Darmstadtium is a chemical element with the symbol Ds and atomic number 110. It is an radioactive synthetic element; the most stable known isotope, darmstadtium-281, has a half-life of 12.7 seconds. Darmstadtium was first created in 1994 by the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research near the city of Darmstadt, after which it was named. In the periodic table, it is a d-block transactinide element, it is a member of the 7th period and is placed in the group 10 elements, although no chemical experiments have yet been carried out to confirm that it behaves as the heavier homologue to platinum in group 10 as the eighth member of the 6d series of transition metals. Darmstadtium is calculated to have similar properties to its lighter homologues, nickel and platinum. Darmstadtium was first created on November 9, 1994, at the Institute for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany, by Peter Armbruster and Gottfried Münzenberg, under the direction of Sigurd Hofmann; the team bombarded a lead-208 target with accelerated nuclei of nickel-62 in a heavy ion accelerator and detected a single atom of the isotope darmstadtium-269: 20882Pb + 6228Ni → 269110Ds + 10nIn the same series of experiments, the same team carried out the reaction using heavier nickel-64 ions.
During two runs, 9 atoms of 271Ds were convincingly detected by correlation with known daughter decay properties: 20882Pb + 6428Ni → 271110Ds + 10nPrior to this, there had been failed synthesis attempts in 1986–87 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna and in 1990 at the GSI. A 1995 attempt at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory resulted in signs suggesting but not pointing conclusively at the discovery of a new isotope 267Ds formed in the bombardment of 209Bi with 59Co, a inconclusive 1994 attempt at the JINR showed signs of 273Ds being produced from 244Pu and 34S; each team proposed its own name for element 110: the American team proposed hahnium after Otto Hahn in an attempt to resolve the situation on element 105, the Russian team proposed becquerelium after Henri Becquerel, the German team proposed darmstadtium after Darmstadt, the location of their institute. The IUPAC/IUPAP Joint Working Party recognised the GSI team as discoverers in their 2001 report, giving them the right to suggest a name for the element.
Using Mendeleev's nomenclature for unnamed and undiscovered elements, darmstadtium should be known as eka-platinum. In 1979, IUPAC published recommendations according to which the element was to be called ununnilium, a systematic element name as a placeholder, until the element was discovered and a permanent name was decided on. Although used in the chemical community on all levels, from chemistry classrooms to advanced textbooks, the recommendations were ignored among scientists in the field, who called it "element 110", with the symbol of E110, or simply 110. In 1996, the Russian team proposed the name becquerelium after Henri Becquerel; the American team in 1997 proposed the name hahnium after Otto Hahn. The name darmstadtium was suggested by the GSI team in honor of the city of Darmstadt, where the element was discovered; the GSI team also considered naming the element wixhausium, after the suburb of Darmstadt known as Wixhausen where the element was discovered, but decided on darmstadtium.
Policium had been proposed as a joke due to the emergency telephone number in Germany being 1-1-0. The new name darmstadtium was recommended by IUPAC on August 16, 2003. Darmstadtium has no stable or occurring isotopes. Several radioactive isotopes have been synthesized in the laboratory, either by fusing two atoms or by observing the decay of heavier elements. Nine different isotopes of darmstadtium have been reported with atomic masses 267, 269–271, 273, 277, 279–281, although darmstadtium-267 and darmstadtium-280 are unconfirmed. Three darmstadtium isotopes, darmstadtium-270, darmstadtium-271, darmstadtium-281, have known metastable states, although that of darmstadtium-281 is unconfirmed. Most of these decay predominantly through alpha decay. All darmstadtium isotopes are unstable and radioactive; the most stable known darmstadtium isotope, 281Ds, is the heaviest known darmstadtium isotope. The isotope 279Ds has a half-life of 0.18 seconds, while the unconfirmed 281mDs has a half-life of 0.9 seconds.
