The Dassault Rafale is a French twin-engine, canard delta wing, multirole fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation. Equipped with a wide range of weapons, the Rafale is intended to perform air supremacy, aerial reconnaissance, ground support, in-depth strike, anti-ship strike and nuclear deterrence missions; the Rafale is referred to as an "omnirole" aircraft by Dassault. In the late 1970s, the French Air Force and Navy were seeking to replace and consolidate their current fleets of aircraft. In order to reduce development costs and boost prospective sales, France entered into an arrangement with UK, Germany and Spain to produce an agile multi-purpose fighter, the Eurofighter Typhoon. Subsequent disagreements over workshare and differing requirements led to France's pursuit of its own development programme. Dassault built a technology demonstrator which first flew in July 1986 as part of an eight-year flight-test programme, paving the way for the go-ahead of the project; the Rafale is distinct from other European fighters of its era in that it is entirely built by one country, involving most of France's major defence contractors, such as Dassault and Safran.
Many of the aircraft's avionics and features, such as direct voice input, the RBE2 AA active electronically scanned array radar and the optronique secteur frontal infra-red search and track sensor, were domestically developed and produced for the Rafale programme. Scheduled to enter service in 1996, the Rafale suffered significant delays due to post-Cold War budget cuts and changes in priorities; the aircraft is available in three main variants: Rafale C single-seat land-based version, Rafale B twin-seat land-based version, Rafale M single-seat carrier-based version. Introduced in 2001, the Rafale is being produced for both the French Air Force and for carrier-based operations in the French Navy; the Rafale has been marketed for export to several countries, was selected for purchase by the Indian Air Force, the Egyptian Air Force, the Qatar Air Force. The Rafale has been used in combat over Afghanistan, Mali and Syria. Several upgrades to the weapons and avionics of the Rafale are planned to be introduced by 2018.
In the mid-1970s, both the French Air Force and Navy had requirements for a new generation of fighters to replace those in or about to enter service. Because their requirements were similar, to reduce cost, both departments issued a common request for proposal. In 1975, the French Ministry of Aviation initiated studies for a new aircraft to complement the upcoming and smaller Dassault Mirage 2000, with each aircraft optimised for differing roles. In 1979, the French company Dassault joined the MBB/BAe "European Collaborative Fighter" project, renamed the "European Combat Aircraft"; the French company contributed the aerodynamic layout of a prospective twin-engine, single-seat fighter. In 1983, the "Future European Fighter Aircraft" programme was initiated, bringing together Italy, West Germany and the United Kingdom to jointly develop a new fighter, although the latter three had their own aircraft developments. A number of factors led to the eventual split between the other four countries. Around 1984 France reiterated its requirement for a carrier-capable version and demanded a leading role.
It insisted on a swing-role fighter, lighter than the design favoured by the other four nations. West Germany, the UK and Italy established a new EFA programme. In Turin on 2 August 1985, West Germany, the UK and Italy agreed to go ahead with the Eurofighter, confirmed that France, along with Spain, had chosen not to proceed as a member of the project. Despite pressure from France, Spain rejoined the Eurofighter project in early September 1985; the four-nation project resulted in the development of the Eurofighter Typhoon. In France, the government proceeded with its own programme; the French Ministry of Defence required an aircraft capable of air-to-air and air-to-ground, all-day and adverse weather operations. Unlike other contemporary European fighter projects that required some level of international collaboration and cost-sharing, France was the sole developer of the Rafale's airframe, propulsion system and armament, as such the aircraft was to replace a multitude of aircraft in the French Armed Forces.
