A liquid-crystal display is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals. Liquid crystals do not emit light directly, instead using a backlight or reflector to produce images in color or monochrome. LCDs are available to display arbitrary images or fixed images with low information content, which can be displayed or hidden, such as preset words and seven-segment displays, as in a digital clock, they use the same basic technology, except that arbitrary images are made up of a large number of small pixels, while other displays have larger elements. LCDs can either be on or off, depending on the polarizer arrangement. For example, a character positive LCD with a backlight will have black lettering on a background, the color of the backlight, a character negative LCD will have a black background with the letters being of the same color as the backlight. Optical filters are added to white on blue LCDs to give them their characteristic appearance.
LCDs are used in a wide range of applications, including LCD televisions, computer monitors, instrument panels, aircraft cockpit displays, indoor and outdoor signage. Small LCD screens are common in portable consumer devices such as digital cameras, watches and mobile telephones, including smartphones. LCD screens are used on consumer electronics products such as DVD players, video game devices and clocks. LCD screens have replaced bulky cathode ray tube displays in nearly all applications. LCD screens are available in a wider range of screen sizes than CRT and plasma displays, with LCD screens available in sizes ranging from tiny digital watches to large television receivers. LCDs are being replaced by OLEDs, which can be made into different shapes, have a lower response time, wider color gamut infinite color contrast and viewing angles, lower weight for a given display size and a slimmer profile and lower power consumption. OLEDs, are more expensive for a given display size due to the expensive electroluminescent materials or phosphors that they use.
Due to the use of phosphors, OLEDs suffer from screen burn-in and there is no way to recycle OLED displays, whereas LCD panels can be recycled, although the technology required to recycle LCDs is not yet widespread. Attempts to increase the lifespan of LCDs are quantum dot displays, which offer similar performance as an OLED display, but the Quantum dot sheet that gives these displays their characteristics can not yet be recycled. Since LCD screens do not use phosphors, they suffer image burn-in when a static image is displayed on a screen for a long time, e.g. the table frame for an airline flight schedule on an indoor sign. LCDs are, susceptible to image persistence; the LCD screen can be disposed of more safely than a CRT can. Its low electrical power consumption enables it to be used in battery-powered electronic equipment more efficiently than CRTs can be. By 2008, annual sales of televisions with LCD screens exceeded sales of CRT units worldwide, the CRT became obsolete for most purposes.
Each pixel of an LCD consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes, two polarizing filters, the axes of transmission of which are perpendicular to each other. Without the liquid crystal between the polarizing filters, light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second polarizer. Before an electric field is applied, the orientation of the liquid-crystal molecules is determined by the alignment at the surfaces of electrodes. In a twisted nematic device, the surface alignment directions at the two electrodes are perpendicular to each other, so the molecules arrange themselves in a helical structure, or twist; this induces the rotation of the polarization of the incident light, the device appears gray. If the applied voltage is large enough, the liquid crystal molecules in the center of the layer are completely untwisted and the polarization of the incident light is not rotated as it passes through the liquid crystal layer; this light will be polarized perpendicular to the second filter, thus be blocked and the pixel will appear black.
By controlling the voltage applied across the liquid crystal layer in each pixel, light can be allowed to pass through in varying amounts thus constituting different levels of gray. Color LCD systems use the same technique, with color filters used to generate red and blue pixels; the optical effect of a TN device in the voltage-on state is far less dependent on variations in the device thickness than that in the voltage-off state. Because of this, TN displays with low information content and no backlighting are operated between crossed polarizers such that they appear bright with no voltage; as most of 2010-era LCDs are used in television sets and smartphones, they have high-resolution matrix arrays of pixels to display arbitrary images using backlighting with a dark background. When no image is displayed, different arrangements are used. For this purpose, TN LCDs are operated between parallel polarizers, whereas IPS LCDs feature crossed polarizers. In many applications IPS LCDs have replaced TN LCDs, in particular in smartphones su
A carriage is a wheeled vehicle for people horse-drawn. The carriage is designed for private passenger use, though some are used to transport goods. A public passenger vehicle would not be called a carriage – terms for such include stagecoach and omnibus, it may be light and fast or heavy and comfortable or luxurious. Carriages have suspension using leaf springs, elliptical springs or leather strapping. Working vehicles such as the wagon and cart share important parts of the history of the carriage, as does too the fast chariot; the word carriage is from Old Northern French cariage. The word car meaning a kind of two-wheeled cart for goods came from Old Northern French about the beginning of the 14th century. A carriage is sometimes called a team, as in "horse and team". A carriage with its horse is a rig. An elegant horse-drawn carriage with its retinue of servants is an equipage. A carriage together with the horses and attendants is a turnout or setout. A procession of carriages is a cavalcade. X Some horsecarts found in Celtic graves show hints.
