Macquarie River a watercourse that is part of the Macquarie–Barwon catchment within the Murray–Darling basin, is one of the main inland rivers in New South Wales, Australia. The Macquarie Marshes drain into the Darling River via the lower Barwon River, from its origin the Macquarie River flows for 960 kilometres and drops around 517 metres over its length. Lake Burrendong at 346 metres is the dam along the length of the river. The Macquarie River starts below the locality of White Rock near Bathurst at an elevation of 671 metres. It is a combination of three systems which are Davys Creek, the overflow from Chifley Dam which fed by the Campbells River. A number of rivers and creeks flow into the Macquarie River, with descending elevation as follows, over 72% of land is flat, with an additional 17% undulating to hilly. The remainder is steep to mountainous, rising progressively to elevations above 900 metres, to the east the boundary is formed by the Great Dividing Range. This boundary extends from near Oberon in the south to Coolah in the north, a well defined ridge extends north-west from the Great Dividing Range for around 400 kilometres, the boundary turns north.
This includes an extensive floodplain around Bathurst past Hill End Plateau, where it is joined from the east by the Turon River, the elevation is around 1,100 metres in the south and 700 metres in the north. This area is predominantly rugged slopes, between Wellington and Dubbo extensive flat areas are evident. North of Dubbo, the Talbragar River joins the Macquarie, the Talbragar is the most important downstream tributary. This river rises in country at the junction of the Great Dividing Range. The country through which the Talbragar River runs is broad and flat, north of Dubbo, the river passes through flat plains flowing north-west through Narromine and Warren. A complex series of effluent creeks connect the Macquarie, Macquarie Marshes lie at the end of the river channel proper. Near Carinda, the Macquarie is joined by Marthaguy Creek which drains an area 6,500 square kilometres and carries water from the Macquarie. Rainfall varies across the catchment of the Macquarie River, generally the peaks and tablelands receive higher rainfall due to the shadowing effects of the surrounding ranges.
The Great Dividing Range area receives between 750 millimetres and 900 millimetres annual median rainfall and this is distributed relatively uniformly throughout the year. Where breaks in the Dividing Range allow the intrusion of moist easterly air streams inland, further north-west in the Castlereagh and middle portions of the Macquarie valleys the annual median rainfall is 300 millimetres to 400 millimetres
Captain Charles Napier Sturt was a British explorer of Australia, and part of the European exploration of Australia. He led several expeditions into the interior of the continent, starting from both Sydney and from Adelaide and his expeditions traced several of the westward-flowing rivers, establishing that they all merged into the Murray River. He was searching to determine if there was an inland sea, Charles Sturt was born in Bengal, British India, the eldest son of Thomas Lenox Napier Sturt, a judge under the British East India Company. At the age of five, Charles was sent to relations in England to be educated, an aunt made an appeal to the Prince Regent and, on 9 September 1813, Sturt was gazetted as an ensign with the 39th Regiment of Foot in the British Army. Sturt saw action with the Duke of Wellington in the Peninsular War and against the Americans in Canada, Sturt was gazetted lieutenant on 7 April 1823 and promoted captain on 15 December 1825. With a detachment from his regiment, Sturt escorted convicts aboard the Mariner to New South Wales, Sturt found the conditions and climate in New South Wales much better than he expected and he developed a great interest in the country.
The Governor of New South Wales, Sir Ralph Darling, formed an opinion of Sturt and appointed him major of brigade. Sturt became friendly with John Oxley, Allan Cunningham, Hamilton Hume, Sturt was keen to explore the Australian interior, especially its rivers. Sturt received approval from Governor Darling on 4 November 1828 to explore the area of the Macquarie River in western New South Wales and it was not, until 10 November that the party started out. It consisted of Sturt, his servant Joseph Harris, three soldiers and eight convicts, on 27 November Sturt was joined by Hamilton Hume as his first assistant, humes experience proved to be very useful. A week was spent at Wellington Valley breaking in oxen and horses, 1828–29 was a period of drought and there was difficulty in getting sufficient water. The courses of the Macquarie and Castlereagh rivers had been followed, and though its importance was scarcely sufficiently realized, the party returned to Wellington Valley on 21 April 1829. The expedition proved that northern New South Wales was not an inland sea, in 1829 Governor Darling approved an expedition to solve this mystery.
