Datura is a genus of nine species of poisonous Vespertine flowering plants belonging to the family Solanaceae. They are known as daturas, but known as devil's trumpets. Other English common names include moonflower, devil's weed, hell's bells and thorn-apple; the Mexican common names Toloache and Tolguacha derive from the Nahuatl name Tolohuaxihuitl meaning "the plant with the nodding head". Datura species are native to dry and subtropical regions of the Americas and are distributed in Mexico, considered the center of its origin. Although Datura ferox occurs in Argentina, Datura metel in Asia, Datura leichardthii in Australia, these species were introduced from Mexico, its distribution within the Americas and North Africa, however, is most restricted to the United States and Southern Canada in North America, Tunisia in Africa where the highest species diversity occurs. All species of Datura are poisonous their seeds and flowers which can cause respiratory depression, hallucinations, psychosis, as well as death if taken internally.
A group of South American species placed in the genus Datura are now placed in the distinct genus Brugmansia. Other related taxa include Hyoscyamus niger, Atropa belladonna, Mandragora officinarum and many more; the name Datura is taken from Sanskrit धतूरा dhatūra'thorn-apple' from Sanskrit धत्तूर dhattūra'white thorn-apple'. In the Ayurvedic text Sushruta Samhita different species of Datura are referred to as kanaka and unmatta. Dhatura is offered to Shiva in Hinduism. Record of this name in English dates back to 1662. Nathaniel Hawthorne refers to one type in The Scarlet Letter as apple-Peru. In Mexico, its common name is toloache. Datura species are herbaceous, leafy annuals and short-lived perennials which can reach up to 2 m in height; the leaves are 10 -- 20 cm long and 5 -- 18 cm broad, with a lobed or toothed margin. The flowers are erect or spreading, trumpet-shaped, 5–20 cm long and 4–12 cm broad at the mouth; the fruit is a spiny capsule 4–10 cm long and 2–6 cm broad, splitting open when ripe to release the numerous seeds.
The seeds disperse over pastures and wasteland locations. Datura belongs to the classic "witches' weeds", along with deadly nightshade and mandrake. All parts of the plants are toxic, datura has a long history of use for causing delirious states and death, it was well known as an essential ingredient of potions and witches' brews, most notably Datura stramonium. In India it has been referred to as an aphrodisiac. In little measures it was used in Ayurveda as a medicine from the ancient times, it is used in prayers to Shiva. It is used in Ganesh Chaturthi; the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including Hypercompe indecisa, eat some Datura species. It is difficult to classify Datura as to its species, it happens that the descriptions of new species are accepted prematurely; these "new species" are found to be varieties that have evolved due to conditions at a specific location. They disappear in a few years. Contributing to the confusion is the fact that various species, such as D. wrightii and D. inoxia, are similar in appearance, the variation within a species can be extreme.
For example, Datura species can change size of plant and flowers, all depending on location. The same species, when growing in a half-shady, damp location can develop into a flowering bush half as tall as an adult human of average height, but when growing in a dry location, will only grow into a thin plant not much more than ankle-high, with tiny flowers and a few miniature leaves. Today, experts classify only nine species of Datura: American Brugmansia and Datura Society, Inc. is designated in the 2004 edition of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants as the official International Cultivar Registration Authority for Datura. This role was delegated to ABADS by the International Society for Horticultural Science in 2002. D. lanosa D. suaveolens Datura species are sown annually from the seed produced in the spiny capsules, with care, the tuberous-rooted perennial species may be overwintered. Most species are suited to being planted in containers; as a rule, they need soil that will keep their roots dry.
