A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. A library's collection can include books, newspapers, films, prints, microform, CDs, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, e-books, audiobooks and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items. In Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē: derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e.g. French bibliothèque; the first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. Private or personal libraries made up of written books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. In the 6th century, at the close of the Classical period, the great libraries of the Mediterranean world remained those of Constantinople and Alexandria.
A library is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, a corporation, or a private individual. Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who choose not to—or cannot afford to—purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. In addition to providing materials, libraries provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs. Libraries provide quiet areas for studying, they often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries provide public facilities for access to their electronic resources and the Internet. Modern libraries are being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources, they are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing large amounts of information with a variety of digital resources.
Libraries are becoming community hubs where programs are delivered and people engage in lifelong learning. As community centers, libraries are becoming important in helping communities mobilize and organize for their rights; the relationship between librarianship and human rights works to ensure that the rights of cultural minorities, the homeless, the disabled, LGBTQ community, as well as other marginalized groups are not infringed upon as protected in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in temple rooms in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC; these archives, which consisted of the records of commercial transactions or inventories, mark the end of prehistory and the start of history. Things were much the same in the temple records on papyrus of Ancient Egypt; the earliest discovered. There is evidence of libraries at Nippur about 1900 BC and those at Nineveh about 700 BC showing a library classification system.
Over 30,000 clay tablets from the Library of Ashurbanipal have been discovered at Nineveh, providing modern scholars with an amazing wealth of Mesopotamian literary and administrative work. Among the findings were the Enuma Elish known as the Epic of Creation, which depicts a traditional Babylonian view of creation; the tablets were stored in a variety of containers such as wooden boxes, woven baskets of reeds, or clay shelves. The "libraries" were cataloged using colophons, which are a publisher's imprint on the spine of a book, or in this case a tablet; the colophons stated the series name, the title of the tablet, any extra information the scribe needed to indicate. The clay tablets were organized by subject and size. Due to limited to bookshelf space, once more tablets were added to the library, older ones were removed, why some tablets are missing from the excavated cities in Mesopotamia. According to legend, mythical philosopher Laozi was keeper of books in the earliest library in China, which belonged to the Imperial Zhou dynasty.
Evidence of catalogues found in some destroyed ancient libraries illustrates the presence of librarians. Persia at the time of the Achaemenid Empire was home to some outstanding libraries; those libraries within the kingdom had two major functions: the first came from the need to keep the records of administrative documents including transactions, governmental orders, budget allocation within and between the Satrapies and the central ruling State. The second function was to collect precious resources on different subjects of science and set of principles e.g. medical science, histor
Magnetic ink character recognition
Magnetic ink character recognition code, known in short as MICR code, is a character-recognition technology used by the banking industry to ease the processing and clearance of cheques and other documents. The MICR encoding, called the MICR line, is at the bottom of cheques and other vouchers and includes the document-type indicator, bank code, bank account number, cheque number, cheque amount, a control indicator; the technology allows MICR readers to scan and read the information directly into a data-collection device. Unlike barcodes and similar technologies, MICR characters can be read by humans; the MICR E-13B font has been adopted as the international standard in ISO 1004:1995, but the CMC-7 font is used in Europe, Brazil and some other countries. There are two major MICR fonts in use: E-13B and CMC-7. E-13B has a 14 character set, while CMC-7 has 15—the 10 numeric characters along with control characters; the MICR E-13B font is the standard in Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States, other countries.
Besides decimal digits, it contains the following symbols: ⑆, ⑈, ⑇, ⑉. Major European countries, including France and Italy, others like Brazil and Mexico use the CMC-7 font, developed by Groupe Bull in 1957. MICR characters are printed on documents in either of the MICR fonts; the ink used in the printing is magnetizable ink or toner containing iron oxide. The document is passed through a MICR reader; the ink is first magnetized. The characters are passed over a MICR reader head, a device similar to the playback head of a tape recorder; as each character passes over the head it produces a unique waveform that can be identified by the system. The use of MICR allows the characters to be read reliably if they have been overprinted or obscured by other marks, such as cancellation stamps and signature; the error rate for the magnetic scanning of a typical cheque is smaller than with optical character recognition systems. For well printed MICR documents, the "can't read" rate is less than 1%, while the substitution rate is in the order of 1 per 100,000 characters.
