Boca Raton, Florida
Boca Raton is the southernmost city in Palm Beach County, United States, first incorporated on August 2, 1924 as "Bocaratone," and incorporated as "Boca Raton" in 1925. The 2015 population estimated by the U. S. Census Bureau was 93,235; however 200,000 people with a Boca Raton postal address reside outside its municipal boundaries. Such areas include newer developments like West Boca Raton; as a business center, the city experiences significant daytime population increases. It is one of the wealthiest communities in South Florida. Boca Raton is 43 miles north of Miami and is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area, which had a population of 6,012,331 people as of 2015. Boca Raton is home to the main campus of Florida Atlantic University and the corporate headquarters of Office Depot, ADT, Lynn University, Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Bluegreen Corporation, the Gift of Life Marrow Registry, it is home to the Evert Tennis Academy, owned by former professional tennis player Chris Evert.
Town Center Mall, an upscale shopping center in Central Boca Raton, is the largest indoor mall in Palm Beach County. Another major attraction to the area is Boca Raton's downtown, known as Mizner Park. Many buildings in the area have a Mediterranean Revival or Spanish Colonial Revival architectural theme inspired by Addison Mizner, a resort architect who influenced the city's early development. Still today, Boca Raton has a strict development code for the size and types of commercial buildings, building signs, advertisements that may be erected within the city limits. No outdoor car dealerships are allowed in the municipality. No billboards are permitted; the strict development code has led to several major thoroughfares without large signs or advertisements in the traveler's view. Labeled in the first European maps of the area as "Boca de Ratones", many people mistakenly translate the name in English as "Rats' Mouth". Although incorrect, this translation continues to be popularized by several residents of the area itself.
For example, tailgating for football games at Florida Atlantic University is done in an area known as the "Rat's Mouth"."Boca", meaning mouth in Spanish, was a common term to describe an inlet on maps by sailors. The true meaning of the word "ratones" for the area is more controversial; some claim that the word "ratones" appears in old Spanish maritime dictionaries referring to "rugged rocks or stony ground on the bottom of some ports and coastal outlets, where the cables rub against." Thus, one possible translation of "Boca Raton" is "rugged inlet". Still other people claim that "ratones" referred to thieves who hid out in the area, thus the name could translate to "thieves' inlet". Residents of the city have kept the pronunciation of Boca Raton similar to its Spanish origins. In particular, the "Raton" in "Boca Raton" is pronounced as instead of; the latter is a common mispronunciation by non-natives to the region. The area where Boca Raton is now located was occupied by the Glades culture, a Native American tribe of hunter/gatherers who relocated seasonally and between shellfish sources, distinct from the Tequesta to the south and the Jaega to the north, a people that occupied an area along the southeastern Atlantic coast of Florida.
What Spanish voyagers called "Boca de Ratones" was to the south, in present-day Biscayne Bay in Miami-Dade County. The area of Boca Raton was labeled meaning "Dry River", during this time. By mistake during the 19th century, mapmakers moved this location to the north and began referring to the city's lake, today known as Lake Boca Raton, as "Boca Ratone Lagoon" and "Boca Ratone Sounde." An inland stream near the lake was renamed Spanish River, became part of the Intracoastal Waterway. When Spain surrendered Florida to Britain in 1763, the remaining Tequestas, along with other Indians that had taken refuge in the Florida Keys, were evacuated to Cuba. In the 1770s, Bernard Romans reported seeing abandoned villages in the area, but no inhabitants; the area remained uninhabited for long afterwards, during the early years of Florida's incorporation in the United States. The first significant European settler to this area was Captain Thomas Moore Rickards in 1895, who resided in a house made of driftwood on the east side of the East Coast Canal, south of what is now the Palmetto Park Road bridge.
He surveyed and sold land from the canal to beyond the railroad north of what is now Palmetto Park Road. Early settlement in the area increased shortly after Henry Flagler's expansion of the Florida East Coast Railway, connecting West Palm Beach to Miami. Boca Raton as a city was the creation of architect Addison Mizner. Prior to him, Boca Raton was an unincorporated farming town with a population of 100 in 1920. In 1925, Mizner announced his plan for “the foremost resort city on the North American continent,” “a new exclusive social capital in America.” After spending several years in Palm Beach, where, in his own words, he “did more than any one man to make the city beautiful,” and designed the Everglades Club among many other buildings, in Boca Raton his plan was to create from scratch “a resort as splendid in its entirety as Palm Beach is in spots.”Activity in that area began at least a year, more, before Mizner's announcement. Land acquisition, tens of thousands of acres, was the largest part.