When grown outdoors in good locations, the plants may become invasive. In containers, they should have aerated potting soil with adequate drainage; the plants are susceptible to fungi in the root area, so anaerobic organic enrichment such as anaerobically composted organic matter or manure, should be avoided. All Datura plants contain tropane alkaloids such as scopolamine and atropine in their seeds and flowers as well as the roots of certain species such as D. wrightii. Because of the presence of these substances, Datura has been used for centuries in some cultures as a poison. A given plant's toxicity depends on its age, where it is growing, the local weather conditions; these variations make Datura exceptionally hazardous as a drug. In traditional cultures, a great deal of experience with and detailed knowledge of Datura was critical to minimize harm. Many tragic incide
Alice Mak Mei-kuen BBS, JP is a member of Legislative Council of Hong Kong for the New Territories West constituency, for the Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions. She graduated from Department of English of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, she has been a member of the Kwai Tsing District Council since 1993, represented the Wai Ying constituency until 2019. Mak was handpicked by Wong Kwok-hing to run in the 2012 Hong Kong legislative election and was elected as a member of Legislative Council of Hong Kong in the 2016 Hong Kong legislative election, she lost her seat in the District Council during the 2019 elections following a general rout of pro-Beijing candidates amidst the 2019 Hong Kong protests. During the 2019 Hong Kong protests, Chief Executive Carrie Lam called for a meeting on 18 June with pro-Beijing lawmakers in Government House to explain her reasoning for suspending the controversial extradition bill, it was reported that Mak berated the chief executive for around five minutes using Cantonese profanities until Lam appeared to be in tears, to which Mak retorted in tears, "what use is crying now?
You know how to cry, I do too!". The account was confirmed by a leaked conversation between pro-Beijing lawmaker Christopher Cheung and Independent Police Complaints Council chairman Anthony Neoh, who did not realise their microphones were still on during their breaks. In 19 June, Mak was asked about the truthfulness of the account, but Mak refused to reveal the details of the meeting, stressing that the pro-Beijing camp does not support the government blindly. Hong Kong's two civil service unions, the Hong Kong Chinese Civil Servants’ Association and the Federation of Civil Service Unions, urged Mak to address the accusation and apologise to Carrie Lam if the reports were true
Jeffrey George Crank wants to be an American politician. He was a candidate for United States Representative for Colorado's 5th congressional district.. But he lost, he has run for political offices several times without success. He hosts a weekend radio talk show on local am radio. Crank was born in 1967 and graduated from Central High School in 1985, he graduated from Colorado State University in 1990, with a B. A. in Political Science. From 1991 to 1998, he worked as a congressional staffer for Representative Joel Hefley, being a Legislative Assistant until being promoted as Administrative Director in April 1995. After working for Congressman Hefley, he became Vice President of the Colorado Springs Chamber of Commerce in May 1998 and was promoted to Senior Vice President in October 2001, he left the Greater Colorado Springs Chamber of Commerce in February 2006. Crank was elected as Chairman of the 5th Congressional District Republican Central Committee in 2001 and 2003. In 2003, he was appointed to the Colorado Emergency Planning Commission by Governor of Colorado Bill Owens for a two-year term and served on the El Paso County Citizens Corps Council in 2004.
He was the El Paso county co-chair for President George W. Bush's re-election campaign in 2004. Crank was elected in 2004 to serve on the Colorado State Republican Central Committee as a bonus member. Crank served as the Colorado State Director for Americans for Prosperity from May 2009 to August 2013, he resigned from the position to form Aegis Strategic. Crank ran for US Representative in 2006 to replace retiring incumbent Representative Joel Hefley, he narrowly lost the Republican primary to State Legislator Doug Lamborn. Crank had received endorsements from several major politicians including Joel Hefley. Crank lives in Colorado Springs, with his wife Lisa and their two children, he has his own radio program on KVOR, The Jeff Crank Show
Celerino Castillo is a former agent for the United States Drug Enforcement Administration. Castillo was a detective sergeant with a Texas Police Department from 1974 until 1979, graduated from the University of Texas–Pan American in 1976 with a BS in Criminal Justice, he served in the United States army during the Vietnam War. While in Vietnam, Castillo had witnessed first-hand the effects of drug abuse on his soldiers. In 1979, he joined the DEA as an enforcement agent in America's "War on Drugs", specializing in undercover investigation and acting as a foreign diplomat for six years in South and Central America, he is best known for blowing the whistle on the CIA-backed arms-for-drugs trade used to prop up the 1980s Contra counter-insurgency in Nicaragua, for the book that he wrote on that subject, entitled Powder Burns: Cocaine and the Drug War and released in 1994, two years after he had left the DEA. After leaving the DEA Castillo worked as a private investigator, worked to promote his book, appearing on television and lecturing at various universities on the drug war and US foreign policy in Latin America.