Rejected items are'hand-processed'. Thus, when the cheque is inserted in the MICR reader, it can read the MICR code if there are other marks or stamps on it. Thus, the machine finds out which bank to which the cheques belong and can sort them accordingly; the sorted cheques are transported to a centralized clearinghouse, for redistribution to the various banks, whereupon they do their own MICR procession to determine which customers' accounts are charged, to which branches the cheques should go, to be returned to the customer. However, many banks no longer office this last step. Sorting of cheques is done as per the geographical coverage of banks in a nation. MICR characters were added to the Unicode Standard in June 1993 with the release of version 1.1. The Unicode block that includes MICR characters is called Optical Character Recognition and covers U+2440–U+245F: Before the mid-1940s, cheques were processed manually using the Sort-A-Matic or Top Tab Key method; the processing and clearance of cheques was time consuming and was a significant cost in cheque clearance and bank operations.
As the number of cheques increased, ways were sought for automating the process. Standards were developed to ensure uniformity in financial institutions. By the mid-1950s, the Stanford Research Institute and General Electric Computer Laboratory had developed the first automated system to process cheques using MICR; the same team developed the E13B MICR font. "E" refers to the font being the fifth considered, "B" to the fact that it was the second version. The "13" refers to the 0.013 inch character grid. In 1958, the American Bankers Association adopted E13B font as the MICR standard for negotiable documents in the United States. By the end of 1959, the first cheques had been printed using MICR; the ABA adopted MICR as its standard because machines could read MICR and MICR could be printed using existing technology. In addition, MICR remained machine readable through overstamping, marking and more. MICR technology has been adopted with some variations. In 1963, ANSI adopted the ABA's E13B font as the American standard for MICR printing.
Although compliance with MICR standards is voluntary in the United States, their use with cheques is universal. E13B MICR has been standardized as ISO 1004:1995; the E13B font was adopted as the standard in the United States, United Kingdom and other countries. The CMC-7 font was developed in France by Groupe Bull in 1957, it was adopted as the MICR standard in Argentina, France and some other European countries. In the 1960s, the MICR fonts became a symbol of modernity or futurism, leading to the creation of lookalike "computer" typefaces that imitated the appearance of the MICR fonts, which unlike real MICR fonts, had a full character set. MICR, or E-13B, is used to encode information in other applications like: sales promotions, credit cards, airline tickets, insurance premium receipts, deposit tickets, more. E13b is the version developed for Offset Litho printing. There was a subtly different version for letterpress, called E13a. There was a Rival system named'Fred' which used figures that looked more conventional.
Cheque truncation system Electronic Recording Mac
Information is the resolution of uncertainty. Information is associated with data and knowledge, as data is meaningful information and represents the values attributed to parameters, knowledge signifies understanding of an abstract or concrete concept; the existence of information can be uncoupled from an observer, which refers to that which accesses information to discern that which it specifies. In the case of knowledge, the information itself requires a cognitive observer to be accessed. In terms of communication, information is expressed either as the content of a message or through direct or indirect observation. That, perceived can be construed as a message in its own right, in that sense, information is always conveyed as the content of a message. Information can be encoded into various forms for interpretation, it can be encrypted for safe storage and communication. Information reduces uncertainty; the uncertainty of an event is measured by its probability of occurrence and is inversely proportional to that.
The more uncertain an event, the more information is required to resolve uncertainty of that event. The bit is a typical unit of information. For example, the information encoded in one "fair" coin flip is log2 = 1 bit, in two fair coin flips is log2 = 2 bits; the concept of information has different meanings in different contexts. Thus the concept becomes related to notions of constraint, control, form, knowledge, understanding, mental stimuli, perception and entropy; the English word derives from the Latin stem of the nominative: this noun derives from the verb informare in the sense of "to give form to the mind", "to discipline", "instruct", "teach". Inform itself comes from the Latin verb informare, which means to form an idea of. Furthermore, Latin itself contained the word informatio meaning concept or idea, but the extent to which this may have influenced the development of the word information in English is not clear; the ancient Greek word for form was μορφή and εἶδος "kind, shape, set", the latter word was famously used in a technical philosophical sense by Plato to denote the ideal identity or essence of something.'Eidos' can be associated with thought, proposition, or concept.
