click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Data model

A data model is an abstract model that organizes elements of data and standardizes how they relate to one another and to the properties of real-world entities. For instance, a data model may specify that the data element representing a car be composed of a number of other elements which, in turn, represent the color and size of the car and define its owner; the term data model can refer to two distinct but related concepts. Sometimes it refers to an abstract formalization of the objects and relationships found in a particular application domain: for example the customers and orders found in a manufacturing organization. At other times it refers to the set of concepts used in defining such formalizations: for example concepts such as entities, relations, or tables. So the "data model" of a banking application may be defined using the entity-relationship "data model"; this article uses the term in both senses. A data model explicitly determines the structure of data. Data models are specified by a data specialist, data librarian, or a digital humanities scholar in a data modeling notation.

These notations are represented in graphical form. A data model can sometimes be referred to as a data structure in the context of programming languages. Data models are complemented by function models in the context of enterprise models. Managing large quantities of structured and unstructured data is a primary function of information systems. Data models describe the structure and integrity aspects of the data stored in data management systems such as relational databases, they do not describe unstructured data, such as word processing documents, email messages, digital audio, video. The main aim of data models is to support the development of information systems by providing the definition and format of data. According to West and Fowler "if this is done across systems compatibility of data can be achieved. If the same data structures are used to store and access data different applications can share data; the results of this are indicated above. However and interfaces cost more than they should, to build and maintain.

They may constrain the business rather than support it. A major cause is that the quality of the data models implemented in systems and interfaces is poor". "Business rules, specific to how things are done in a particular place, are fixed in the structure of a data model. This means that small changes in the way business is conducted lead to large changes in computer systems and interfaces". "Entity types are not identified, or incorrectly identified. This can lead to replication of data, data structure, functionality, together with the attendant costs of that duplication in development and maintenance". "Data models for different systems are arbitrarily different. The result of this is; these interfaces can account for between 25-70% of the cost of current systems". "Data cannot be shared electronically with customers and suppliers, because the structure and meaning of data has not been standardized. For example, engineering design data and drawings for process plant are still sometimes exchanged on paper".

The reason for these problems is a lack of standards that will ensure that data models will both meet business needs and be consistent. A data model explicitly determines the structure of data. Typical applications of data models include database models, design of information systems, enabling exchange of data. Data models are specified in a data modeling language. A data model instance may be one of three kinds according to ANSI in 1975: Conceptual data model: describes the semantics of a domain, being the scope of the model. For example, it may be a model of the interest area of an industry; this consists of entity classes, representing kinds of things of significance in the domain, relationship assertions about associations between pairs of entity classes. A conceptual schema specifies the kinds of facts or propositions that can be expressed using the model. In that sense, it defines the allowed expressions in an artificial'language' with a scope, limited by the scope of the model. Logical data model: describes the semantics, as represented by a particular data manipulation technology.

This consists of descriptions of tables and columns, object oriented classes, XML tags, among other things. Physical data model: describes the physical means; this is concerned with partitions, CPUs, the like. The significance of this approach, according to ANSI, is that it allows the three perspectives to be independent of each other. Storage technology can change without affecting the conceptual model; the table/column structure can change without affecting the conceptual model. In each case, of course, the structures must remain consistent with the other model; the table/column structure may be different from a direct translation of the entity classes and attributes, but it must carry out the objectives of the conceptual entity class structure. Early phases of many software development projects emphasize the design of a conceptual data model; such a design can be detailed into a logical data model. In stages, this model may be translated into physical data model. However, it is possible to implement a conceptual model directly.

