A database is an organized collection of data stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are developed using formal design and modeling techniques; the database management system is the software that interacts with end users and the database itself to capture and analyze the data. The DBMS software additionally encompasses; the sum total of the database, the DBMS and the associated applications can be referred to as a "database system". The term "database" is used to loosely refer to any of the DBMS, the database system or an application associated with the database. Computer scientists may classify database-management systems according to the database models that they support. Relational databases became dominant in the 1980s; these model data as rows and columns in a series of tables, the vast majority use SQL for writing and querying data. In the 2000s, non-relational databases became popular, referred to as NoSQL because they use different query languages.
Formally, a "database" refers to the way it is organized. Access to this data is provided by a "database management system" consisting of an integrated set of computer software that allows users to interact with one or more databases and provides access to all of the data contained in the database; the DBMS provides various functions that allow entry and retrieval of large quantities of information and provides ways to manage how that information is organized. Because of the close relationship between them, the term "database" is used casually to refer to both a database and the DBMS used to manipulate it. Outside the world of professional information technology, the term database is used to refer to any collection of related data as size and usage requirements necessitate use of a database management system. Existing DBMSs provide various functions that allow management of a database and its data which can be classified into four main functional groups: Data definition – Creation and removal of definitions that define the organization of the data.
Update – Insertion and deletion of the actual data. Retrieval – Providing information in a form directly usable or for further processing by other applications; the retrieved data may be made available in a form the same as it is stored in the database or in a new form obtained by altering or combining existing data from the database. Administration – Registering and monitoring users, enforcing data security, monitoring performance, maintaining data integrity, dealing with concurrency control, recovering information, corrupted by some event such as an unexpected system failure. Both a database and its DBMS conform to the principles of a particular database model. "Database system" refers collectively to the database model, database management system, database. Physically, database servers are dedicated computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software. Database servers are multiprocessor computers, with generous memory and RAID disk arrays used for stable storage.
Hardware database accelerators, connected to one or more servers via a high-speed channel, are used in large volume transaction processing environments. DBMSs are found at the heart of most database applications. DBMSs may be built around a custom multitasking kernel with built-in networking support, but modern DBMSs rely on a standard operating system to provide these functions. Since DBMSs comprise a significant market and storage vendors take into account DBMS requirements in their own development plans. Databases and DBMSs can be categorized according to the database model that they support, the type of computer they run on, the query language used to access the database, their internal engineering, which affects performance, scalability and security; the sizes and performance of databases and their respective DBMSs have grown in orders of magnitude. These performance increases were enabled by the technology progress in the areas of processors, computer memory, computer storage, computer networks.
The development of database technology can be divided into three eras based on data model or structure: navigational, SQL/relational, post-relational. The two main early navigational data models were the hierarchical model and the CODASYL model The relational model, first proposed in 1970 by Edgar F. Codd, departed from this tradition by insisting that applications should search for data by content, rather than by following links; the relational model employs sets of ledger-style tables, each used for a different type of entity. Only in the mid-1980s did computing hardware become powerful enough to allow the wide deployment of relational systems. By the early 1990s, relational systems dominated in all large-scale data processing applications, as of 2018 they remain dominant: IBM DB2, Oracle, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server are the most searched DBMS; the dominant database language, standardised SQL for the relational model, has influenced database languages for other data models. Object databases were developed in the 1980s to overcome the inconvenience of object-relational impedance mismatch, which led to the coining of the term "post-relational" and the development of hybrid object-relational databases.
The next generation of post-relational databases in the late 2
Associação Desportiva Atlética do Paraná known as ADAP was a Brazilian football club, from Campo Mourão, Paraná state. On June 5, 1999, the club was founded by the Avanilton Batista Prado brothers; the club was from Jacarezinho. In January, 2002, ADAP moved to Campo Mourão city, after the initiative of the city's mayor, Tauilio Tezelli. In that year, the club was Campeonato Paranaense Série A-2 runner-up. ADAP was defeated by Dois Vizinhos in the final. In 2003, due to Ponta Grossa's bad financial condition, their berth in the Campeonato Paranaense was sold to ADAP. ADAP disputed the competition representing Ponta Grossa, finished in the 13th position in the competition. ADAP was christened Adap-Ponta Grossa in the competition; the club has finished in the 3rd position in the Série A-2. In 2004, again ADAP replaced Ponta Grossa in the Campeonato Paranaense, the club was eliminated in the second stage. However, ADAP was not representing Ponta Grossa at this time. In 2005, ADAP was again eliminated in the Campeonato Paranaense second stage, the quarterfinals.
The club was eliminated by Iraty in a penalty shootout. In 2006, the club finished as Campeonato Paranaense runner-up; the club was defeated by Paraná in the final. In November, 2006, the club and Galo Maringá Futebol Clube fused; the new club was named Adap Galo Maringá Football Club. Campeonato Paranaense runner-up: 2006 Campeonato Paranaense Série A-2 runner-up: 2002 The club's home matches are played at Roberto Brzezinski stadium, which has a maximum capacity of 3,000 people. Souza The club's colors are red. Official website FutebolPR
The Alfred R. Voss Farmstead is a historic farm in Rosendale Township, United States, it was established in the early 1880s by Alfred R. Voss and grew to become one of the largest private farming operations in late-19th-century southern Minnesota, its stock barn, built 1893 -- 1896, is one of the most elaborate barns in the state. The farm was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1988 for its local significance in the themes of agriculture and architecture, it was nominated for its size, its unusually large and impressive buildings, its associations with Voss, a land speculator instrumental in the settlement of Watonwan County and one of the area's most prominent farmers. National Register of Historic Places listings in Watonwan County, Minnesota