Four-wheeled wagons were used in the Bronze Age Europe, their form known from excavations suggests that the basic construction techniques of wheel and undercarriage were established then. Two-wheeled carriage models have been discovered from the Indus valley civilization including twin horse drawn covered carriages resembling ekka from various sites such as harappa, mohenjo daro and chanhu daro; the earliest recorded sort of carriage was the chariot, reaching Mesopotamia as early as 1900 BC. Used for warfare by Egyptians, the near Easterners and Europeans, it was a two-wheeled light basin carrying one or two passengers, drawn by one to two horses; the chariot was revolutionary and effective because it delivered fresh warriors to crucial areas of battle with swiftness. First century BC Romans used sprung wagons for overland journeys, it is that Roman carriages employed some form of suspension on chains or leather straps, as indicated by carriage parts found in excavations. During the Zhou dynasty of China, the Warring States were known to have used carriages as transportation.
With the decline of these city-states and kingdoms, these techniques disappeared. The medieval carriage was a four-wheeled wagon type, with a rounded top similar in appearance to the Conestoga Wagon familiar from the United States. Sharing the traditional form of wheels and undercarriage known since the Bronze Age, it likely employed the pivoting fore-axle in continuity from the ancient world. Suspension is recorded in visual images and written accounts from the 14th century, was in widespread use by the 15th century. Carriages were used by royalty and could be elaborately decorated and gilded; these carriages were on four wheels and were pulled by two to four horses depending on how they were decorated. Wood and iron were the primary requirements needed to build a carriage and carriages that were used by non-royalty were covered by plain leather. Another form of carriage was the pageant wagon of the 14th century. Historians debate the size of pageant wagons; the pageant wagon is significant because up until the 14th century most carriages were on two or 3 wheels.
Historians debate whether or not pageant wagons were built with pivotal axle systems, which allowed the wheels to turn. Whether it was a four- or six-wheel pageant wagon, most historians maintain that pivotal axle systems were implemented on pageant wagons because many roads were winding with some sharp turns. Six wheel pageant wagons represent another innovation in carriages. Pivotal axles were used on the middle set of wheels; this allowed the horse to move and steer the carriage in accordance with the road or path. One of the great innovations of the carriage was the invention of the suspended carriage or the chariot branlant. The'chariot branlant' of medieval illustrations was suspended by chains rather than leather straps as had been believed. Chains provided a smoother ride in the chariot branlant because the compartment no longer rested on the turning axles. In the 15th century, carriages were needed only one horse to haul the carriage; this carriage innovated in Hungary. Both innovations appeared around the same time and historians believe that people began comparing the chariot branlant and the Hungarian light coach.