One of the earliest pioneering works in modelling information systems was done by Young and Kent, who argued for "a precise and abstract way of specifying the informational and time characteristics of a data processing problem". They w

Sadis & Goldberg

Sadis & Goldberg LLP is a New York-based law firm with practices in hedge, private equity, venture capital, real estate and commodity fund formation, family office, transactional counseling, compliance services, regulatory representation, derivatives, tax, ERISA, estate planning and real estate. Sadis & Goldberg was voted "Best Global and North American Law Firm" for hedge funds and ranked number five in 2016 Preqin Global Hedge Fund Report. Sadis & Goldberg was founded in 1997; the firm's senior attorneys are former SEC enforcement lawyers and seasoned attorneys who started their careers in major law firms. Represented SkyBridge Capital in its acquisition of Citigroup's Hedge Fund business; the deal includes the purchase of Citi Alternative Investments' fund of funds, hedge fund seeding and advisory businesses, with $4.2 billion worth of assets under management. Legal counsel for a merger arbitrage hedge fund and Co-Lead Counsel for Orchard Enterprises, Inc stockholders' 195% gross recovery above the merger price for cashed-out stockholders.

This case was notable for the 2.3 times premium over the value of the merger price, awarded and a second recovery of an additional 29% above the merger price for hedge funds that succeeded in an appraisal action. Sadis was able to make a strong showing of rescissory damages, which are recovered in merger litigation; the case demonstrates a source of alpha for hedge funds engaging in shareholder activism and a strategy of exercising appraisal rights litigation in squeeze-out going-private transaction. In 2015, Sadis & Goldberg obtained a favorable settlement of no bar or suspension for ex-Wells Fargo analyst in High-Profile SEC Insider Trading Case; the settlement permits client to continue in securities industry, while neither admitting nor denying one charge of negligence-based § 17 claim, paying a $75,000 civil penalty. Sadis & Goldberg won a FINRA arbitration awards against Interactive Brokers with a payout three times higher than any prior FINRA Awards against the leading online broker.

2016 Best Global Law Firm - Hedgeweek Global Awards 2016 Best North American Law Firm - Hedgeweek USA Awards Official website

USA Tuesday Night Fights

USA Tuesday Night Fights is a television boxing show. It aired from October 1982 through August 25, 1998 on the USA Network. USA Tuesday Night Fights was hosted by Al Albert, who provided the blow-by-blow commentary, former lightweight champion Sean O'Grady, who served as the analyst. Bill Macatee was a substitute announcer for Albert; the show did not employ a regular ring announcer, but several high-profile announcers such as HBO's Michael Buffer, Showtime's Jimmy Lennon, Jr. Philadelphia boxing staple Ed Derian, future BattleBots announcer Mark Beiro were featured with Derian and Beiro featured more as the years went on; the program, for most of its time on air, was sponsored by Budweiser, referred to on air as Budweiser Presents Tuesday Night Fights. Pabst Blue Ribbon was a frequent sponsor of the program, continuing a tradition of the Pabst company sponsoring televised boxing matches. Like some of its similar fellow boxing programs, Tuesday Night Fights did not always emanate from large arenas.

Instead, cards took place in smaller venues, such as The Blue Horizon in Philadelphia, the Felt Forum/Paramount Theater at Madison Square Garden in New York, or the ballroom of Casino Magic in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. Tuesday Night Fights would not limit itself to American venues, as they traveled to England and other places to televise shows. One show took place aboard an aircraft carrier. Few world title fights were presented in this show, one of the notable ones being when Vinny Pazienza, a former world Lightweight champion, moved up in weight and captured the WBA world Jr. Middleweight championship with an eleventh-round knockout of Gilbert Dele. Pazienza would relinquish the title following a car accident the following year. Written off from boxing by doctors after the accident, Pazienza would return to the ring with a win over Luis Santana, a fight which aired on Tuesday Night Fights. Another title fight aired by USA was the 1988 IBF featherweight title bout between defending champion Calvin Grove and contender Jorge Paez that took place in Mexicali, Mexico.

The fight was significant in that it was the last title match scheduled for 15 rounds. The fight went the distance, with Paez earning a majority decision. On March 19, 1996, USA featured a bout between Jeremy Williams and Arthur Weathers as the headline of their show broadcast from the Spruce Goose Dome in Williams' home of Long Beach, California. Williams, at the time a rising heavyweight contender, dropped Weathers with an uppercut immediately after the bell rang to start the contest and referee Marty Denkin called a halt to the contest after ten seconds, erroneously referred to as a world record for quickest knockout. On March 18, 1997, USA saw what is the world's quickest knockout; the bout between heavyweights Jimmy Thunder and Crawford Grimsley lasted only 1.5 seconds after Thunder caught Grimsley with a right hook to the head that sent him to the canvas. Both George Foreman and Larry Holmes were featured on Tuesday Night Fights as they began to return after their initial retirements. Both fighters' comeback fights were aired on USA, Holmes fought on a semi-regular basis on the program until he declared, on air, in 1996 that he would not fight again unless he could secure a title match.