But it is hard not to see Mizner's hand in the incorporation of Boca Raton in 1924. The Mizner Development Company was incorpo
Pikes Peak is the highest summit of the southern Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, in North America. The ultra-prominent 14,115-foot fourteener is located in Pike National Forest, 12 miles west of downtown Colorado Springs, Colorado; the mountain is named in honor of American explorer Zebulon Pike, unable to reach the summit. The summit is higher than any point in the United States east of its longitude. Pikes Peak is one of mountains more than 14,000 feet above sea level; the massif rises 8,000 ft above downtown Colorado Springs. Pikes Peak is a designated National Historic Landmark. Tava or "sun", is the Ute word, given by these first people to the mountain that we now call Pikes Peak; the band of Ute people who called the Pikes Peak region their home were the Tabeguache, meaning the "People of Sun Mountain". The Ute people first arrived in Colorado about 500 A. D. although their traditions state they were created on Pikes Peak. In the 1800s, when the Arapaho people arrived in Colorado, they knew the mountain as Heey-otoyoo' meaning "Long Mountain".
Early Spanish explorers named the mountain "El Capitán" meaning "The Leader". American explorer Zebulon Pike named the mountain "Highest Peak" in 1806, the mountain was commonly known as "Pike's Highest Peak". American explorer Stephen Harriman Long named the mountain "James Peak" in honor of Edwin James who climbed to the summit in 1820; the mountain was renamed "Pike's Peak" in honor of Pike. The name was simplified to "Pikes Peak" by the United States Board on Geographic Names in 1890. Pikes Peak is composed of a characteristic pink granite called Pikes Peak granite; the color is due to a large amount of potassium feldspar. It is thought that the granite was once magma that crystallized at least 20 miles beneath the Earth's surface, formed by an igneous intrusion during the Precambrian 1.05 billion years ago, during the Grenville orogeny. Through the process of uplifting, the hardened rock pushed through the Earth's crust and created a dome-like mountain, covered with less resistant rock. Years of erosion and weathering removed the rock leaving the exposed mountain.
Soils on Pikes Peak are classified as Cirque Land above timberline. The first Europeans to discover Pikes Peak were the Spanish in the 1700s; the first American sighting is credited to members of the Pike expedition, led by Zebulon Pike. After a failed attempt to climb to the top in November 1806, Pike wrote in his journal:...here we found the snow middle deep. The thermometer which stood at 9° above 0 at the foot of the mountain, here fell to 4° below 0; the summit of the Grand Peak, bare of vegetation and covered with snow, now appeared at the distance of 15 or 16 miles from us, as high again as what we had ascended, would have taken a whole day's march to have arrived at its base, when I believed no human being could have ascended to its pinical. This with the condition of my soldiers who had only light overalls on, no stockings, every way ill provided to endure the inclemency of the region; the first European-American to climb the peak came 14 years after Pike, in the summer of 1820. Edwin James, a young student who had just graduated from Middlebury College in Vermont, signed on as the relief botanist for Stephen Harriman Long's expedition after the first botanist had died.
The expedition explored the South Platte River up as far as present-day Denver turned south and passed close to what James called "Pike's highest peak". James and two other men left the expedition, camped on the plains, climbed the peak in two days, encountering little difficulty. Along the way, James was the first to describe Colorado's state flower. Gold was discovered in the area of present-day Denver in 1858, newspapers referred to the gold-mining area as "Pike's Peak". Pike's Peak or Bust became the slogan of the Colorado Gold Rush; this was more due to Pikes Peak's visibility to gold seekers traveling west across the plains than any actual significant gold find anywhere near Pikes Peak. Major gold deposits were not discovered in the Pikes Peak area until the Cripple Creek Mining District was discovered southwest of Pikes Peak and led, in 1893, to one of the last major gold rushes in the lower 48 states. In July 1860, Clark and Company commenced minting gold coins in Denver bearing the phrase "Pike's Peak Gold" and an artist's rendering of the peak on the obverse.