Since 1997 he has been accepted as an expert witness in federal courts on Outrageous Government Conduct and Racial Profiling. In 2008 Castillo told reporter Bill Conroy that agents from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives agents were participating in the smuggling of high powered weapons into Mexico. According to Castillo the source of that information was a government informer, murdered. In March 2008, Celerino Castillo was arrested for selling firearms without a permit, he claimed at that time that he was being targeted by the government in retaliation for his attempts to reveal the illegal activities of government agencies. He was sentenced to 37 months in prison, it was revealed that his attorney was, at the time of his plea, suspended by the State Bar of Texas for misapplying clients' funds. According to Castillo, not the only impropriety in the handling of his criminal case. In a letter to the judge who had overseen the case and handed down the sentence, he stated that the prosecutor had lied to the judge at his sentencing.
He was scheduled for release in April, 2012. Allegations of CIA drug trafficking American Drug War: The Last White Hope CIA involvement in Contra cocaine trafficking Gary Webb Iran-Contra Affair Ricky Ross Celerino III Castillo & Dave Harmon. Powderburns: Cocaine, Contras & the Drug War. Borgo Press. ISBN 978-0-8095-4855-2. Frederick P. Hitz. "Obscuring Propriety: The CIA and Drugs". International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence. 12: 448–462. Doi:10.1080/088506099304990. Peter Dale Scott & Jonathan Marshall. Cocaine Politics: Drugs and the CIA in Central America. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-07312-8. Report of Investigation Concerning Allegations of Connections Between CIA and The Contras in Cocaine Trafficking to the United States, CIA The Contras and Covert Operations: Documentation of Official U. S. Knowledge of Drug Trafficking and the Contras, A collection of declassified documents at the National Security Archive Snow Job: The Establishment's Papers Do Damage Control for the CIA, By Norman Solomon, in Extra!, Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting's magazine Department of Justice: The CIA-Contra-Crack cocaine controversy: A review of the Justice Department's investigations and prosecutions
Scrubs is an American medical comedy-drama television series created by Bill Lawrence that aired from October 2, 2001, to March 17, 2010, on NBC and ABC. The series follows the lives of employees at the fictional Sacred Heart Hospital, a Teaching Hospital; the title is a play on surgical scrubs and a term for a low-ranking person because at the beginning of the series, most of the main characters are medical interns. The series was noted for its fast-paced slapstick and surreal vignettes presented as the daydreams of the central character, John "J. D." Dorian, played by Zach Braff. The main cast for all but its last season consisted of Braff, Sarah Chalke, Donald Faison, Neil Flynn, Ken Jenkins, John C. McGinley, Judy Reyes; the series featured multiple guest appearances by film actors, such as Brendan Fraser, Heather Graham, Colin Farrell. Although season eight's "My Finale" was conceived and filmed as a series finale, the show was rebooted for a ninth season, subtitled Med School, with the setting moved to a medical school, new cast members introduced.