A future opponent of Holmes, received some of his earliest exposure as a professional fighter by fighting several four rounders on Tuesday Night Fights. Roberto Duran was another fixture on Tuesday Night Fights in his career, his 100th professional bout was carried by USA. Tuesday Night Fights showcased the bizarre from time to time. Among these was a fight from former pro football star Mark Gastineau's controversial boxing career which saw him lose to a journeyman fighter, Andrew Golota's infamous fight against Samson Po'uha in 1995 which saw the Polish fighter, who appeared on Tuesday Night Fights, bite the neck of his opponent, a fight between Riddick Bowe and Elijah Tillery where Tillery was disqualified for kicking the future world champion and Bowe responded by knocking him out of the ring, a bizarre fight between Sharmba Mitchell and Bazooka Limon where the former champion Limon pulled Mitchell's trunks down during the action. Many other world champions fought on this show, whether as prospects or in their careers.

This included names such as Oscar de La Hoya, Floyd Mayweather Jr. Roy Jones Jr. Arturo Gatti, Fernando Vargas, Hector Camacho, Tony Tubbs and Antonio Tarver. Pay Per View bouts were rebroadcast on the show such as Julio César Chávez's eighth-round knockout win over Joey Gamache, televised by the show, but as a Pay Per View feature only. In June 2006, CSI Sports, through its FIGHT Sports division, began airing a compilation of some of the best knockouts from the Tuesday Night Fights series titled USA Tuesday Night Fights: Knockouts! on pay-per-view. Narrated by current Washington Redskins play-by-play man Larry Michael, the sixty-minute series featured various fights from throughout the years. Common features were "In Case You Missed It...", featuring some memorable moments from Tuesday Night Fights, "KO Time", which featured quick knockouts, "Who Won This One?", the last fight of the program and was promoted several times during the broadcast with viewers encouraged to pick which of the two men won the bout.

Reruns of this series air across the country including MSG Plus. The Tuesday Night Fights: Knockouts! Series was released on DVD in a two-volume box set. CSI came out with a series called Wide World of Fights, which has a much broader sc

Manitoba First

Manitoba First the Manitoba Party, is a provincial political party in the Canadian province of Manitoba. It was registered by Elections Manitoba on March 24, 2016, it ran 16 candidates in the 2016 general election, garnering 4,887 votes, or 1.12 per cent of the total vote. Its current leader is Douglas Petrick. Steven Fletcher, elected to the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba in 2016 as a Progressive Conservative, joined the party in September 2018, but did not seek re-election in the September 2019 general election; the party won no seats in that election. In September 2018, then-independent MLA Steven Fletcher became leader of the Manitoba Party, despite the protestations of previous board members who claimed they were unaware of Fletcher's plans. Two of these former board members filed court documents in December 2018, seeking Fletcher's ouster after claiming that the previous leader, Gary Marshall, "gave" Fletcher the leadership without authority, as Marshall had been removed as party leader following a unanimous vote during a board meeting in July 2018.

Marshall claimed the board meeting never occurred, while Fletcher maintains he knew nothing about any internal disputes, that the leadership change was done in accordance with the law. On May 22, Fletcher announced he would be running in the 2019 Canadian federal election as a candidate for the People's Party of Canada. Subsequently, Fletcher resigned as leader of the party and David Sutherland, 2016 candidate in the riding of Dawson Trail, was listed as leader. In an interview with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation in January 2016, then-leader Gary Marshall stated the new party is "...a party of tax cuts", its platform included a pledge to lower the provincial sales tax rate to 5 per cent from 8 per cent, removal of PST charges on all food purchases, changing the personal and business income tax rates to a flat 10 per cent, among other proposals. The party proposed to remove all red light and speed cameras from intersections and mobile units, eradicate government regulations "... that impede trade and commerce", changing how tax revenues are allocated among education, so on.