In 1863, the U. S. Treasury purchased the minting equipment for $25,000 to open the Denver Mint. Julia Archibald Holmes and James Holmes traveled to the Rocky Mountains in Colorado in 1858, reached the summit on August 5, with J. D. Miller and George Peck, making Archibald Holmes the first European-American woman to climb Pikes Peak. From the summit, she wrote in a letter to her mother: "Nearly everyone tried to discourage me from attempting it, but I believed that I should succeed, it appeared in print in The Congregationalist, a weekly journal, on July 4, 1895. A plaque commemorating the words to the song was placed at the summit. On July 1
Christopher Andrew "Ender" Carrabba is the lead singer and guitarist of the band Dashboard Confessional, lead singer of the band Further Seems Forever, is the vocalist for the folk band Twin Forks. Born in West Hartford, United States, Carrabba's parents divorced when he was three. At age 16, he moved with his mother Anne, brother Nick and stepfather to Boca Raton, Florida. Carrabba remains close to some relatives on his paternal side, but is not close to his father specifically; as a teenager, Carrabba was passionate about music. In high-school he started singing in his choir, his uncle gave him a guitar, to which he devoted a great deal of his time, when he was 15. After graduating from Boca Raton High School, Carrabba became more serious about music and joined his first band, The Vacant Andys, matriculated to Florida Atlantic University to study education. At college, alongside studies, Carrabba played with The Vacant Andys and with The Agency, which featured Chris Carrabba on their second LP, ENGINES.
This was the first recording to feature both Mike Marsh and Chris Carrabba before Mike Marsh became Dashboard Confessionals full-time drummer. For several years, Chris taught at an elementary school in South Florida and played with the group Further Seems Forever. Dashboard Confessional was born. "I started as a side project from the band I was in," says Carrabba, "I was going through something tough at the time and since I don't write in a journal, this is what I did with it. It was a good way to get it out of my system. I never thought anyone would hear these songs, but I played some for my friends and one of them who owned a little label talked me into recording." The name Dashboard Confessional comes from the song "The Sharp Hint of New Tears". The lyric "On the way home, this car hears my confessions" brought to mind the phrase "Dashboard Confessional". Having received his first guitar from his uncle Angelo, Carrabba took only a mild interest in his musical talent, preferring to skateboard.
He taught himself to play at the age of 15, recorded his first solo album, The Swiss Army Romance. Carrabba was a special education teacher prior to his success with Dashboard Confessional keeping a guitar in his office to write songs during downtime. In 2008, Just as he was wrapping up work on the sixth Dashboard Confessional album, his sister was in a serious car accident that put her in a coma for several months. "I was torn between being with her through most of her waking hours until we were kicked out of the hospital at the end of their shifts and going home and doing my work," he said. Carrabba started his career with the Vacant Andys. In 1998, while playing with the Vacant Andys, he filled in on guitar in New Found Glory, when regular guitarist Chad Gilbert was on tour with his other band, Shai Hulud. In 2001, he joined the band Further Seems Forever for their debut album The Moon is Down, before moving on to found Dashboard Confessional. In 2002, Dashboard Confessional won the MTV2 Award at MTV Music Awards for the video for "Screaming Infidelities."
The video was considered the "dark horse" nominee at the time, as it was up against The Strokes, The Hives, Norah Jones, Nappy Roots, Musiq. The video was directed by Matthew Barry, it was announced on August 24, 2010, that Further Seems Forever would be reuniting with original vocalist Chris Carrabba with the release of a teaser video featuring rehearsal footage of the song The Moon Is Down. In November 2011, Carrabba released an album of covers entitled "Covered in the Flood" on his solo US tour; the album contains 10 tracks performed by artists that include R. E. M. Big Star, Guy Clark, Justin Townes Earle and The Replacements. Carrabba appears on the Hot Rod Circuit song "Unfaithful". Carrabba provides backing vocals on the Say Anything song "Retarded in Love", on the Twothirtyeight album Regulate the Chemicals, on the New Found Glory cover of the song "The Promise", featured on the album From the Screen to Your Stereo Part II. Carrabba appears in Notar's song "Reach". Carrabba appears in nothing,nowhere.'s song, "Hopes Up", featured on the album "REAPER".