However, the earliest illustrations of the Hungarian'Kochi-wagon' do not indicate any suspension, the use of three horses in harness. Under King Mathias Corvinus, who enjoyed fast travel, the Hungarians developed fast road transport, and
BMW AG is a German multinational company which produces automobiles and motorcycles, produced aircraft engines until 1945. The company is headquartered in Munich, Bavaria. BMW produces motor vehicles in Germany, China, South Africa, the United Kingdom, the United States. In 2015, BMW was the world's twelfth largest producer of motor vehicles, with 2,279,503 vehicles produced; the Quandt family are long-term shareholders of the company, with the remaining shares owned by public float. Automobiles are marketed under the brands Mini and Rolls-Royce. Motorcycles are marketed under the brand BMW Motorrad; the company has significant motorsport history in touring cars, Formula 1, sports cars and the Isle of Man TT. BMW's origins can be traced back to three separate German companies: Rapp Motorenwerke, Bayerische Flugzeugwerke, Automobilwerk Eisenach; the history of the name itself begins with an aircraft engine manufacturer. In April 1917, following the departure of the founder Karl Friedrich Rapp, the company was renamed Bayerische Motoren Werke.
BMW's first product was the BMW IIIa aircraft engine. The IIIa engine was known for high-altitude performance; the resulting orders for IIIa engines from the German military caused rapid expansion for BMW. After the end of World War I in 1918, BMW was forced to cease aircraft engine production by the terms of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. To remain in business, BMW produced farm household items and railway brakes. In 1922, former major shareholder Camillo Castiglioni purchased the rights to the name BMW, which led to the company descended from Rapp Motorenwerke being renamed Süddeutsche Bremse AG. Castiglioni was an investor in another aircraft company, called "Bayerische Flugzeugwerke", which he renamed BMW; the disused factory of Bayerische Flugzeugwerke was re-opened to produce engines for buses, farm equipment and pumps, under the brand name BMW. BMW's corporate history considers the founding date of Bayerische Flugzeugwerke to be the birth of the company; as the restrictions of the Armistice Treaty began to be lifted, BMW began production of motorcycles in 1923, with the R32 model.
BMW's production of automobiles began in 1928, when the company purchased the Automobilwerk Eisenach car company. Automobilwerk Eisenach's current model was the Dixi 3/15, a licensed copy of the Austin 7 which had begun production in 1927. Following the takeover, the Dixi 3/15 became BMW's first production car. In 1932, the BMW 3/20 became the first BMW automobile designed by BMW, it was powered by a four-cylinder engine. BMW's first automotive straight-six engine was released in 1933, in the BMW 303. Throughout the 1930s, BMW expanded its model range to include sedans, coupes and sports cars. With German rearmament in the 1930s, the company again began producing aircraft engines for the Luftwaffe; the factory in Munich made ample use of forced labour: foreign civilians, prisoners of war and inmates of the Dachau concentration camp. Among its successful World War II engine designs were the BMW 132 and BMW 801 air-cooled radial engines, the pioneering BMW 003 axial-flow turbojet, which powered the tiny, 1944–1945–era jet-powered “emergency fighter”, the Heinkel He 162 Spatz.
The BMW 003 jet engine was first tested as a prime power plant in the first prototype of the Messerschmitt Me 262, the Me 262 V1, but in 1942 tests the BMW prototype engines failed on takeoff with only the standby Junkers Jumo 210 nose-mounted piston engine powering it to a safe landing. The few Me 262 A-1b test examples built used the more developed version of the 003 jet, recording an official top speed of 800 km/h; the first-ever four-engine jet aircraft flown were the sixth and eighth prototypes of the Arado Ar 234 jet reconnaissance-bomber, which used BMW 003 jets for power. Through 1944 the 003's reliability improved, making it a suitable power plant for air frame designs competing for the Jägernotprogramm’s light fighter production contract. Which was won by the Heinkel He 162 Spatz design; the BMW 003 aviation turbojet was under consideration as the basic starting point for a pioneering turboshaft powerplant for German armored fighting vehicles in 1944–45, as the GT 101. Towards the end of the Third Reich, BMW developed some military aircraft projects for the Luftwaffe, the BMW Strahlbomber, the BMW Schnellbomber and the BMW Strahljäger, but none of them were built.