Official website

History of the Union Pacific Railroad

The history of the Union Pacific Railroad stretches from 1862 to the present. For operations of the current railroad, see Union Pacific Railroad. There have been four railroads called Union Pacific: Union Pacific Rail Road, Union Pacific Railway, Union Pacific Railroad, Union Pacific Railroad; this article covers the Union Pacific Rail Road, Union Pacific Railway, Union Pacific Railroad. For the history of the Union Pacific Railroad, see Union Pacific and Southern Pacific Transportation Company; the original company, Union Pacific Rail Road, was created and funded by the federal government by laws passed in 1862 and 1864. The laws were passed as war measures to forge closer ties with California and Oregon, which otherwise took six months to reach. UPRR remained under partial federal control until the 1890s, its management was noted for high turnover. The UPRR main line started in Council Bluffs and moved west to link up with the Central Pacific Railroad line, built eastward from Sacramento. Construction on the UPRR main line was delayed until the American Civil War ended in 1865.

Some 300 miles of main line track were built in 1865-66 over the flat prairies. The Rocky Mountains posed a much more dramatic challenge, but the crews had learned to work at a much faster pace with 240 miles built in 1867, 555 miles in 1868-69; the two lines were joined together in Utah on May 10, 1869, hence creating the first transcontinental railroad in North America. Interstate 80, built in the 1950s, paralleled the UPRR main line. In 1870 the fare in coach from Omaha to San Francisco was $33.20. The train stopped for meals at lunch rooms along the way. Passenger traffic for the long trip was light at first—2000 a month in the 1870s, growing to 10,000 a month in the 1880s. Wall Street speculator Jay Gould took control of the UPRR in 1874, as well as the smaller Kansas Pacific Railway based in Kansas City, he merged the two into the Union Pacific Railway in 1880, giving the Union Pacific new markets in the wheat and ranching regions of Kansas and eastern Colorado. Branches were opened to mining districts in Montana and Utah and to farmlands in Oregon.

Despite severe austerity measures the Union Pacific was unable to repay its old government loans. Most of the wheat farmers joined the Populist movement in the 1890s, engaged in heated anti-railroad rhetoric; the Populists had no lasting impact on the Union Pacific. In the financial crisis of 1893, the Union Pacific Railway, like 153 other American railroads, went bankrupt; the trains continued to operate. In 1897, a new Union Pacific Railroad was absorbed the Union Pacific Railway. Empire builder E. H. Harriman purchased the UP for a song, he upgraded its 3000 miles of trackage, modernized its equipment, merged it with the Southern Pacific, which dominated California. The Supreme Court broke up that merger in 1910. From 1910 to 1980, there was little growth in the UP, which dominated the farming, ranching and tourist trade in a region stretching from Omaha and Kansas City in the East, to Salt Lake City and Denver in the West. Economically, the UP provided transcontinental service, as well as shipping out wheat and other crops and mining products, bringing in consumer items and industrial goods from the East.

There was little expansion 1910-1980 but after that the UP system grew to over 32,000 miles of track with large lines like the Southern Pacific, the Missouri Pacific Railroad and the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad becoming part of the UP system as well as smaller ones. The UPRR main line was completed at a cost of $109 million. About $50 million was spent on the construction work; the rest included a profit of about $13-$16 million to the owners several million dollars in bribes to Congressman, heavy discounts in the sale of bonds of a railroad that most investors thought would never make a profit. The original UPRR was entangled in the Crédit Mobilier scandal, exposed in 1872, its independent construction company, the Crédit Mobilier, had bribed congressmen. The UPRR itself was not guilty but it did get bad publicity; the financial crisis of 1873 led to financial troubles but not bankruptcy. Jay Gould took control in 1873 and built a viable railroad that depended on shipments by local farmers and ranchers.

