ceremony fixtures, host nation Australia lost 1–0 to Italy at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, which was the main stadium for the 1956 Melbourne Olympics. The opening ceremony began with a tribute to the Australian pastoral heritage of the Australian stockmen and it was produced and filmed by Sydney Olympic Broadcasting Organisation and the home nation broadcaster, Channel 7. This was introduced by a rider, Steve Jefferys
Sydney central business district
The Sydney central business district is the main commercial centre of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It extends southwards for about 3 km from Sydney Cove, the point of first European settlement in which the Sydney region was initially established, due to its pivotal role in Australias early history, it is one of the oldest established areas in the country. Geographically, its north–south axis runs from Circular Quay in the north to Central railway station in the south, at the 2011 Australian Census, the CBD recorded a population of 14,308. Sydney CBD is very used to refer not only to the CBD proper. The Sydney CBD is Australias main financial and economic centre, as well as a hub of economic activity for the Asia-Pacific region. The city centre employs approximately 13% of the Sydney regions workforce and it produced $64.1 billion worth of goods and services in 2011–12. Culturally, the city centre is Sydneys focal point for nightlife and it is home to some of the citys most significant buildings and structures.
The Sydney CBD is an area of very densely concentrated skyscrapers and other buildings, interspersed by parks such as Hyde Park, The Domain, Royal Botanic Gardens. George Street is the Sydney CBDs main north–south thoroughfare, the CBD runs along two ridge lines below Macquarie Street and York Streets. Between these ridges is Pitt Street, running close to the course of the original Tank Stream, bridge Street, took its name from the bridge running east–west that once crossed this stream. Pitt Street is the heart of the city which includes the Pitt Street Mall. Macquarie Street is a historic precinct that houses such buildings as the State Parliament House, the Sydney CBD falls under the authority of the local government area of the City of Sydney. The New South Wales state government has authority over some aspects of the CBD, the Sydney CBD is home to some of the largest Australian companies, as well as serving as an Asia-Pacific headquarters for many large international companies. Sydneys CBD is serviced by rail, light rail, buses.
There is a largely-underground CBD rail loop, accessed in both directions via Central, which services five additional CBD stations, plus a spur line to Bondi Junction which services two. The only light rail line currently operating links the southern part of the CBD, both government-run and privately owned, service the CBD along several dozen routes to both inner and more remote suburbs. NightRide is an bus service that operates between midnight and 5, 00am, with most services running from George Street outside the Sydney Town Hall. Sydney Ferries operate largely from Circular Quay, on the edge of the CBD
Light rail in Sydney
The Sydney light rail network is a tram or light rail system serving the Australian city of Sydney, New South Wales. The network presently consists of a single 12. 8-kilometre line of 23 stations, a second line is under construction and two further lines serving Western Sydney have been announced. The network is controlled by the New South Wales Governments transport authority, Transport for NSW, in 2015-16,9.7 million passenger journeys were made on the network. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Sydney developed a tram network. In the 1980s and 1990s, the city areas of Darling Harbour. In 1988 the Sydney Monorail opened, connecting Darling Harbour to the Central Business District, a section of track between Pyrmont and Haymarket was upgraded and a new on-street section constructed to link the line to Central railway station. The line was set up as a partnership and opened in August 1997 as the Sydney Light Rail. The lines owner soon made proposals for an extension along the disused section of the goods line.
The western extension opened in 2000, but the company was unsuccessful in its attempts to develop a CBD line, the extensions announced during the decade total almost 40-kilometres. If all projects are completed, the network would expand in size from 7. 2-kilometres at the start of the decade to approximately 50-kilometres, the contract gave the company significant control over the commercial arrangements relating to future extensions or interconnecting lines. SLRC contracted operation of the line to TNT, who owned the monorail. A major change occurred in August 1998 when the rail and monorail effectively merged. TNT sold the monorail to CGEA Transport and the companies owning SLRC, CGEA Transport and its successors have operated the inner city light rail network ever since. The company controlling the light rail and monorail became known as Metro Transport Sydney, the Government of New South Wales purchased Metro Transport Sydney on 23 March 2012 for $19.8 million, and the company was placed under the control of Transport for NSW.
The monorail closed on 30 June 2013, from 1 July, the Metro Light Rail brand was phased out as part of a broader rebranding and reorganisation of public transport services in New South Wales. The process of shutting down Metro Transport Sydney and transferring assets to Transport for NSW was completed in September 2014, in December 2014, Transport for NSW awarded the contract to the ALTRAC Light Rail consortium, consisting of Alstom, Acciona Infrastructure & Capella Capital. The operating contract commenced on 1 July 2015 and runs until 2034, Transdev Sydney operate and maintain the network as part of the consortium. The following table lists patronage figures for the network during the financial year
Chinese Garden of Friendship
The Chinese Garden of Friendship is a Chinese garden in Chinatown, Australia. Modelled on the private gardens of the Ming Dynasty, the garden offers an insight into Chinese heritage. The Chinese Garden of Friendship was designed by Sydneys Chinese sister city, Sydney complements the areas already rich Chinese heritage and culture. The gardens were opened in 1988 as part of Sydneys bicentennial celebrations. The Chinese Gardens are filled with beautiful bamboo plants and glistening waterfalls, the whole garden cannot be seen from any point within the garden. The garden is a venue for weddings. The garden was used as a scene for Dulceas compound in 20th Century Foxs 1995 superhero film Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, The Movie, many features of the gardens were changed or covered up as the movie was set in Japan. List of Chinese gardens Parks in Sydney Official website Terri McCormack
Sydney /ˈsɪdni/ is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australias east coast, the metropolis surrounds the worlds largest natural harbour, residents of Sydney are known as Sydneysiders. The Sydney area has been inhabited by indigenous Australians for at least 30,000 years, the first British settlers, led by Captain Arthur Phillip, arrived in 1788 to found Sydney as a penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Since convict transportation ended in the century, the city has transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural. As at June 2016 Sydneys estimated population was 5,005,358, in the 2011 census,34 percent of the population reported having been born overseas, representing many different nationalities and making Sydney one of the most multicultural cities in the world. There are more than 250 different languages spoken in Sydney and about one-third of residents speak a language other than English at home and it is classified as an Alpha+ World City by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world.
Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has a market economy with strengths in finance, manufacturing. Its gross regional product was $337 billion in 2013, the largest in Australia, there is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as one of Asia Pacifics leading financial hubs. Its natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, man-made attractions such as the Sydney Opera House, Sydney Tower and the Sydney Harbour Bridge are well known to international visitors. The first people to inhabit the now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago, the earliest British settlers called them Eora people. Eora is the term the indigenous used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is from this place, prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans.
Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan, the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells. Development has destroyed much of the citys history including that of the first inhabitants, there continues to be examples of rock art and engravings located in the protected Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park. The first meeting between the people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula. He noted in his journal that they were confused and somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors, Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, in most countries it started in 1929 and it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how far the economy can decline. The depression originated in the United States, after a fall in stock prices that began around September 4,1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide GDP fell by an estimated 15%, by comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession. Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s, however, in many countries, the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II. The Great Depression had devastating effects in both rich and poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%, unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%.
Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many countries, farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Even after the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time, john D. Rockefeller said These are days when many are discouraged. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have come, prosperity has always returned and will again. The stock market turned upward in early 1930, returning to early 1929 levels by April and this was still almost 30% below the peak of September 1929. Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered losses in the stock market the previous year. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S, by mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed.
By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928, prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930