Carrabba is featured on a version of the band Neck Deep's hit single "December". Carrabba was a special guest DJ at Emo Nite LA's 2nd anniversary party. Media related to Chris Carrabba at Wikimedia Commons
Brand New (band)
Brand New is an American rock band from Long Island, New York. Formed in 2000, the band consists of Jesse Lacey, Vincent Accardi, Garrett Tierney, Brian Lane. From 2005 to 2013, the band included Derrick Sherman; the band is recognized as one of the most influential within the 2000s alternative rock and emo scene, celebrated for making artistic statements with their music while their peers aimed for commercial success. During the late 1990s in Levittown, New York, Jesse Lacey, Garrett Tierney and Brian Lane were all members of the band The Rookie Lot, they split off from the other members of the group, in 2000 formed Brand New in Merrick, New York. The band signed to Triple Crown Records and in 2001 released their debut studio album, Your Favorite Weapon, their second album, Deja Entendu, was released in 2003 and marked a stylistic change for the band, one that garnered an positive critical reception. The album's first two singles, "The Quiet Things That No One Ever Knows" and "Sic Transit Gloria...
Glory Fades", both received airplay on MTV2 and Fuse TV, entering the top 40 on the United Kingdom Singles Chart. Deja Entendu was certified gold in the United States. Brand New moved to Interscope Records and released the critically acclaimed The Devil and God Are Raging Inside Me in 2006. "Jesus Christ" became their highest charting single in the US, peaking at number 30 on the Alternative Songs chart. In March 2008, the band started their own record label, named Procrastinate! Music Traitors, their fourth album, was released in 2009 and became their highest charting album in the US, reaching number six on the Billboard 200. The band released two non-album singles following Daisy, "Mene" in April 2015 and "I Am a Nightmare" in May 2016. Brand New surprise-released their fifth album Science Fiction on August 17, 2017, two days after announcing its release on vinyl. Receiving both critical acclaim and commercial success, it became Brand New's first number-one album on the Billboard 200. Frontman Jesse Lacey had stated that the band would break up in 2018, along with recent T-shirt designs and lyric book which hinted at that possibility as well.
Prior to Brand New's official formation, in the late 1990s, Jesse Lacey, Garrett Tierney and Brian Lane were all members of the post-hardcore band The Rookie Lot, along with Brandon Reilly and Alex Dunne of Crime in Stereo. The Rookie Lot split and did not play for a while until Lacey and Tierney started to rehearse again. After Reilly joined The Movielife, they recruited guitarist Vincent Accardi, playing in a band called One Last Goodbye. All four members had backgrounds linking into their local Long Island independent and hardcore music scenes, but with influences from an array of artists ranging from Buddy Rich to the Archers of Loaf, they formed Brand New in 2000, in a basement in Merrick, New York. Their initial intention was always to "move outside of whatever notions they felt inclined to when they were making music as younger people." The band gained exposure in the local scene through playing shows with alternative rock contemporaries Midtown and post-hardcore bands like Glassjaw, while self-releasing a four-song demo.
They signed to Triple Crown Records just after their second-ever show. Brand New's debut studio album Your Favorite Weapon was produced by friend of the band Mike Sapone; the album has been described as being "bitter about ex-girlfriends", with an excessive concentration on "post-breakup angst". It received positive reviews, with Allmusic awarding it three out of five and Popmatters being favorable, it became a moderate success. The record deal gave Brand New the opportunity to tour, playing alongside the likes of Taking Back Sunday and touring the UK in support of Finch, to a "great response" from the crowds; the only single released from Your Favorite Weapon was "Jude Law and a Semester Abroad". The song has been described by Allmusic as a "semi-hit" after it received airplay on both MTV2 and Fuse. Brand New's second studio album was written in the "year and-a-half or two years" that they were touring the material off of Your Favorite Weapon. According to drummer Brian Lane, "Jesse wrote a lot of the lyrics about different things than'I just broke up with my girlfriend' for the new record," as Lacey had written the songs on an acoustic guitar in his bedroom.
Lane explained that the band was now influenced by a range of different artists: "All of us got exposed to a lot of different music that all of us were listening to. For the first we weren't in such close quarters for 24 hours a day. I think that has a lot to do with it." Unlike their first album, it was said that a lot of time and concentration went into making the album. The band released Deja Entendu through Razor & Tie/Triple Crown Records in June 2003, being issued in Europe and Australia in October 2003; the album's title, Deja Entendu, is French for "already heard." It was explained as "very tongue-in-cheek" by vocalist Jesse Lacey. Elaborating on the title's meaning, he told MTV, "No matter who you are or what your band is about, you can't put a record out without people saying it's derivative of something else. So by saying the record's been heard, it's kind of like saying,'Yeah, you're right. We're doing something that's been done before.'" He reinforced, "We're not trying to break new ground in music.