Of the original cast, only Braff, McGinley remained regular cast members, while the others, with the exception of Reyes, made guest appearances. Scrubs, produced by the television production division of Walt Disney Television, premiered on October 2, 2001, on NBC; the series received a Peabody Award in 2006. During the seventh season, NBC announced; the ninth season premiered on December 1, 2009, on May 14, 2010, ABC cancelled the series. Scrubs focuses on the unique point of view of its main character and narrator, Dr. John Michael "J. D." Dorian for the first eight seasons, with season nine being narrated by the new main character Lucy Bennett. Most episodes feature multiple story lines thematically linked by voice-overs done by Braff, as well as the comical daydreams of J. D. According to Bill Lawrence, "What we decided was, rather than have it be a monotone narration, if it's going to be Zach's voice, we're going to do everything through J. D.'s eyes. It opened up a visual medium that those of us as comedy writers were not used to."
Actors were given the chance to improvise their lines on set with encouragement by series creator Bill Lawrence, with Neil Flynn and Zach Braff being the main improvisors. Every episode title for the first eight seasons begins with the word "My". Bill Lawrence says. A few episodes are told from another character's perspective and have episode titles such as "His Story" or "Her Story". Apart from a brief period of narration from J. D. at the beginning and the end, these episodes contain internal narration from other characters besides J. D; the transfer of the narration duties occurs at a moment of physical contact between two characters. Starting with season nine, the episode titles start with "Our..." as the focus has shifted from the perspective of J. D. to a new group of medical students. The webisodes that accompanied season eight, Scrubs: Interns were named "Our...". For the first eight seasons, the series featured seven main cast members, with numerous other characters recurring throughout the course of the series.
Starting with the ninth season, many of the original cast left as regular characters, while four new additions were made to the main cast. Zach Braff portrays John Michael "J. D." Dorian, the show's protagonist and narrator. J. D. is a young attending physician. His voice-over to the series comes from his internal thoughts and features surreal fantasies. J. D. describes himself as a "sensi", being a lover of hugs. Over the course of the series, J. D. rises the ranks of the hospital before leaving Sacred Heart to become the Residency Director at St. Vincent Hospital, before returning to become a teacher at Winston University. J. D. has a child with wife Elliot Reid. Sarah Chalke portrays Elliot Reid, another intern and private-practice physician, her relationship with J. D. becomes romantic on several occasions throughout the series, resulting in them marrying and having a child together. As the series progresses, despite an initial dislike of each other, she becomes friends with Carla. Elliot is driven by a neurotic desire to prove her worth to her family, her peers, herself.
She is described as book-smart, while her social abilities were somewhat lacking. Her social skills develop throughout the seasons. Donald Faison portrays Christopher Turk, J. D.'s best friend and surgeon, who rises from intern to chief of surgery as the series progresses. Turk and J. D. were roommates when they attended the College of William and Mary, as well as in medical school, the two have an close relationship. Turk is driven and competitive while always remaining loyal. During the course of the series, Turk forms a relationship with Carla. In season nine, he is a teacher at Winston University while continuing his duties as chief of surgery. Neil Flynn portrays the hospital's custodian. An incident in the pilot episode establishes an antagonistic relationship be
Kongens Enghave known as Sydhavnen or the postal district of 2450 Copenhagen SV is a district in southern Copenhagen. While its core is a pre-WWII former working class district, it contains an upscale residential area along the harbour having been developed after 2000, scattered industrial areas, large parks such as Valbyparken and Sydhavnstippen, allotment gardens and parts of Vestre Kirkegård, the city's largest cemetery; the area has been a working class quarter, dissected by major transport corridors and characterized by industry along the harbour-front. Since the turn of the millennium, this picture is starting to change. While the central parts of the district in general remains a poor neighbourhood with social challenges, the harbour-front areas of Sluseholmen and Teglholmen have undergone massive redevelopment into new residential neighbourhoods. A cluster of IT and telecommunications companies have emerged in the area; the former Nokia Copenhagen headquarter is now occupied by a branch of Aalborg University.