The ancient Greek word for information is πληροφορία, which transliterates from πλήρης "fully" and φέρω frequentative of to carry through. It means "bears fully" or "conveys fully". In modern Greek the word Πληροφορία is still in daily use and has the same meaning as the word information in English. In addition to its primary meaning, the word Πληροφορία as a symbol has deep roots in Aristotle's semiotic triangle. In this regard it can be interpreted to communicate information to the one decoding that specific type of sign; this is something that occurs with the etymology of many words in ancient and modern Greek where there is a strong denotative relationship between the signifier, e.g. the word symbol that conveys a specific encoded interpretation, the signified, e.g. a concept whose meaning the interpreter attempts to decode. In English, “information” is an uncountable mass noun. In information theory, information is taken as an ordered sequence of symbols from an alphabet, say an input alphabet χ, an output alphabet ϒ.
Information processing consists of an input-output function that maps any input sequence from χ into an output sequence from ϒ. The mapping may be deterministic, it may be memoryless. Information can be viewed as a type of input to an organism or system. Inputs are of two kinds. In his book Sensory Ecology Dusenbery called these causal inputs. Other inputs are important only because they are associated with causal inputs and can be used to predict the occurrence of a causal input at a time; some information is important because of association with other information but there must be a connection to a causal input. In practice, information is carried by weak stimuli that must be detected by specialized sensory systems and amplified by energy inputs before they can be functional to the organism or system. For example, light is a causal input to plants but for animals it only provides information; the colored light reflected from a flower is too weak to do much photosynthetic work but the visual system of the bee detects it and the bee's nervous system uses the information to guide the bee to the flower, where the bee finds nectar or pollen, which are causal inputs, serving a nutritional function.
The cognitive scientist and applied mathematician Ronaldo Vigo argues that information is a concept that requires at least two related entities to make quantitative sense. These are, any dimensionally defined category of objects S, any of its subsets R. R, in essence, is a representation of S, or, in other words, conveys representational information about S. Vigo defines the amount of information that R conveys a
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule composed of two chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development and reproduction of all known organisms and many viruses. DNA and ribonucleic acid are nucleic acids; the two DNA strands are known as polynucleotides as they are composed of simpler monomeric units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases, a sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate group; the nucleotides are joined to one another in a chain by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next, resulting in an alternating sugar-phosphate backbone. The nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together, according to base pairing rules, with hydrogen bonds to make double-stranded DNA; the complementary nitrogenous bases are divided into two groups and purines. In DNA, the pyrimidines are cytosine. Both strands of double-stranded DNA store the same biological information.
This information is replicated as and when the two strands separate. A large part of DNA is non-coding, meaning that these sections do not serve as patterns for protein sequences; the two strands of DNA are thus antiparallel. Attached to each sugar is one of four types of nucleobases, it is the sequence of these four nucleobases along the backbone. RNA strands are created using DNA strands as a template in a process called transcription. Under the genetic code, these RNA strands specify the sequence of amino acids within proteins in a process called translation. Within eukaryotic cells, DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes. Before typical cell division, these chromosomes are duplicated in the process of DNA replication, providing a complete set of chromosomes for each daughter cell. Eukaryotic organisms store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus as nuclear DNA, some in the mitochondria as mitochondrial DNA, or in chloroplasts as chloroplast DNA. In contrast, prokaryotes store their DNA only in circular chromosomes.
Within eukaryotic chromosomes, chromatin proteins, such as histones and organize DNA. These compacting structures guide the interactions between DNA and other proteins, helping control which parts of the DNA are transcribed. DNA was first isolated by Friedrich Miescher in 1869, its molecular structure was first identified by Francis Crick and James Watson at the Cavendish Laboratory within the University of Cambridge in 1953, whose model-building efforts were guided by X-ray diffraction data acquired by Raymond Gosling, a post-graduate student of Rosalind Franklin. DNA is used by researchers as a molecular tool to explore physical laws and theories, such as the ergodic theorem and the theory of elasticity; the unique material properties of DNA have made it an attractive molecule for material scientists and engineers interested in micro- and nano-fabrication. Among notable advances in this field are DNA origami and DNA-based hybrid materials. DNA is a long polymer made from repeating units called nucleotides.