We're just trying to make good music." The album was described as a "stylistic leap" from Your Favorite Weapon, with a "decidedly matured" sound. In an interview with Billboard, Lacey said that although Deja En
Nappy Roots is an American alternative Southern rap quartet from Louisville, Kentucky. The group met in Kentucky in 1995 while attending Western Kentucky University, they are best known for their hit singles "Po' Folks", "Awnaw", "Roun' The Globe" and "Good Day". They were the best selling hip hop group of 2002; the group consists of Milledgeville, Georgia native Fish Scales and Kentucky natives Skinny DeVille, B. Stille and Ron Clutch. In 2006, California native R. Prophet left the group, in 2012 Kentucky native Big V aka Vito Banga left. Both are pursuing solo careers; the group formed. Nappy Roots' debut independent album Country Fried Cess was released in 1998, which led to the group being signed by Atlantic Records, their first album on Atlantic was 2002's best selling hip-hop album, Chicken & Gritz. The multi-platinum album featured the hit-singles "Headz Up", "Awnaw", "Po' Folks"; the "Awnaw" featuring Marcos of P. O. D. appeared on Madden 2003. In their home state, Paul E. Patton, the governor of Kentucky, sanctioned September 16 as "Nappy Roots Day".
Their next and last album with Atlantic Records was Wooden Leather, released in 2003, featuring the singles "Roun' the Globe", featured on Madden 2004, "Sick and Tired". This critically acclaimed, major label follow-up album featured production from Kanye West, David Banner and Lil Jon. In 2003, Nappy Roots were on the soundtrack to Daredevil, with the song "Right Now", which featured Marcos Curiel of P. O. D. and was released on Windup Records. In 2004, three songs by Nappy Roots were included in the movie soundtrack to The Ladykillers, released on Sony Music. Since the release of Wooden Leather they have gone back to being independent artists, have started their own label, N. R. E. G. With distribution through Fontana/Universal Music Group. On July 31, 2007, they released their first album as independent artists, Innerstate Music, featuring singles "Good Day" and "Keep It Real"; this was an internet album, similar to a modern-day mixtape. It was intended to be a precursor to their 2008 album, The Humdinger, released on August 5, 2008.
In 2007 Nappy Roots was featured on the original version of the Tantric song titled "Fall Down". The song had been intended for Tantric's album Tantric III, but due to the album being shelved, the song went unreleased. However, Tantric did re-record the song for their 2008 album The End Begins; the version featuring Nappy Roots can only be found on YouTube. The critically acclaimed album The Humdinger features guest appearances from Anthony Hamilton, Greg Nice, Greg Street and Slick & Rose, with production from Sol Messiah, James "Groove" Chambers, BIG AL 360, Joe Hop and more; the album entered the Billboard Rap Charts at #7 and R&B/Hip-Hop Albums at #13. In 2009 the single "We're Gonna Make it" by Skinny and Scales was released through Nappy Roots Entertainment Group. Nappy Roots kicked off 2010 with their anticipated new album, The Pursuit of Nappyness, released on June 15, 2010; the album features songs by a production duo from Atlanta, Georgia. In 2011, Nappy Roots teamed up with hip hop producers Organized Noize to create Nappy Dot Org.
The first single, "Congratulations", was made available online on July 13, 2011 by way of XXL Magazine and 2DopeBoyz. On October 11, 2011 Nappy Roots released Nappy Dot Org produced by Organized Noize; the Nappy Roots Presents Sh!ts Beautiful album/mixtape was released on June 27, 2012 through AllHipHop. In 2015, Nappy Roots released The 40 Akerz Project. In 2018, the Cincinnati Bengals featured Nappy Roots song "Good Day" in their promotional video "Seize the DEY". 2002 MTV Video Music Award nomination for the MTV2 Award for "Awnaw" - shared nomination with Jazze Pha 2003 American Music Award nominations for Favorite Band, Duo or Group - Hip-Hop/R&B and Favorite New Artist - Hip-Hop/R&B 2003 Grammy Award nominations for Best Rap/Sung Collaboration for "Po' Folks" - shared nomination with Anthony Hamilton and Best Long Form Music Video for "The World According to Nappy" - shared nomination with Gloria Gabriel, director.