The Rafale would perform roles filled by an assortment of specialised platforms, including the Jaguar, Mirage F1C/CR/CT, Mirage 2000C/-5/N in the Armée de l'air, the F-8P Crusader, Étendard IVP/M and Super Étendard in the Aéronavale. During October–December 1978, prior to France's joining of the ECA, Dassault received contracts for the development of project ACT 92; the following year, the National Office for Aviation Studies and Research began studying the possible configurations of the new fighter under the codename Rapace. By March 1980, the number of configurations had been narrowed down to four, two of which had a combination of canards, delta wings and a single vertical tail-fin. In October 1982, the French Ministry of Defence announced that Dassault would build a technology demonstrator named Avion de Combat expérimental, in short ACX. France wanted to collaborate with West Germany and the UK on the project, but was prepared to build the ACX by itself. In 1984, the government decided to proceed with a combat variant of the ACX due to the co
Ukraine women's national goalball team is the women's national team of Ukraine. It takes part in international goalball competitions; the 2001 European Championships were held in Belgium with six teams competing. The team finished sixth. In 2005, the European Championships were held in Belgium. With ten teams competing, the team finished eighth; the Turkish Blind Sports Federation hosted the 2007 IBSA Goalball European Championships in Anyalya, Turkey with 11 teams contesting the women's competition. The team finished third. Munich, Germany hosted the 2009 European Championships with eleven teams taking part; the team finished the event in tenth place. Six teams took part in the 2010 IBSA European Championships Goalball Women B tournament held in Eskişehir, Turkey in July; the team finished first. The team competed at the 2013 European Championships in Turkey; the 2003 IBSA World Games were held in Canada with 10 teams competing. The first stage was pool play with 5 teams per pool and the top two teams in each pool advancing to the next round.
The 2007 IBSA World Championships and Games were held in Brazil. The women's goalball competition included thirteen teams, including this one; the competition was a 2008 Summer Paralympics qualifying event. Olena Vertikova was fourth in the competition in scoring with 18 points; the table below contains individual game results for the team in international matches and competitions
The Federal Tort Claims Act is a 1946 federal statute that permits private parties to sue the United States in a federal court for most torts committed by persons acting on behalf of the United States. Citizens have not been able to sue their state—a doctrine referred to as sovereign immunity; the FTCA constitutes a limited waiver of sovereign immunity, permitting citizens to pursue some tort claims against the government. Under the FTCA, "he United States liable... in the same manner and to the same extent as a private individual under like circumstances, but liable for interest prior to judgment or for punitive damages." 28 U. S. C. § 2674. Federal courts have jurisdiction over such claims, but apply the law of the State "where the act or omission occurred". 28 U. S. C. § 1346. Thus, both federal and State law may impose limitations on liability; the FTCA exempts, among other things, claims based upon the performance, or failure to perform a "discretionary function or duty". The FTCA exempts a number of intentional torts.
However, the FTCA does not exempt intentional torts committed by "investigative or law enforcement officers", thus allowing individuals aggrieved by the actions of law enforcement officers to have their day in court. The Supreme Court affirmed this so-called "law enforcement proviso" in Millbrook v. United States, where a federal prisoner was allowed to bring a claim against the United States for intentional torts committed by federal prison guards in the scope of their employment. Under the FTCA, a tort claim against the United States must be presented in writing to the appropriate federal agency within two years after the claim accrues, or it is time-barred. 28 U. S. C. § 2401. The Supreme Court of the United States has limited the application of the FTCA in cases involving the military; this is the Feres doctrine. FTCA is the "exclusive means by which a party may sue the United States for money damages... in tort". Accordingly, an FTCA action "can be brought only in a United States District Court".
Regarding the timing of filing, FTCA's § 2401 states that the action must be brought "within two years after the claim accrues," or "within six months after... notice of final denial of the claim by the agency". In addition, under the FTCA, "Liability is determinable in accordance with the law of the place where the act or omission occurred"; the "Federal Tort Claims Act" was previously the official short title passed by the Seventy-ninth Congress on August 2, 1946 as Title IV of the Legislative Reorganization Act, 60 Stat. 842, classified principally to chapter 20 of former Title 28, Judicial Code and Judiciary. That Title IV of the Legislative Reorganization Act act of August 2, 1946 was repealed and reenacted as sections 1346 and 2671 et seq. of this title by act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 982, the first section of which enacted this title. The Act was passed following the 1945 B-25 Empire State Building crash, where a bomber piloted in thick fog by Lieutenant Colonel William F. Smith, Jr. crashed into the north side of the Empire State Building.