Sturt proposed to travel down the Murrumbidgee River, whose upper reaches had been seen by the Hume, in place of Hume, who was unable to join the party, George Macleay went as a companion rather than as an assistant. A whaleboat built in sections was carried with them which was assembled, in January 1830 Sturts party reached the confluence of the Murrumbidgee and a much larger river, which Sturt named the Murray River. It was in fact the river which Hume and Hovell had crossed further upstream. Several times the party was in danger from the Aborigines but Sturt always succeeded in appeasing them, Sturt proceeded down the Murray, until he reached the rivers confluence with the Darling. Sturt had now proved that all the western-flowing rivers eventually flowed into the Murray, in February 1830, the party reached a large lake which Sturt called Lake Alexandrina
Bogan River, a perennial river that is part of the Macquarie–Barwon catchment within the Murray–Darling basin, is located in the central west and Orana regions of New South Wales, Australia. From its origin near Parkes, the Bogan River flows for about 617 kilometres in length and flows into the Little Bogan River to form the Darling River, near Bourke. The name Bogan is an Australian Aboriginal term meaning the birthplace of a headman of the local tribe. From the foothills of the Herveys Range, the Bogan River rises to the west of the headwaters of the Little River at Cooks Myalls, the river flows in a generally north-north-westerly direction past Tottenham, Peak Hill and through Nyngan. East of Bourke, the Bogan River joins with the Little Bogan River to form the Darling River, the Bogan River has over twenty tributaries. The main tributaries to the west are Bullock, Pangee, the eastern catchment between the Bogan and Macquarie Rivers is ill-defined and has only one major tributary, Mulla Cowal.
Other sources have claimed that Bugwah Cowal, and Burrill, unlike the other main rivers of inland New South Wales, the Bogan does not rise in the well-watered highland areas, so its flow is low and erratic and not much use for irrigation. Major weirs along the watercourse are at Muddal Weir, located west of Peak Hill, the Nyngan Weir, located north of Nyngan, and Gongolgon Weir, the Kamilaroi Highway crosses the Bogan River 43 kilometres east of Bourke. A number of Aboriginal peoples lived in the surrounding the Bogan River for many thousands of years. In the area surrounding Peak Hill, the inhabitants of the area were the Wiradjuri clan. In the area surrounding Nyngan, the Ngiyambaa Aboriginal people were the custodians of the land. The river was crossed by John Oxley in 1817, but was named by Charles Sturt in his 1828-9 expedition as New Years Creek on 1 January 1829 and it was called the Bogan River prior to Major Sir Thomas Mitchell reaching here in 1835. On 17 April 1835 Richard Cunningham wandered away from the Mitchell party near the Bogan River and it is believed that he was killed here by Aborigines.
In April 1990, major flooding occurred along the river and in Nyngan, the floods caused A$50 million damage with the railway line so severely affected that rail services to Nyngan have since ceased, although freight services from Cobar are unaffected. Other significant flooding of the Bogan River occurred in 1928, Rivers of New South Wales Macquarie-Bogan River, NSW Water Quality and River Flow Objectives at the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage. Images of the Bogan River at the State Library of New South Wales, muir, G. L, Johnson, W. D. Chemistry of the Bogan River, New South Wales, with Special Reference to the Sources of Dissolved Material, Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
Bourke, New South Wales
Bourke is a town in the north-west of New South Wales, Australia. The administrative centre and largest town in Bourke Shire, Bourke is approximately 800 kilometres north-west of the capital, Sydney. At the 2011 census, Bourke had a population of 2,047, the location of the current township of Bourke on a bend in the Darling River is the traditional country of the Ngemba people. The first white explorer to encounter the river was Charles Sturt in 1828 who named it after New South Wales Governor Ralph Darling and it was not until the mid-1800s following a visit by colonial surveyor and explorer Sir Thomas Mitchell in 1835 that settlement of the area began. Following tensions with the local people Mitchell built a stockade to protect his men. This first crude structure became the foundation for a community with a small number of agricultural. Bourke was surveyed for a town in 1869 and soon established itself as the trade hub of New South Wales with several transportation industries setting up branches in the town.
By the 1880s Bourke would host a Cobb & Co, a small Afghan mosque that dates back to the 1900s can be found within Bourke cemetery. As trade moved away from transport routes, Bourkes hold on the inland trade industry began to relax. Whilst no longer considered a centre, Bourke serves instead as a key service centre for the states north western regions. In this semi-arid outback landscape, sheep farming along with small irrigated cotton crops comprise the primary industry in the area today. Bourkes traditional owners endured a similar fate to indigenous people across Australia, dispossessed of their traditional country and in occasional conflict with white settlers, they battled a loss of land and culture and were hit hard by European disease. While the population of the local Ngemba and Barkindji people around the town of Bourke had dwindled by the late 19th century, others found employment on local stations working with stock and found their skill as trackers in high demand. The majority of settlers were Wangkumara people from the Tibooburra region.