The structure of DNA is dynamic along its length, being capable of coiling into tight loops and other shapes. In all species it is composed of two helical chains, bound to each other by hydrogen bonds. Both chains are coiled around the same axis, have the same pitch of 34 angstroms; the pair of chains has a radius of 10 angstroms. According to another study, when measured in a different solution, the DNA chain measured 22 to 26 angstroms wide, one nucleotide unit measured 3.3 Å long. Although each individual nucleotide is small, a DNA polymer can be large and contain hundreds of millions, such as in chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is the largest human chromosome with 220 million base pairs, would be 85 mm long if straightened. DNA does not exist as a single strand, but instead as a pair of strands that are held together; these two long strands coil in the shape of a double helix. The nucleotide contains both a segment of the backbone of a nucleobase. A nucleobase linked to a sugar is called a nucleoside, a base linked to a sugar and to one or more phosphate groups is called a nucleotide.
A biopolymer comprising multiple linked nucleotides is called a polynucleotide. The backbone of the DNA strand is made from alternating sugar residues; the sugar in DNA is 2-deoxyribose, a pentose sugar. The sugars are joined together by phosphate groups that form phosphodiester bonds between the third and fifth carbon atoms of adjacent sugar rings; these are known as the 3′-end, 5′-end carbons, the prime symbol being used to distinguish these carbon atoms from those of the base to which the deoxyribose forms a glycosidic bond. When imagining DNA, each phosphoryl is considered to "belong" to the nucleotide whose 5′ carbon forms a bond therewith. Any DNA strand therefore has one end at which there is a phosphoryl attached to the 5′ carbon of a ribose and another end a
In library and archival science, digital preservation is a formal endeavor to ensure that digital information of continuing value remains accessible and usable. It involves planning, resource allocation, application of preservation methods and technologies, it combines policies and actions to ensure access to reformatted and "born-digital" content, regardless of the challenges of media failure and technological change; the goal of digital preservation is the accurate rendering of authenticated content over time. The Association for Library Collections and Technical Services Preservation and Reformatting Section of the American Library Association, defined digital preservation as combination of "policies and actions that ensure access to digital content over time." According to the Harrod's Librarian Glossary, digital preservation is the method of keeping digital material alive so that they remain usable as technological advances render original hardware and software specification obsolete.
Archival appraisal refers to the process of identifying records and other materials to be preserved by determining their permanent value. Several factors are considered when making this decision, it is a difficult and critical process because the remaining selected records will shape researchers' understanding of that body of records, or fonds. Appraisal is identified as A4.2 within the Chain of Preservation model created by the InterPARES 2 project. Archival appraisal is not the same as monetary appraisal. Archival appraisal may be performed once or at the various stages of processing. Macro appraisal, a functional analysis of records at a high level, may be performed before the records have been acquired to determine which records to acquire. More detailed, iterative appraisal may be performed. Appraisal is performed on not just digital, it has been proposed that, in the digital context, it might be desirable to retain more records than have traditionally been retained after appraisal of analog records due to a combination of the declining cost of storage and the availability of sophisticated discovery tools which will allow researchers to find value in records of low information density.
In the analog context, these records may have been discarded or only a representative sample kept. However, the selection and prioritization of materials must be considered in relation to the ability of an organization to responsibly manage the totality of these materials. Libraries, to a lesser extent, are offered the same materials in several different digital or analog formats, they prefer to select the format that they feel has the greatest potential for long-term preservation of the content. The Library of Congress has created a set of recommended formats for long-term preservation, they would be used, for example, if the Library was offered items for copyright deposit directly from a publisher. In digital preservation and collection management and identification of objects is aided by the use of assigned identifiers and accurate descriptive metadata. An identifier is a unique label, used to reference an object or record manifested as a number or string of numbers and letters; as a crucial element of metadata to be included in a database record or inventory, it is used in tandem with other descriptive metadata to differentiate objects and their various instantiations.
Descriptive metadata refers to information about an object's content such as title, subject, date etc... Determination of the elements used to describe an object are facilitated by the use of a metadata schema. Another common type of file identification is the filename. Implementing a file naming protocol is essential to maintaining consistency and efficient discovery and retrieval of objects in a collection, is applicable during digitization of analog media. Using a file naming convention, such as the 8.3 filename, will ensure compatibility with other systems and facilitate migration of data, deciding between descriptive and non-descriptive file names is determined by the size and scope of a given collection. However, filenames are not good for semantic identification, because they are non-permanent labels for a specific location on a system and can be modified without affecting the bit-level profile of a digital file; the cornerstone of digital preservation, "data integrity" refers to the assurance that the data is "complete and unaltered in all essential respects".