During World War II, many BMW production facilities had been bombed. BMW's facilities in East Germany were seized by the Soviet Union and the remaining facilities were banned by the Allies from producing motorcycles or automobiles. During this ban, BMW used basic secondhand and salvaged equipment to make pots and pans expanding to other kitchen supplies and bicycles. In 1947, BMW was granted permission to resume motorcycle production and its first post-war motorcycle - the R24 - was released in 1948. BMW was still barred from producing automobiles, the Bristol Aeroplane Company was producing cars in England based on BMW's pre-war models, using plans that BAC had taken from BMW's German offices. Production of automobiles resumed with the BMW 501 large sedan. Throughout the 1950s, BMW expanded their model range with sedans, coupes and sports cars. In 1954, the BMW 502 was BMW's first to use a V8 engine. To provide an affordable model, BMW began production of the Isetta
Vacuum fluorescent display
A vacuum fluorescent display is a display device once used on consumer electronics equipment such as video cassette recorders, car radios, microwave ovens. A VFD operates on the principle of cathodoluminescence similar to a cathode ray tube, but operating at much lower voltages; each tube in a VFD has a phosphor coated anode, bombarded by electrons emitted from the cathode filament. In fact, each tube in a VFD is a triode vacuum tube because it has a mesh control grid. Unlike liquid crystal displays, a VFD emits a bright light with high contrast and can support display elements of various colors. Standard illumination figures for VFDs are around 640 cd/m2 with high-brightness VFDs operating at 4,000 cd/m2, experimental units as high as 35,000 cd/m2 depending on the drive voltage and its timing; the choice of color and display brightness affect the lifetime of the tubes, which can range from as low as 1,500 hours for a vivid red VFD to 30,000 hours for the more common green ones. Cadmium was used in VFDs in the past, but the current RoHS-compliant VFDs have eliminated this metal from their construction.
VFDs can display seven-segment numerals, multi-segment alpha-numeric characters or can be made in a dot-matrix to display different alphanumeric characters and symbols. In practice, there is little limit to the shape of the image that can be displayed: it depends on the shape of phosphor on the anode; the first VFD was the single indication DM160 by Philips in 1959. The first multi-segment VFD was the 1967 Japanese single-digit, seven-segment device; the displays became common on other consumer electronics devices. In the late 1980s hundreds of millions of units were made yearly; the device consists of a hot cathode and grids encased in a glass envelope under a high vacuum condition. The cathode is made up of fine tungsten wires, coated by alkaline earth metal oxides, which emit electrons when heated by an electric current; these electrons are diffused by the grids, which are made up of thin metal. If electrons impinge on the phosphor-coated plates, they fluoresce. Unlike the orange-glowing cathodes of traditional vacuum tubes, VFD cathodes are efficient emitters at much lower temperatures, are therefore invisible.
The principle of operation is identical to that of a vacuum tube triode. Electrons can only reach a given plate element if both the grid and the plate are at a positive potential with respect to the cathode; this allows the displays to be organized as multiplexed displays where the multiple grids and plates form a matrix, minimizing the number of signal pins required. In the example of the VCR display shown to the right, the grids are arranged so that only one digit is illuminated at a time. All of the similar plates in all of the digits are connected in parallel. One by one, the microprocessor driving the display enables a digit by placing a positive voltage on that digit's grid and placing a positive voltage on the appropriate plates. Electrons flow through that digit's strike those plates that are at a positive potential; the microprocessor cycles through illuminating the digits in this way at a rate high enough to create the illusion of all digits glowing at once via persistence of vision.
The extra indicators are arranged as if they were segments of an additional digit or two or extra segments of existing digits and are scanned using the same multiplexed strategy as the real digits. Some of these extra indicators may use a phosphor that emits a different color of light, for example, orange; the light emitted by most VFDs contains many colors and can be filtered to enhance the color saturation providing a deep green or deep blue, depending on the whims of the product's designers. Phosphors used in VFDs are different from those in cathode-ray displays since they must emit acceptable brightness with only around 50 volts of electron energy, compared to several thousand volts in a CRT. Besides brightness, VFDs have the advantages of being rugged and configured to display a wide variety of customized messages, unlike LCDs, VFDs are not limited by the response time of rearranging liquid crystals and are thus able to function in cold sub-zero, making them ideal for outdoor devices in cold climates.