In 1962 local high jumper Percy Hobson became the first Aboriginal athlete to win a Commonwealth Games gold medal for Australia in Perth, tall Hobson jumped 13 inches above his height to win the event with a leap of 6 ft.11 inches. While Hobson was urged by athletics administrators ‘not to broadcast his ancestry’, he was celebrated on his return to Bourke, cathy Freeman was the next Aboriginal athlete to claim a Commonwealth Gold in Auckland in 1990. In Bourke today there are 21 different recognised indigenous language groups including Ngemba, Wangkumara, Bourke has a hot semi-arid climate with mild amount of rainfall throughout the year. On 4 January 1903, Bourke recorded a temperature of 49
Morgan, South Australia
Morgan is a town in South Australia on the right bank of the Murray River, just downstream of where it turns from flowing roughly westwards to roughly southwards. It is about 161 kilometres north east of Adelaide, and about 315 kilometres upstream of the Murray Mouth, at the 2006 census, Morgan had a population of 426. The locality was at the boundary of ancient and traditional owners - the Ngarrindjeri to the south. Several Indigenous names are recorded, Korkoranna for Morgan itself, Koolpoola for the opposite flats, the first Europeans to visit were the expedition of Charles Sturt, who passed by in a rowboat in 1830. The first Europeans to visit overland, by horseback, in March 1838, was the expedition of Hill, Oakden and they noted a large Indigenous population. The locality was known to Europeans as the North West Bend, or Norwest Bend, or Great South Bend, due to an acute change in the trend. The westward flowing stream of the turns here to flow southward. The nearby pioneering pastoral station, Northwest Bend Station, established in the 1840s, a large wharf was built, and Morgan, being the railway terminus, became one of the busiest ports on the Murray.
It handled nearly all the goods that were being imported and exported to and from a vast region upstream from Morgan along the Murray and Darling rivers. At its peak, Morgan was the second busiest port in South Australia, as road transport improved through the early part of the 20th century, river transport declined. The railway to Morgan finally closed in 1969, a free road transport ferry service operates 24 hours for river crossings. Just southward from Morgan is a riverfront development named Brenda Park, which has flourished since WWII, originally as rustic shacks, despite these new developments, many historic buildings remain in the town. A number of buildings have signs showing their former use. The two hotels, both historic, sit opposite each other, facing the riverfront, a caravan park is sited near the riverfront. Morgan is in the Mid Murray Council local government area, the electoral district of Stuart. During World War II, the Morgan-Whyalla pipeline was built from the Murray River at Morgan to supply water to the city of Whyalla.
Cadell Training Centre Murray River crossings Morgan website Marfleet, The Morgan Project, Society for Underwater Historical Research, Port Adelaide, white, J. W. R. Morgan Centenary 1878-1978, Commemoration Book, Morgan Centenary Committee, South Australia
Wentworth, New South Wales
Wentworth is a small border town in the far south west of the state of New South Wales, Australia. It lies at the confluence of Australias two most important rivers, the Darling and the Murray, the forming the border with the state of Victoria to the south. The border with the state of South Australia lies approximately 100 kilometres to the west, the town of Wentworth is in the local government area of the same name. Named after the explorer and politician William Charles Wentworth, the town is 34 kilometres to the west of the Victorian regional city of Mildura. The famous mining city of Broken Hill is 266 kilometres to the north along the Silver City Highway, moorna Post Office opened on 22 February 1855 and was renamed Wentworth in 1860. In 1876 Wentworth township was described in the terms, Wentworth is situated on the Darling, about half a mile from the junction. The township is built on rising ground, save in very exceptional seasons, is out of reach of flood waters. The population is between 400 and 500, the place appears prosperous and progressive.
The trade up the Darling River, and the supply of stores to the stations in the vicinity, Wentworth possesses a custom-house – a hideous little building resembling a watch-house, and as great an eyesore as the cause of its establishment is an inconvenience and annoyance to trade. The other public buildings are a post and telegraph office, for Wentworth is on the telegraph line to Adelaide, and a court-house and offices. There is a resident police magistrate, Mr. Richardson, the two churches in Wentworth are buildings creditable to the town. The Roman Catholic Church is a structure, the Protestant Church an edifice of brick. There are three or four stores of considerable size, and several hotels, the Australian Joint Stock Bank has a branch here. The river, opposite the town is about the width of the Murray at Echuca, is crossed by a punt, during the late 1800s Wentworth was an important river port, like many such towns, its significance faded with the development of the railways. In 1902, the people of Wentworth were lobbying for a railway from Mildura to be built, the town has been flooded many times by the two rivers.