Unintentional changes to data are to be avoided, responsible strategies put in place to detect unintentional changes and react as appropriately determined. However, digital preservation efforts may necessitate modifications to content or metadata through responsibly-developed procedures and by well-documented policies. Organizations or individuals may choose to retain original, integrity-checked versions of content and/or modified versions with appropriate preservation metadata. Data integrity practices apply to modified versions, as their state of capture must be maintained and resistant to unintentional modifications. File fixity is the property of a digital file being fixed, or unchanged. File fixity checking is the process of validating that a file has not changed or been altered from a previous state; this effort is enabled by the creation and management of checksums. While check
Smoke is a collection of airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis, together with the quantity of air, entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass. It is an unwanted by-product of fires, but may be used for pest control, communication and offensive capabilities in the military, cooking, or smoking, it is used in rituals where incense, sage, or resin is burned to produce a smell for spiritual purposes. Smoke is sometimes used as a flavoring agent, preservative for various foodstuffs. Smoke is a component of internal combustion engine exhaust gas diesel exhaust. Smoke inhalation is the primary cause of death in victims of indoor fires; the smoke kills by a combination of thermal damage and pulmonary irritation caused by carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide and other combustion products. Smoke is an aerosol of solid particles and liquid droplets that are close to the ideal range of sizes for Mie scattering of visible light; this effect has been likened to three-dimensional textured privacy glass — a smoke cloud does not obstruct an image, but scrambles it.
The composition of smoke depends on the nature of the conditions of combustion. Fires with high availability of oxygen burn at a high temperature and with small amount of smoke produced. High temperature leads to production of nitrogen oxides. Sulfur content yields sulfur dioxide. Carbon and hydrogen are completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. Fires burning with lack of oxygen produce a wider palette of compounds, many of them toxic. Partial oxidation of carbon produces carbon monoxide, nitrogen-containing materials can yield hydrogen cyanide and nitrogen oxides. Hydrogen gas can be produced instead of water. Content of halogens such as chlorine may lead to production of e.g. hydrogen chloride, phosgene and chloromethane, bromomethane and other halocarbons. Hydrogen fluoride can be formed from fluorocarbons, whether fluoropolymers subjected to fire or halocarbon fire suppression agents. Phosphorus and antimony oxides and their reaction products can be formed from some fire retardant additives, increasing smoke toxicity and corrosivity.
Pyrolysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, e.g. from burning older transformer oil, to lower degree of other chlorine-containing materials, can produce 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, a potent carcinogen, other polychlorinated dibenzodioxins. Pyrolysis of fluoropolymers, e.g. teflon, in presence of oxygen yields carbonyl fluoride. Pyrolysis of burning material incomplete combustion or smoldering without adequate oxygen supply results in production of a large amount of hydrocarbons, both aliphatic and aromatic, terpenes. Heterocyclic compounds may be present. Heavier hydrocarbons may condense as tar. Presence of such smoke, and/or brown oily deposits during a fire indicates a possible hazardous situation, as the atmosphere may be saturated with combustible pyrolysis products with concentration above the upper flammability limit, sudden inrush of air can cause flashover or backdraft. Presence of sulfur can lead to formation of e.g. hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, thiols.
Partial oxidation of the released hydrocarbons yields in a wide palette of other compounds: aldehydes, alcohols, carboxylic acids. The visible particulate matter in such smokes is most composed of carbon. Other particulates may be composed of solid particles of ash; the presence of metals in the fuel yields particles of metal oxides. Particles of inorganic salts may be formed, e.g. ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, or sodium chloride. Inorganic salts present on the surface of the soot particles may make them hydrophilic. Many organic compounds the aromatic hydrocarbons, may be adsorbed on the surface of the solid particles. Metal oxides can be present when metal-containing fuels are burned, e.g. solid rocket fuels containing aluminium. Depleted uranium projectiles after impacting the target ignite, producing particles of uranium oxides. Magnetic particles, spherules of magnetite-like ferrous ferric oxide, are present in coal smoke. Magnetic remanence, recorded in the iron oxide particles, indicates the strength of Earth's magnetic field when they were cooled beyond their Curie temperature.