As NPR reported, "Eight months after the crash, the U. S. government offered money to families of the victims. Some accepted; the Federal Tort Claims Act of 1946, for the first time, gave American citizens the right to sue the federal government." Although the crash was not the initial catalyst for the bill, pending in Congress for more than two decades, the statute was made retroactive to 1945 in order to allow victims of that crash to seek recovery. Texas City Disaster, the first failed lawsuit using the FTCA. United States v. Stanley United States Court of Claims United States Court of Federal Claims Ballentine's Law Dictionary, p. 193. The'Lectric Law Library's Legal Lexicon On the Federal Tort Claims Act Answers.com Federal Tort Claims Act Supreme Court Opinion, Dalehite v. U. S. 346 U. S. 15
Fernanda Fernández, was a Spanish nun, found to have an intersex trait and subsequently reclassified as male. Fernanda Fernández took religious vows and became a nun at the age of eighteen in April 1774. In 1787, she told her confessor that she was developing male genitals, asked to be removed from the nunnery, she was placed in isolation and became the central figure in an investigation conducted by the church. The archbishop and physicians were consulted. After an examination by a certified midwife, Fernández was certified as a male, was forced to leave the nunnery on January 21, 1792. After more thorough examinations by physicians and midwives, Fernández was confirmed to have a small penis able to produce semen. Fernández was stated to be a man 11 February 1792, released from his vows as a nun, sent back to his parents in Zújar; the case is documented in the Ecclesiastical Curia of Granada. Intersex in history Timeline of intersex history Eleno de Céspedes
Roman Vlad was a Romanian-born Italian composer and musicologist. Born in Cernăuți, Bukovina, he studied with Titus Tarnawski and Liviu Russu in Romania earning a piano diploma, he moved to Rome in 1938 to study at the University of Rome and the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia. He became an Italian citizen in 1951. Vlad's early career was as a composer, he was the artistic director of Accademia Filarmonica Romana from 1955–58 and again from 1966–69. As well, he was the president of the Italian Society for Contemporary Music in 1960 and musical consultant for the third RAI national radio and television network, he was a member of the Directory Council of the National Academy of Santa Cecilia and artistic consultant for the Ravenna Festival and the Spoleto Festival. Vlad was an eclectic composer whose works range from symphonies to operas to chamber music to "The Japanese Seasons, 24 Haiku." He was a noted composer of film music, including the scores to René Clair's La Beauté du diable, Pictura: An Adventure in Art and Juliet, I Vampiri, Son of the Red Corsair and The Horrible Dr. Hichcock.
Vlad wrote significant books about music, including The History of Twelve-Tone Music and biographies of Stravinsky and Dallapiccola. Works for the general public include Understanding Music and "Introduction to Musical Civilization. Vlad died, aged 93, in Rome on 21 September 2013. Tragic Spell I Chose Love The Three Thieves I Vampiri The Son of the Red Corsair The Crossroads Roberta Costa; the New Grove Dictionary of Opera, edited by Stanley Sadie. ISBN 0-333-73432-7 and ISBN 1-56159-228-5 Pasticci, Susanna. "Hermeneutics and Creative Process: Roman Vlad’s Reception of Stravinsky." Archival Notes: Sources and Research from the Institute of Music 2: 41–63. Roman Vlad on IMDb
John Tyler Hammons is an American politician who served as the 47th Mayor of Muskogee, Oklahoma from 2008 to 2012. He gained national attention when he was elected on May 13, 2008, as a 19-year-old freshman at the University of Oklahoma, after winning 70 percent of the vote in a runoff election against 70-year-old, three-time former Muskogee mayor Herschel McBride. Hammons was reelected on April 2010, in a four-way race. First elected at the age of 19, Hammons was among the youngest mayors in United States history. After serving two terms, Hammons, a citizen of the Cherokee Nation, commenced studies in summer 2012 at the University of Oklahoma College of Law. Hammons served as assistant attorney general for the Cherokee Nation from 2015 to 2017 and was appointed city attorney of Checotah, Oklahoma in January 2019. John Tyler Hammons was born in Muskogee, Oklahoma on September 4, 1988 and is an enrolled member of the Cherokee Nation. Hammons graduated from Muskogee High School in 2007. Before beginning his senior year, Hammons was a delegate to the Oklahoma Boys State.