The most significant was in 1956, when rivers flooded simultaneously. Local farmers, supplemented by the army and navy, worked for months to build levee banks to hold the water out of the town, Wentworth is now an important tourist outback destination and provides a welcome break for those travelling to or from Broken Hill. Wentworth was a destination for pokie tour bus rides from Adelaide
Great Dividing Range
The Great Dividing Range, or the Eastern Highlands, is Australias most substantial mountain range and the third longest land-based range in the world. The width of the range varies from about 160 km to over 300 km, the Dividing Range does not consist of a single mountain range. It consists of a complex of ranges, upland areas and escarpments with an ancient. The physiographic division name for the landmass is called the East Australian Cordillera, in some places the terrain is relatively flat, consisting of very low hills. Typically the highlands range from 300 m to 1,600 m in height, the mountains and plateaus, which consist of limestones, quartzite and dolomite, have been created by faulting and folding processes. In the north, the rivers on the west side of the drain towards the Gulf of Carpentaria. The higher and more rugged parts of the range do not necessarily part of the crest of the range. At some places it can be up to 400 km wide, notable ranges and other features which form part of the range complex have their own distinctive names.
The Great Dividing Range was formed during the Carboniferous period—over 300 million years ago—when Australia collided with what is now parts of South America, the range has experienced significant erosion since. For tens of thousands of years prior to British colonisation the ranges were home to various Aboriginal Australian nations and clans, evidence remains in some places of their traditional way of life including decorated caves and trails used to travel between the coastal and inland regions. Many descendants of these still exist today and remain the traditional owners. After British colonisation in 1788, the ranges were an obstacle to exploration, although not high, parts of the highlands were very rugged. Towns in the Blue Mountains were named each of these men. This was the start of the development of the districts of inland New South Wales. A road was built to Blaxland by convicts within six months, easier routes to inland New South Wales were discovered towards Goulburn to the southwest, and westwards from Newcastle.
Subsequent explorations were made across and around the ranges by Allan Cunningham, John Oxley, Hamilton Hume, Paul Edmund Strzelecki, Ludwig Leichhardt and these explorers were mainly concerned with finding and appropriating good agricultural land. By the late 1830s the most fertile rangelands adjacent to the ranges had been explored, appropriated from the traditional inhabitants. These included the Gippsland and Riverina regions in the south, up to the Liverpool Plains, various road and railway routes were subsequently established through many parts of the ranges, although many areas remain remote to this day
Wilcannia is a small town located within the Central Darling Shire in north western New South Wales, Australia. This was the third largest inland port in the country during the river boat era of the mid-19th century. At the 2011 census, Wilcannia had a population of 604, the name Wilcannia is said to be derived from an Aboriginal term for either gap in the bank where floodwaters escape or wild dog. Neither meaning has been linguistically verified, in 1835, explorer Major Thomas Mitchell was the first European to the region, in which he traced the Darling River to what is now Menindee. In June 1866, the township of Wilcannia was proclaimed, in 1871, the population was 264, and grew to 1,424 by 1881. During the 1880s, Wilcannia reached its peak, and had a population of 3000 and 13 hotels and its own newspaper, Wilcannia is located where the Barrier Highway crosses the Darling River,965 kilometres from Sydney. The environment is borderline semi-arid to desert with a rainfall of 255 millimetres.