Gould immersed himself in every financial detail of the entire system. He built an encyclopedic knowledge acted decisively to shape its destiny. "He revised its financial structure, waged its competitive struggles, captained its political battles, revamped its administration, formulated its rate policies, promoted the development of resources along its lines.". Gould created the new Union Pacific Railway and merged the original UPRR, the Union Pacific Rail Road, into the new Union Pacific Railway. After Gould's death, the Union Pacific Railway slipped and declared bankruptcy during the Panic of 1893. In 1897, a new Union Pacific Railroad was formed and absorbed the Union Pacific Railway, this new railroad reverted to the original Union Pacific name of the original company, but now pronounced "Railroad" and not "Rail Road". E. H. Harriman bought the line cheaply, made it much more efficient, profitable, he tried to incorporate it into a vast western system, but the Supreme Court blocked his attempts as monopolistic.

Thomas C

Frederick Meyer

Frederick Heinrich Wilhelm Meyer was a nationally recognized designer and art educator prominent in the Arts and Crafts Movement. He was a long-time resident of the San Francisco Bay Area. Meyer was born near Hamelin, Germany, on November 6, 1872 into a family whose occupations were dominated by furniture craftsmen and weavers, he apprenticed as a cabinetmaker before he immigrated in 1888 to Fresno, where he worked in a large commercial nursery. In about 1890, he enrolled at the Cincinnati Technical School and two years transferred to the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art. On November 7, 1893 he became a naturalized citizen of the United States of America. In the spring of 1895 he traveled to Germany, completed the program at the Royal Academy of Berlin for Fine Arts and Mechanical Sciences, returned to the Pennsylvania Museum School, where he was awarded a master's degree. Between 1898 and 1902 Meyer held the post of Supervisor of Art for the public schools in Stockton, California.

In 1900, he hired as assistant art supervisor William S. Rice, he and his wife relocated to Berkeley, California in fall of 1902, where he was hired as an “Instructor of Descriptive Geometry” at the University of California. A year was appointed Professor of Applied Arts and head of the Department of Industrial Design at San Francisco's Mark Hopkins Institute of Art, administered by U. C. Berkeley. In addition, he opened the Craftsman's Shop in San Francisco and designed custom furniture for prestigious clients, including the: Phoebe Hearst estate at Wyntoon, California Building at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, Faculty Club at U. C. Berkeley, Sequoia Club in San Francisco. In October 1905 he was elected president of the California Guild of Arts and Crafts and his wife became its treasurer. After the devastating San Francisco earthquake and fine in April 1906, which destroyed the Mark Hopkins Institute, he traveled to Europe. Meyer expressed his dream of a school that would fuse the practical and ideal goals of craftsmen and artists, integrated into both theory and practice.

Meyer founded the School of the California Guild of Arts and Crafts in June 1907 with its first location in the Studio Building, one block from the U. C. Berkeley campus, he had just $45.00 in cash, access to 43 students. The following year his school was renamed the California School of Arts and Crafts and relocated to the space over a billiard parlor. In 1910, to accommodate the ever-expanding student body, the CSCA took over the campus of Berkley's old Commercial High School, where they remained until their move in 1923-24 to a larger facility in Oakland on Broadway Avenue; the school was renamed the California College of Arts and Crafts in 1936 and opened a second campus in San Francisco in 1996. The school's name was changed for a fourth time in 2003 to the California College of the Arts; the school developed an international reputation because of Meyer's high standards and the renowned faculty that he hired, including Xavier Martinez, William S. Rice, Perham Wilhelm Nahl, Beniamino Bufano, Isabelle Percy-West, Hamilton A. Wolf.

Meyer became a popular figure though his many public lectures and sponsorship of exhibitions and charities. Meyer remained the CCAC's first president until his retirement in 1944. In Stockton, Meyer married in June 1902 the Boston-born Laetitia Summerville; the couple relocated that fall to California. In 1940, he described himself in Who’s Who in America as a “Progressive Republican... and Protestant... who specializes in architectural designing, interior decorating and landscape gardening.”Frederick Meyer died at the age of 88 on January 6, 1961 in Oakland