Black comedy known as dark comedy or gallows humor, is a comic style that makes light of subject matter, considered taboo subjects that are considered serious or painful to discuss. Comedians use it as a tool for exploring vulgar issues, thus provoking discomfort and serious thought as well as amusement in their audience. Popular themes of the genre include death and violence, disease, sexuality and barbarism. Black comedy differs from blue comedy which focuses more on crude topics such as nudity and bodily fluids. Although the two are interrelated, black comedy is different from straightforward obscenity in that it is more subtle and does not have the explicit intention of offending people. In obscene humor, much of the humorous element comes from shock and revulsion, while black comedy might include an element of irony, or fatalism. For example, an archetypal example of black comedy in the form of self-mutilation appears in the English novel Tristram Shandy. Tristram, five years old at the time, starts to urinate out of an open window for lack of a chamber pot.
The sash circumcises him. Literary critics have associated black comedy and black humor with authors as early as the ancient Greeks with Aristophanes. Whereas the term black comedy is a broad term covering humor relating to many serious subjects, gallows humor tends to be used more in relation to death, or situations that are reminiscent of dying. Black humor can be related to the grotesque genre; the term black humor was coined by the Surrealist theorist André Breton in 1935 while interpreting the writings of Jonathan Swift. Breton's preference was to identify some of Swift's writings as a subgenre of comedy and satire in which laughter arises from cynicism and skepticism relying on topics such as death. Breton coined the term for his book Anthology of Black Humor, in which he credited Jonathan Swift as the originator of black humor and gallows humor. In his book, Breton included excerpts from 45 other writers, including both examples in which the wit arises from a victim with which the audience empathizes, as is more typical in the tradition of gallows humor, examples in which the comedy is used to mock the victim.
In the last cases, the victim's suffering is trivialized, which leads to sympathizing with the victimizer, as analogously found in the social commentary and social criticism of the writings of Sade. Among the first American writers who employed black comedy in their works were Nathanael West and Vladimir Nabokov, although at the time the genre was not known in the US; the concept of black humor first came to nationwide attention after the publication of a 1965 mass-market paperback titled Black Humor, of which the editor was Bruce Jay Friedman. The paperback was one of the first American anthologies devoted to the concept of black humor as a literary genre. With the paperback, Friedman labeled as "black humorists" a variety of authors, such as J. P. Donleavy, Edward Albee, Joseph Heller, Thomas Pynchon, John Barth, Vladimir Nabokov, Bruce Jay Friedman himself, Louis-Ferdinand Celine. Among the writers labeled as black humorists by journalists and literary critics are today Roald Dahl, Kurt Vonnegut, Warren Zevon, Christopher Durang, Philip Roth.
The motive for applying the label black humorist to all the writers cited above is that they have written novels, stories and songs in which profound or horrific events were portrayed in a comic manner. Comedians, like Lenny Bruce, that since the late 1950s have been labeled for using "sick comedy" by mainstream journalists, have been labeled with "black comedy". Sigmund Freud in his 1927 essay Humour puts forth the following theory of black comedy: "The ego refuses to be distressed by the provocations of reality, to let itself be compelled to suffer, it insists. Some other sociologists elaborated this concept further. At the same time, Paul Lewis warns that this "relieving" aspect of gallows jokes depends on the context of the joke: whether the joke is being told by the threatened person themselves or by someone else. Black comedy has the social effect of strengthening the morale of the oppressed and undermines the morale of the oppressors. According to Wylie Sypher, "to be able to laugh at evil and error means we have surmounted them."Black comedy is a natural human instinct and examples of it can be found in stories from antiquity.
Its use was widespread from where it was imported to the United States. It is rendered with the German expression Galgenhumor; the concept of gallows humor is comparable to the French expression rire jaune, which has a Germanic equivalent in the Belgian Dutch expression groen lachen. Italian comedian Daniele Luttazzi discussed gallows humour focusing on the particular type of laughter that it arouses, said that grotesque satire, as opposed to ironic satire, is the one that most