Wilcannia is located within the Darling Riverine Plains Bioregion, consisting of landscapes adapted to flooding, common species include River Red Gum, Yellow Box, Oldman Saltbush and Lignum. The surrounding area is sparsely settled by pastoralists who have large land holdings. These holdings fall in the Western Division and the majority are held as 99-year leases, Wilcannia has a semi-arid climate with hot summers and mild to cool winters. Mean maximum daily temperature in summer is 34 °C and in winter is 19 °C, the highest temperature recorded in Wilcannia was 50.0 °C on 11 January 1939. This was during the heatwave of January 1939. On 9 November 1950, a thunderstorm with damaging winds. Two people were injured, dozens of homes lost their roofs, from the 2011 Census, Wilcannia had a population of 604 with 466 people being of Aboriginal descent. The suburb was listed as one of the most socially disadvantaged areas in the State according to the 2015 Dropping Off The Edge report. The towns demographic issues were highlighted in the BBC3 documentary Reggie Yates, Hidden Australia Episode 1, Black in the Outback, media related to Wilcannia, New South Wales at Wikimedia Commons Central Darling Shire Visit NSW Wilcannia Darling Riverine Plains Bioregion
Water quality refers to the chemical, physical and radiological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and it is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed. The most common used to assess water quality relate to health of ecosystems, safety of human contact. In the setting of standards, agencies make political and technical/scientific decisions about how the water will be used, in the case of natural water bodies, they make some reasonable estimate of pristine conditions. Natural water bodies will vary in response to environmental conditions, Environmental scientists work to understand how these systems function, which in turn helps to identify the sources and fates of contaminants. Environmental lawyers and policymakers work to define legislation with the intention that water is maintained at a quality for its identified use. The vast majority of water on the Earth is neither potable nor toxic.
This remains true when seawater in the oceans is not counted, another general perception of water quality is that of a simple property that tells whether water is polluted or not. In fact, water quality is a subject, in part because water is a complex medium intrinsically tied to the ecology of the Earth. Industrial and commercial activities are a cause of water pollution as are runoff from agricultural areas, urban runoff. The parameters for water quality are determined by the intended use, work in the area of water quality tends to be focused on water that is treated for human consumption, industrial use, or in the environment. Water quality depends on the geology and ecosystem, as well as human uses such as sewage dispersion, industrial pollution, use of water bodies as a heat sink. The United States Environmental Protection Agency limits the amounts of contaminants in tap water provided by US public water systems. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration regulations establish limits for contaminants in bottled water that must provide the protection for public health.
Drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants, the presence of these contaminants does not necessarily indicate that the water poses a health risk. Water drawn directly from a stream, lake, or aquifer, dissolved minerals may affect suitability of water for a range of industrial and domestic purposes. Hard water may be softened to remove these ions, the softening process often substitutes sodium cations. Hard water may be preferable to soft water for consumption, since health problems have been associated with excess sodium
Drought in Australia
Drought in Australia is defined by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology as rainfall over a three-month period being in the lowest decile of what has been recorded for that region in the past. This definition takes into account that drought is a relative term, specifically drought in Australia is defined in relation to a rainfall deficiency of pastoral leases and is determined by decile analysis applied to a certain area. Note that this definition uses rainfall only because long-term records are available across most of Australia. However, it does not take into account other variables that might be important for establishing surface water balance, historical climatic records are now sufficiently reliable to profile climate variability taking into account expectations for regions. Bureau of Meteorology records since the 1860s show that a drought has occurred in Australia, on average. State Governments are responsible for declaring a region drought affected and the declaration will take into account factors other than rainfall, the worst drought to affect the country occurred in the 21st century—between the years 2003 to 2012.
Deficiencies in northern Australia increased in 2013–14, leading to a drought period in certain parts of Queensland. 1803 Drought in New South Wales that produced severe crop failures,1809 Beginning of an unusually severe drought in NSW that continued until 1811. 1813−15 Severe drought in NSW that prompted searches for new pastures, 1826−29 Severe drought in NSW that caused Lake George to dry up and the Darling River to cease flowing. Since 1860, when adequate meteorological recording commenced, the most severe droughts have occurred commonly at intervals of 11 to 14 years, Major droughts that were recorded in the 19th century include,1829 Major drought in Western Australia with very little water available. 1835 and 1838 Sydney and NSW receive 25% less rain than usual, Severe drought in Northam and York areas of Western Australia. 1838−39 Droughts in South Australia and Western Australia 1839 Severe drought in the west and north of Spencer Gulf,1846 Severe drought converted the interior and far north of South Australia into an arid desert.