The remaining seven isotopes and two metastable states have half-lives between 1 microsecond and 70 milliseconds. Some unknown darmstadtium isotopes may have longer half-lives, however. Theoretical calculation in a quantum tunneling model reproduces the experimental alpha decay half-life data for the known darmstadtium isotopes, it predicts that the undiscovered isotope 294Ds, which has a magic number of neutrons, would have an alpha decay half-life on the order of 311 years. No properties of darmstadtium or its compounds have been measured. Properties of darmstadtium metal remain only predictions are available. Darmstadtium is the eighth member of the 6d series of transition metals. Since copernicium has been shown to be a group 12 metal, it is expected that all the elements from 104 to 111 wo
The Karnak Flats is a historic apartment building located in the Lower West Side neighborhood of Buffalo, Erie County, New York. It was built about 1898, is a three-story, three bay, Colonial Revival style brick building, it sits on full basement. The building has four apartments per floor, for a total of twelve in the building; the front facade features a metal balconette above the central recessed entrance and a two-story tripartite Palladian window with fluted Corinthian pilaster mullions. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2016
Homo Sovieticus is a sarcastic and critical reference to an average conformist person in the Soviet Union observed in other countries of the Eastern Bloc. The term was popularized by Soviet writer and sociologist Aleksandr Zinovyev, who wrote the book titled Homo Sovieticus. Michel Heller asserted that the term was coined in the introduction of a 1974 monograph "Sovetskye lyudi" to describe the next level of evolution of humanity thanks to the success of Marxist social experiment. In a book published in 1981, but available in samizdat in the 1970s, Zinovyev coined an abbreviation homosos; the idea that the Soviet system would create a new, better kind of Soviet people was first postulated by the advocates of the system. Homo Sovieticus, was a term with negative connotations, invented by opponents to describe what they saw as the real result of Soviet policies. In many ways it meant the opposite of the New Soviet man, someone characterized by the following: Indifference to the results of his labour.
Lack of initiative and avoidance of taking any individual responsibility for anything. Jerzy Turowicz wrote: "it's a person enslaved, deprived of initiative, unable to think critically. Indifference to common property and to petty theft from the workplace, either for personal use or for profit. A line from a popular song, "Everything belongs to the kolkhoz, everything belongs to me", meaning that people on collective farms treasured all common property as their own, was sometimes used to refer to instances of petty theft. Chauvinism; the Soviet Union's restrictions on travel abroad and strict censorship of information in the media aimed to insulate the Soviet people from Western influence. There existed non-public "ban lists" of Western entertainers and bands, which, in addition to the usual criteria of not conforming to fundamental Soviet values, were added to the list for rather peculiar reasons. S. reconnaissance airplane. As a result, "exotic" Western popular culture became more interesting because it was forbidden.
Due to limited exposure, entertainers considered minor, B-list, or of low artistic value in the West were regarded as A-list in the Soviet sphere. Soviet officials called this fascination "Western idolatry" / "Idolatry before the West". Obedience to or passive acceptance of everything that government imposes. In the opinion of a former US ambassador to Kazakhstan, a tendency to drink heavily: " appears to enjoy loosening up in the tried and true Homo Sovieticus style – i.e. drinking oneself into a stupor". According to Leszek Kolakowski, the Short course history of the CPSU played a crucial role in forming the key social and mental features of the Homo Sovieticus as a "textbook of false memory and double thinking". Over the years, Soviet people were forced to continuously repeat and accept changing editions of the Short course, each containing a different version of the past events; this led to forming "a new Soviet man: ideological schizophrenic, honest liar, person always ready for constant and voluntary mental self-mutilations".
The "Soviet man" is characterised by his tendency to follow the authority of the state in its assessment of reality, to adopt an attitude of mistrust and anxiety towards anything foreign and unknown, is convinced of his own powerlessness and inability to affect the surrounding reality. His suppressed aggression, birthed by his chronic dissatisfaction with life, his intense sense of injustice and his inability to achieve self-realisation, his great envy, all erupt into a fascination with force and violence, as well as a tendency towards "negative identification" – in opposition to "the enemy" or "the foreigner"; such a personality suits a quasi-tribal approach to standards of law. Since 1991 interest has extended to the phenomenon of homo post-sovieticus. Authoritarian personality Heart of a Dog Mankurt Vatnik Brainwashing Cambra, Fernando P. de. Homo sovieticus. La vida actual en Rusia. - Barcelona: Ediciones Petronio, 1975. - 296 p. ISBN 84-7250-399-2 Aleksandr Zinovyev. Homo sovieticus. Grove/Atlantic.
ISBN 0-87113-080-7. Edward J. O'Boyle. "Work Habits and Customer Service in Post-Communist Poland". International Journal of Social Economics. 20. Józef Tischner. Etyka solidarności oraz Homo sovieticus. Kraków: Znak. p. 295. ISBN 83-240-0588-9. Ragozin, Leonid. "Thorny legacy of'Soviet Man'". BBCRussian.com. "The long life of Homo sovieticus" The Economist, Dec 10th 2011