Early on, the main disadvantage of such displays was their use of more power than a simple LCD. This was considered a significant drawback for battery-operated equipment like calculators, so VFDs ended up being used in equipment powered by an AC supply or heavy-duty rechargeable batteries. During the 1980s, this display began to be used in automobiles where car makers were experimenting with digital displays for vehicle instruments such as speedometers and odometers. A good example of these were the high-end Subaru cars made in the early 1980s; the brightness of VFDs makes them well suited for use in cars. Current models of Renault MPV, Scenic and Espace use VFD panels to show all functions on the dashboard including the radio and multi message panel, they are bright enough to read in full sunlight as well as dimmable for use at night. This panel uses four colors; this technology was used from 1979 to the mid-1980s in portable electronic game units. These games featured bright, clear displays but the size of the largest vacuum tubes that could be manufactured inexpensively
Honda Motor Company, Ltd. is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft and power equipment. Honda has been the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer since 1959, as well as the world's largest manufacturer of internal combustion engines measured by volume, producing more than 14 million internal combustion engines each year. Honda became the second-largest Japanese automobile manufacturer in 2001. Honda was the eighth largest automobile manufacturer in the world in 2015. Honda was the first Japanese automobile manufacturer to release a dedicated luxury brand, Acura, in 1986. Aside from their core automobile and motorcycle businesses, Honda manufactures garden equipment, marine engines, personal watercraft and power generators, other products. Since 1986, Honda has been involved with artificial intelligence/robotics research and released their ASIMO robot in 2000, they have ventured into aerospace with the establishment of GE Honda Aero Engines in 2004 and the Honda HA-420 HondaJet, which began production in 2012.
Honda has three joint-ventures in China. In 2013, Honda invested about 5.7 % of its revenues in development. In 2013, Honda became the first Japanese automaker to be a net exporter from the United States, exporting 108,705 Honda and Acura models, while importing only 88,357. Throughout his life, Honda's founder, Soichiro Honda, had an interest in automobiles, he worked as a mechanic at the Art Shokai garage, where he entered them in races. In 1937, with financing from his acquaintance Kato Shichirō, Honda founded Tōkai Seiki to make piston rings working out of the Art Shokai garage. After initial failures, Tōkai Seiki won a contract to supply piston rings to Toyota, but lost the contract due to the poor quality of their products. After attending engineering school without graduating, visiting factories around Japan to better understand Toyota's quality control processes, by 1941 Honda was able to mass-produce piston rings acceptable to Toyota, using an automated process that could employ unskilled wartime laborers.
Tōkai Seiki was placed under control of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry at the start of World War II, Soichiro Honda was demoted from president to senior managing director after Toyota took a 40% stake in the company. Honda aided the war effort by assisting other companies in automating the production of military aircraft propellers; the relationships Honda cultivated with personnel at Toyota, Nakajima Aircraft Company and the Imperial Japanese Navy would be instrumental in the postwar period. A US B-29 bomber attack destroyed Tōkai Seiki's Yamashita plant in 1944, the Itawa plant collapsed in 13 January 1945 Mikawa earthquake. Soichiro Honda sold the salvageable remains of the company to Toyota after the war for ¥450,000, used the proceeds to found the Honda Technical Research Institute in October 1946. With a staff of 12 men working in a 16 m2 shack, they built and sold improvised motorized bicycles, using a supply of 500 two-stroke 50 cc Tohatsu war surplus radio generator engines.
When the engines ran out, Honda began building their own copy of the Tohatsu engine, supplying these to customers to attach to their bicycles. This was the Honda A-Type, nicknamed the Bata Bata for the sound. In 1949, the Honda Technical Research Institute was liquidated for ¥1,000,000, or about US$5,000 today. At about the same time Honda hired engineer Kihachiro Kawashima, Takeo Fujisawa who provided indispensable business and marketing expertise to complement Soichiro Honda's technical bent; the close partnership between Soichiro Honda and Fujisawa lasted until they stepped down together in October 1973. The first complete motorcycle, with both the frame and engine made by Honda, was the 1949 D-Type, the first Honda to go by the name Dream. Honda Motor Company grew in a short time to become the world's largest manufacturer of motorcycles by 1964; the first production automobile from Honda was the T360 mini pick-up truck, which went on sale in August 1963. Powered by a small 356-cc straight-4 gasoline engine, it was classified under the cheaper Kei car tax bracket.