1849 Sydney received about 27 inches less rain than normal,1850 Severe drought, with big losses of livestock across inland New South Wales and around the western rivers region. The little data available indicates that this period was rather severe in Victoria, South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland. 1877 All states affected by drought, with disastrous losses in Queensland. In Western Australia many native trees died, swamps dried up,1880 to 1886 Drought in Victoria, New South Wales and South Australia. 1897 Drought in much of Queensland, compared to 1883–84 droughts, at the time of Federation, Australia suffered a major drought. There had been a number of years of average rainfall across most of Australia before the drought
Brewarrina, New South Wales
Brewarrina is a town in North West New South Wales, Australia on the banks of the Barwon River in Brewarrina Shire. The name Brewarrina is derived from burru waranha, a Wayilwan name for a species of Acacia, Cassia tree, Acacia clumps and it is 96 km east of Bourke and west of Walgett on the Kamilaroi Highway, and 787 km from Sydney. The population of Brewarrina in 2011 was 1,254, other towns and villages in the Brewarrina district include, Gongolgon and Angledool. The town is located amid the lands of the Ngemba. The area has a long Indigenous Australian history and was once the grounds for over 5,000 people. The first settlers arrived in the district around 1839-40, in 1859 a stockman at Walcha Hut on the Lawson run was warned by Aborigines to release one of their women. He refused, and both he and the woman were killed, in retaliation, the settlers shot a large number of Aboriginal men and children in what became known as the Hospital Creek Massacre. A memorial was erected by the local Aboriginal Land Council near the site of the massacre, in 1859 a riverboat called Gemini, skippered by William Randell, reached the town.
This opened the possibility of developing the town as a port, Brewarrina became a port for shipping wool to Adelaide via the Darling and Murray rivers. The town was surveyed and laid out in 1861 and proclaimed on 28 April 1863. The paddle steamer Wandering Jew 66 tonnes,22 ×4.4 ×1.5 m, on 15 December 1914, Wandering Jew was lost due to a fire on Barwon River, Brewarrina. The Wandering Jew represents an earlier era and provides a direct link to the riverine heritage of Brewarrina. Its colourful history and repeated damage by fire is evocative of the associated with riverboat travel. The 1870s were something of a time for Brewarrina. The courthouse was built in 1871, the Telegraph reached town in 1873. The Mechanics Institute formed in 1873, the following year two hotels, two stores and the Commercial Bank all opened, and in 1875 The Parish of Brewarrina was formed and public school was opened. All this development was due to Cobb and Co, which had a number of coach services passing through the town.
There was a service from Byrock, one from Dubbo via Warren and, in 1874, the number of people moving through the town at this time would have been considerable and would have given rise to the increase in stores and hotels
Murray Bridge, South Australia
Murray Bridge is a city in the Australian state of South Australia, located 76 kilometres east-southeast of the states capital city, and 77 kilometres north of the town of Meningie. The city has an urban population of 17,921 at June 2015. Making the city the fifth most populous area in the state, after Adelaide, Mount Gambier, Victor Harbour - Goolwa. The city was known as Mobilong and as Edwards Crossing, before being renamed as Murray Bridge in 1924, deriving its name from the road. The city is situated on the Princes Highway, the road transport link between Adelaide and Melbourne. The city services an area including dairy, chickens, cereal crops. Murray Bridge is in the lands of the Ngarrindjeri people. The first European explorer was Charles Sturt who camped there on 8 February 1830, the first road bridge across the lower Murray was known as The Murray Bridge and completed at Edwardss Crossing in 1879. The bridge became a road and rail bridge in 1886 until the separate rail bridge was completed in 1925.
The bridge was designed for 1,067 mm rail track gauge though in actuality, the town was renamed as Murray Bridge in 1924. In 1979 the Swanport Bridge, carrying the South Eastern Freeway across the Murray River was completed 5 kilometres downstream, Murray Bridge contains a number of heritage-listed sites, including the Murray Bridge Transport Precinct, listed on the South Australian Heritage Register. The urban area that contains and surrounds Murray Bridge had a population of 16,708 as at the 2011 census, in the 2006 census, the population was 14,048 and at the 2001 census, the population was 12,998. In the 2006 Census,10. 4% of the population were born overseas, the median weekly household income was A$639 per week, compared with $924 in Adelaide. 13. 3% of the population identified themselves as Lutheran, while a higher 24. 7% identified with no religion, in 1924 the Murray Bridge rowing team was chosen to represent Australia at the Paris Olympics. Although accustomed to rowing over 3 miles, the Murray Cods were able to defeat the other crews on the 1 mile and 420 yards course, the story of their fund-raising and exploits in Paris are detailed on the Australian Rowing History website.
Murray Bridge is home to the infamous Bunyip, a replica of the legendary monster is located on Sturt Reserve. Murray Bridge is home to the River Murray Football League, the league consists of the Murray Bridge-based clubs of Ramblers and Imperials and the district teams of Mypolonga, Tailem Bend and Meningie. In 2005 the citys course, Murray Bridge Golf Club, held the States premier regional junior team event