During his senior year, Hammons was his high school's student body president and was president of both the Young Republicans and Young Democrats at Muskogee High School. After graduating, Hammons attended the University of Oklahoma for his freshman year of college, he transferred to Northeastern State University in Tahlequah, Oklahoma in the fall of 2008. In 2010, Hammons enrolled at the University of Oklahoma-Tulsa, where he graduated in 2012. Hammons graduated from the University of Oklahoma College of Law, passed the Oklahoma Bar Examination in July 2015. Hammons declared his candidacy for mayor of Muskogee on January 29 and filed for office on February 5. By the end of the filing date, Hammons was one of six candidates vying to be mayor, including a former Muskogee mayor and a former city councilor. On election night on April 1, Hammons won the popular vote by coming in first place with 42% of the vote. Herschel McBride came in second place with 38% of the vote; the remaining 20% was divided among the four other candidates.
With the general election failing to deliver a candidate with an absolute majority, the Muskogee City Charter required Hammons and McBride to face one another in a run-off election to determine who would serve as mayor. Vote tallies showed. At the May 13 run-off election, Hammons had captured 70% of the vote, winning the largest popular vote total of any candidate in Muskogee history and the largest margin of victory in Muskogee County history; the election was the largest shakeup in the city government since 1952. On May 19, 2008, Hammons was sworn in as 47th Mayor of the City of Muskogee. At a press conference held on November 30, 2009, at the Oklahoma Music Hall of Fame, Hammons announced that he would seek a second term as mayor of Muskogee. Hammons drew three opponents: local businessman and cousin of sitting US Senator Tom Coburn Bob Coburn, local travel agent Chris James, local volunteer Teresa Garris. On election day, April 6, 2010, Hammons handily won reelection to a second two-year term, receiving just over 51% of the vote in the four-way race, defeating his nearest opponent by 20 percentage points.
In the election, Hammons carried 17 of the City's 18 voting precincts. On November 3, 2011, Hammons announced his plans to step down at the end of his second term, decided to attend the University of Oklahoma College of Law rather than seek a third term in office; as one of his last acts, Hammons changed Muskogee's decades old electoral system from one in which all City Council members are elected by the city at-large to one where each member is elected only by the voters in the electoral district they represent. In his farewell address in February 2012, calling Muskogee a "shining city on the hill", listed enacting permanent funding for economic development, road improvements, tourism promotion as his top achievements while in office. Councilman Bob Coburn, Hammons' 2010 challenger, was elected to succeed him in office. Hammons endorsed former New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani early in the 2008 Republican presidential primaries; when Giuliani withdrew from the race, Hammons endorsed Arizona Senator John McCain.
Hammons was Oklahoma's youngest at-large delegate to the 2008 Republican National Convention. While at the RNC, on his 20th birthday and the final day of the RNC, Hammons had the opportunity to meet Giuliani. In January 2009, Hammons attended the inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States in conjunction with the winter session of the United States Conference of Mayors. Hammons appeared on Fox TV's Are You Smarter Than a 5th Grader?, hosted by Jeff Foxworthy, on October 24, 2008, winning $25,000 for his charity after missing the following question: "What is the name of the first American woman to travel to outer space?". Unsure of the correct answer, he "copied" the 5th grader's answer, wrong. Hammons was the opening joke for Bill Engvall's 2009 album "Aged and Confused"; the magazine Cosmopolitan named Hammons as one of seven sexy young politicians in January, 2010. List of the youngest mayors in the United States