The first production car from Honda was the S500 sports car, which followed the T360 into production in October 1963. Its chain-driven rear wheels pointed to Honda's motorcycle origins. Over the next few decades, Honda worked to expand its product line and expanded operations and exports to numerous countries around the world. In 1986, Honda introduced the successful Acura brand to the American market in an attempt to gain ground in the luxury vehicle market; the year 1991 saw the introduction of the Honda NSX supercar, the first all-aluminum monocoque vehicle that incorporated a mid-engine V6 with variable-valve timing. CEO Tadashi Kume was succeeded by Nobuhiko Kawamoto in 1990. Kawamoto was selected over Shoichiro Irimajiri, who oversaw the successful establishment of Honda of America Manufacturing, Inc. in Marysville, Ohio. Irimajiri and Kawamoto shared a friendly rivalry within Honda. Following the death of Soichiro Honda and the departure of Irimajiri, Honda found itself being outpaced in product development by other Japanese automakers and was caught off-guard by the truck and sport utility vehicle boom of the 1990s, all which took a toll on the profitability of the company.
Japanese media reported in 1992 and 1993 that Honda was at serious risk of an unwanted and hostile takeov
Horseless carriage is an early name for the motor car or automobile. Prior to the invention of the motor car, carriages were pulled by animals horses; the term can be compared to other transitional terms, such as wireless phone. These are cases in which a new technology is compared to an older one by describing what the new one does not have. Most horseless carriages are notable for their similarity to existing horse-drawn carriages, but with some type of mechanical propulsion. Features of the first horseless carriages include tiller steering, an engine under the floorboards, a high center of gravity. In the 19th century, steam engines became the primary source of power for railway locomotives and ships, for powering processes in fixed installations such as factories. In 1803, what is said to have been the first horseless carriage was a steam-driven vehicle demonstrated in London, England, by Richard Trevithick. In the 1820s, Goldsworthy Gurney built steam-powered road vehicles. One has survived to be on display at Glasgow Museum of Transport.
In the United States, a four-wheel steam carriage was made by Sylvester H. Roper in 1863; the 1896 Armstrong horseless carriage is notable as an early hybrid vehicle, with combined an electric motor with battery and gasoline-fueled internal-combustion engine. In 1893, Frank Duryea is reported to have made the first horseless carriage trip on U. S. roads, in Springfield, traveling 600 yards before engine problems forced him to stop and make repairs. He went on to found the first U. S. car company, the Duryea Motor Wagon Company, with his brother. In April 2016, horseless carriages from the turn of 19th and the early 20th centuries were featured in a re-creation of the first London Motor Show show in 1896. History of steam road vehicles Horse and buggy Wagon Car Steam car Electric car Motorcycle Quadricycle Brass Era car StagecoachSpecific models: Benz Patent-Motorwagen Duryea Motor Wagon Daimler Motorized Carriage
Toyota Motor Corporation is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota City, Japan. In 2017, Toyota's corporate structure consisted of 364,445 employees worldwide and, as of September 2018, was the sixth-largest company in the world by revenue; as of 2017, Toyota is the world's second-largest automotive manufacturer. Toyota was the world's first automobile manufacturer to produce more than 10 million vehicles per year which it has done since 2012, when it reported the production of its 200-millionth vehicle; as of July 2014, Toyota was the largest listed company in Japan by market capitalization and by revenue. Toyota is the world's market leader in sales of hybrid electric vehicles, one of the largest companies to encourage the mass-market adoption of hybrid vehicles across the globe. Toyota is a market leader in hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. Cumulative global sales of Toyota and Lexus hybrid passenger car models achieved the 10 million milestone in January 2017.