However, the traditional parts of the district still haven't undergone the gentrification process seen in more central former working class areas such as Vesterbro and Nørrebro. The central parts of Sydhavnen are served by Sjælør station of the S-train system. There are several bus lines; the Øresund Railway traverses the district underground, but does not have any stations here. A metro branch line, the M4, is under construction and due to open in 2024, it will serve three stations in the district as well as two stations bordering the district. Kongens Enghave covers an area of 4.46 km², has a population of 15,414 and a population density of 3,455 per km2. It used to be one of 15 administrative districts of Copenhagen, but since an administrative reform in 2006-08, it has been part of the official district of Vesterbro/Kongens Enghave. Kongens Enghave is bounded by the Carlsberg area to the north, Vesterbro to the north-east and Valby to the west, while Copenhagen Harbour to the east and south separates it from Amager Vest.
Kongens Enghave is first mentioned in 1632. The area was used for harvesting of hay for the royal stables at Copenhagen Castle. In 1776, a small plague hospital was built on Kalvebod Beach; the name Frederiksholm is first seen in 1667–68 when large areas on the coast were reclaimed and drained. The history of the district dates back to 1795 when the old Enghavevej was built, running all the way from Vesterbrogade to Gammel Køge Landevej by way of present-day Sydhavns Plads and Mozarts Plads; the land was divided into 22 estates at the same event. From about 1900, a few country houses and farmsteads were built along the road: rederiksholm, -"Larsens Minde", Lises Minde, Wilhelms Minde as well as a few small cottages used by fishermen and hunters. Frederiksholm, the only of these houses that still exist today, was built by king Frederick VI; the estate covered about 50 hectares, about half of, gardens and the remainder meadows. In 1834, it kept 10 horses. From the 1870s, it served as residence for the manager of Frederiksholm Brickyard.
Copenhagen's city walls were decommissioned in 1857. Vestre Cemetery was established in 1870. In 1871, two brothers, Køhler, purchased the Frederiksholm estate and established a brickyard in the grounds; the storm surge in November 1872 led to widespread floodings in the area. In response, as a private initiative, the Køhler brothers carried out extensive reclamations along the coast, and- Shortly thereafter, they established Frederiksholm Harbour in association with their brickyard; the brick yard produced many of the bricks used in the construction of Vesterbro prior to its closure in 1918. Karens Minde, a mental institution, was opened by Johan Keller in 1876. Vestre Prison opened in 1895. In the beginning of the 20th century, Port of Copenhagen was expanded with extensive docklands with many industrial enterprises in the area. Otto Mønsted opened a margarine factory in 1911, it was joined by Lemvig Møller & Munch and Sømderværftet, a subsidiary of Københavns Flydeværft & Skibsdok. Burmeister & Wain established an iron foundry in the area in 1920 and took over Sønderværftet in 1926.
In 1924 Ford Motor Company moved its assembly plant from Nørrebro to the Southern Docklands. The factory was designed by Albert Kahn and opened on 15 November 1924; the Kongens Enghave district developed around the heavy industry of the Southern Docklands. The residential areas were built to satisfy a demand for housing for the workers and it has thus always been considered a working class neighbourhood; the Ford assembly plant closed in 1965 and most of the remaining industry disappeared in the 1970s and 80s. Kongens Enghave gained a reputation for being the area in Denmark with most people on social welfare, the lowest education rate and life expectancy and high incidence of all major social problems. In the 1990s, companies such as Nokia, Philips and TDC established in the area. In 2002 a masterplan was adopted for redevelopment of the Southern Docklands, it was created by Copenhagen Municipality, By & Sjoerd Soeters. This redevelopment, still ongoing, has attracted new residents. Rising real-estate prices and a shortage of cheap accommodation in Copenhagen during the last half of the 1990s and the first half of the 2000s have drawn new income groups and students to the area.
In 2011, Nokia closed their large R&D department in Copenhagen with more than 1,000 employees. Their buildings now house an Aalborg University campus; the parts of Kongens Enghave