Fly ash is composed of silica and calcium oxide. Cenospheres are present in smoke from liquid hydrocarbon fu
A crayon is a stick of colored wax, chalk or other material used for writing or drawing. A crayon made of pigment with a dry binder is a pastel. A grease pencil or Chinese marker is made of colored hardened grease. There are watercolor crayons, sometimes called water-soluble crayons. Crayons are easy to work with, they are less messy than most paints and markers, blunt nontoxic, available in a wide variety of colors. These characteristics make them good instruments for teaching small children to draw in addition to being used by student and professional artists. In the modern English-speaking world, the term crayon is associated with the standard wax crayon, such as those available for use by children; such crayons are approximately 3.5 inches in length and made of paraffin wax. Paraffin wax is heated and cooled to achieve the correct temperature at which a usable wax substance can be dyed and manufactured and shipped for use around the world. Paraffin waxes are used for cosmetics, for the preparation of printing ink, fruit preserving, in the pharmaceutical industry, for lubricating purposes, crayons.
Colin Snedeker, a chemist for Binney & Smith, developed the first washable crayons in response to consumer complaints regarding stained fabrics and walls. A patent for the washable solid marking composition utilized in the washable crayons was awarded to Snedeker in 1990; the history of the crayon is not clear. The word "crayon" dates to 1644, coming from the Latin word creta; the notion to combine a form of wax with pigment goes back thousands of years. Encaustic painting is a technique that uses hot beeswax combined with colored pigment to bind color into stone. A heat source was used to "burn in" and fix the image in place. Pliny the Elder, a Roman scholar, was thought to describe the first techniques of wax crayon drawings; this method, employed by the Egyptians, Romans and indigenous people in the Philippines, is still used today. However, the process wasn't used to make crayons into a form intended to be held and colored with and was therefore ineffective to use in a classroom or as crafts for children.
Contemporary crayons are purported to have originated in Europe, where some of the first cylinder-shaped crayons were made with charcoal and oil. Pastels are an art medium having roots with the modern crayon and stem back to Leonardo da Vinci in 1495. Conté crayons, out of Paris, are a hybrid between a pastel and a conventional crayon, used since the late 1790s as a drawing crayon for artists. Various hues of powdered pigment replaced the primary charcoal ingredient found in most early 19th century products. References to crayons in literature appear as early as 1813 in Prejudice. Joseph Lemercier, considered by some of his contemporaries to be "the soul of lithography", was one of the founders of the modern crayon. Through his Paris business circa 1828 he produced a variety of crayon and color related products, but as those in Europe were discovering that substituting wax for the oil strengthened the crayon, various efforts in the United States were developing. The initial era of wax crayons saw a number of companies and products competing for the lucrative education and artist markets.
In addition to the giants such as Binney & Smith/Crayola and American Crayon/Dixon Ticonderoga, other companies popped up in the industry at various times from the late 19th century to the early 1910s. Crayola developed their line of wax crayons beginning on June 10, 1903. Edwin Binney and C. Harold Smith had been long established in the coloring marketplace through Binney's Peekskill, NY chemical works factory making lampblack by burning whale and carbon black and instrumental in the coloring of automobile tires. In 1902 they introduced the Staonal marking crayon. Edwin Binney, working with his wife, Alice Stead Binney, who coined the name Crayola by combining the French word for chalk, with the first part of oleaginous, the oily paraffin wax used to make the crayon. Binney and Smith were quick to capitalize on their creation by offering 19 boxes with 30 colors, including the Crayola No 51, with 28, featured their largest selection of colors; the Rubens Crayola line started in 1903 as well was for artists and designed to compete with the Raphael brand of crayons from Europe.
Rubens were featured in everything from the small 6-color box to the No. 500 with 24 colors. They made many other crayon lines including Anti-Roll, Art-Toy, Boston, Cerola, Chic'ago, Doo Zee, Easy-Off, Liquitex, Munsell Crayola, Pooh, Rubens, Tiny Tots and Widstrok. By far the most recognizable brand was their Crayola "Gold Medal" line in the familiar yellow boxes; the Gold Medal referred to one the company earned with their An-du-Septic dustless chalk during the March 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. Over 39,000 awards were given out using the medals designed by Adolph A. Weinman. Receiving a medal at an Exposition was and still is something of importance with many companies featuring their medal on their products. Two companies to use the 1904 medal were Binney & Smith, they used the award to design a new line of crayons featuring the medal on the front of thei