Its Prius family is the world's top selling hybrid nameplate with over 6 million units sold worldwide as of January 2017. The company was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937, as a spinoff from his father's company Toyota Industries to create automobiles. Three years earlier, in 1934, while still a department of Toyota Industries, it created its first product, the Type A engine, its first passenger car in 1936, the Toyota AA. Toyota Motor Corporation produces vehicles under five brands, including the Toyota brand, Lexus and Daihatsu, it holds a 16.66% stake in Subaru Corporation, a 5.9% stake in Isuzu, as well as joint-ventures with two in China, one in India, one in the Czech Republic, along with several "nonautomotive" companies. TMC is part of one of the largest conglomerates in Japan. Toyota is listed on New York Stock Exchange and Tokyo Stock Exchange. Toyota is headquartered in Aichi; the main headquarters of Toyota is located in a 4-story building in Toyota. As of 2006, the head office has the "Toyopet" Toyota logo and the words "Toyota Motor".
The Toyota Technical Center, a 14-story building, the Honsha plant, Toyota's second plant engaging in mass production and named the Koromo plant, are adjacent to one another in a location near the headquarters. Vinod Jacob from The Hindu described the main headquarters building as "modest". In 2013, company head Akio Toyoda reported that it had difficulties retaining foreign employees at the headquarters due to the lack of amenities in the city, its Tokyo office is located in Tokyo. Its Nagoya office is located in Nagoya. In addition to manufacturing automobiles, Toyota provides financial services through its Toyota Financial Services division, builds robots. Presidents of Toyota Motor Company: Rizaburo Toyoda Kiichiro Toyoda Taizo Ishida Fukio Nakagawa Eiji Toyoda In 1981, Toyota Motor Co. Ltd. announced plans to merge with its sales entity Toyota Motor Sales Co. Ltd. Since 1950, the two entities had existed as separate companies as a prerequisite for reconstruction in postwar Japan. Shoichiro Toyoda presided over Toyota Motor Sales in preparation for the consummation of the merger that occurred in 1982.
Shoichiro succeeded his uncle Eiji as the President of the combined organization that became known as Toyota Motor Corporation. Chairmen of Toyota Motor Corporation: Eiji Toyoda Shoichiro Toyoda Hiroshi Okuda Fujio Cho Takeshi Uchiyamada Presidents of Toyota Motor Corporation: Shoichiro Toyoda Tatsuro Toyoda Hiroshi Okuda Fujio Cho Katsuaki Watanabe Akio Toyoda On June 14, 2013, Toyota Motor Corporation. Announced the appointment of external board members. Additionally, Vice Chairman Takeshi Uchiyamada replaced Fujio Cho as chairman, as the latter became an honorary chairman while Toyoda remains in the post of President. Toyota is publicly traded on the Tokyo, Nagoya and Sapporo exchanges under company code TYO: 7203. In addition, Toyota is foreign-listed on the New York Stock Exchange under NYSE: TM and on the London Stock Exchange under LSE: TYT. Toyota has been publicly traded in Japan since 1949 and internationally since 1999; as reported on its consolidated financial statements, Toyota has 606 consolidated subsidiaries and 199 affiliates.
Toyota Motor North America Toyota Canada Inc. Toyota Tsusho – Trading company for the Toyota Group Daihatsu Motor Company Hino Motors Lexus 100% Scion 100% DENSO Toyota Industries Aisin Seiki Co. Subaru Corporation Isuzu Motors PT Toyota-Astra Motor Noble Automotive PT Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia Toyota, which earlier was the world's third largest automotive manufacturer behind American General Motors and Ford, produced for the first time in history more vehicles than Ford in 2005, in 2006 more than General Motors and has been the world's largest automotive manufacturer since except in 2011 when, triggered by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, it fell to the #3 position behind General Motors and German Volkswagen Group. In 1924, Sakichi Toyoda invented the Toyoda Model G Auto