Biešankovičy is a town in the Vitebsk Province of Belarus and a port on the Western Dvina river. It is 51 km west of Vitebsk on the railway line between Lepiel; the population is 8,200. In the early 16th century, the small village was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ruled by the Drucki-Sokoliński princes. In 1552 it numbered 34 houses. In 1630, the village was purchased by the Vilnius Voivode Kazimierz Leon Sapieha, it underwent rapid expansion and was granted Magdeburg rights in 1634. At that time, new stone houses were built and trade fairs were held semiannually, frequented by 4 to 5 thousand visitors from Belarus and abroad. After the First Partition of Poland in 1772, control of the village was passed to the Russian Empire. By the end of the 18th century, Biešankovičy was a township of the Lepel Uyezd and became the center of the volost. According to an 1897 census, the town's population was 4,423 people, there were 1,099 buildings, a post office, a telegraph, a school, 3 people's schools, 127 shops and a hospital.
At that time, Biešankovičy was a Jewish settlement, numbering 3,182 Jewish citizens in 1900. The Jewish Encyclopedia, describes the town's population as four fifths Jewish of whom 576 are artisans; the town had a synagogue, many houses of prayer, three benevolent societies, numerous religious schools. Under Soviet power, Biešankovičy became an urban settlement and was the center of the raion for several years, it became part of the Vitebsk oblast. In 1939, 1,119 Jews lived in the town. During the second world war, Biešankovičy was occupied by the German Army from 6 July 1941 to 25 June 1944 and was entirely destroyed. 10,276 persons from Biešankovičy and the raion were massacred, including the entire Jewish population. A resident at the time of the German occupation recalled, "One Jewish family that had not been taken to the ghetto was still living on my street; when the Jews were being gathered for the shooting, the Germans came to get this family. A little Jewish boy was hiding in the fireplace.
The Germans found him and shot him right there, in the house." The town was recaptured on 25 June 1944 by the 1st Baltic Front. Beshankovichy. Jewish Cemeteries photos at Radzima.org - The history of the town Vitebsk Regional Executive Committee - Information about the Beshenkovichy district Belarus Guide - Some historical photographs of Beshenkovichy / Vitebsk Regional Executive Committee The Road to Beshincovichi - Dr. David L. Frey's search for the Jewish cemetery of Beshenkovichy The murder of the Jews of Beshankovichy during World War II, at Yad Vashem website
Vitebsk, or Viciebsk, is a city in Belarus. The capital of the Viciebsk Region, it had 342,381 inhabitants in 2004, making it the country's fourth-largest city, it is served by Viciebsk Air Base. Viciebsk developed from a river harbor where the Vićba River flows into the larger Western Dvina, spanned in the city by the Kirov Bridge. Archaeological research indicates. In the 9th century, Slavic settlements of the tribal union of the Krivichs replaced them. According to the Chronicle of Michael Brigandine, Princess Olga of Kiev founded Viciebsk in 974. Other versions give 947 or 914. Academician Boris Rybakov and historian Leonid Alekseyev have come to the conclusion, based on the chronicles, that Princess Olga of Kiev could have established Viciebsk in 947. Leonid Alekseyev suggested that the chroniclers, when transferring the date from the account of the Byzantine era to a new era, obtained the year 947 mistakenly written in copying manuscripts as 974. An important place on trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, Viciebsk became by the end of the 12th century a center of trade and commerce, the center of an independent principality, following Polotsk, at times and Kiev princes.
The official year of the founding of Viciebsk is 974, based on an anachronistic legend of founding by Olga of Kiev, but the first mention in historical records dates from 1021, when Yaroslav the Wise of Kiev gave it to Bryachislav Izyaslavich, Prince of Polotsk. In the 12th and 13th centuries Viciebsk functioned as the capital of the Principality of Viciebsk, an appanage principality which thrived at the crossroads of the river routes between the Baltic and Black seas. In 1320 the city was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as dowry of the Princess Maria, the first wife of Grand Duke of Lithuania Algirdas. By 1351 the city had erected a stone Upper and Lower Castle, the prince's palace. In 1410 Viciebsk participated in the Battle of Grunwald. In 1597 the townsfolk of Viciebsk were privileged with Magdeburg rights. However, the rights were taken away in 1623 after the citizens revolted against the imposed Union of Brest and killed Archbishop Josaphat Kuntsevych of Polotsk; the city was completely destroyed in 1708, during the Great Northern War.
In the First Partition of Poland in 1772, the Russian Empire annexed Viciebsk. Under the Russian Empire the historic centre of Viciebsk was rebuilt in the Neoclassical style. Before World War II Viciebsk had a significant Jewish population: according to Russian census of 1897, out of the total population of 65,900, Jews constituted 34,400; the most famous of its Jewish natives was the painter Marc Chagall. In 1919 Viciebsk was proclaimed to be part of the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia, but was soon transferred to the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and to the short-lived Lithuanian–Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1924 it was returned to the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. During World War II the city came under Nazi German occupation. Much of the old city was destroyed in the ensuing battles between the Germans and Red Army soldiers. Most of the local Jews perished in the Viciebsk Ghetto massacre of October 1941. In the first postwar five-year period the city was rebuilt.
Its industrial complex covered machinery, light industry, machine tools. In 1959 a TV tower was started broadcasting the 1st Central Television program. In the same year, during excavations on Liberation Square, a birch-bark scroll was found dating from the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries, it read: From Stpana to Nezhilovi. If hast sold trousers, buy me rye for 6 hryvnia, and if some didst not sold, send to my person. And if thou hast sold, do good to buy rye for me In January 1991 Viciebsk celebrated the first Marc Chagall Festival. In June 1992, a monument to Chagall was erected on his native Pokrovskaja Street and a memorial inscription was placed on the wall of his house. Since 1992 Viciebsk has been hosting the annual Slavianski Bazaar in Viciebsk, an international art festival; the main participants are artists from Russia and Ukraine, with guests from many other countries, both Slavic and non-Slavic. In 1999 a free economic zone "Viciebsk" was established; the city built the Ice Sports Palace, there was a remarkable improvement and expansion in the city.
The central stadium was reconstructed and the Summer Amphitheatre for the international art festival, the Slavic Bazaar, the railway station and other historical sites and facilities were restored, a number of new churches and other public facilities were built, together with the construction of new residential areas. The city has one of the oldest buildings in the country: the Annunciation Church; this magnificent six-pillared building dates back to the period of Kievan Rus since the city at the time was pagan and didn't belong to the Ukrainian Orthodox Church or the Russian Orthodox Church or the Kievan Rus state. It was constructed in the 1140s as a pagan church, rebuilt in the 14th and 17th centuries as Roman Catholic Church, repaired in 1883 and destroyed by the Communist administration in 1961; the church was in ruins until 1992. Churches from the Polish-Lithuanian period were destroyed, although the Resurrection Church has been rebuilt; the Orthodox cathedral
Lielvārde, population 6328, is a town in Vidzeme, the administrative centre of Lielvārde municipality on the right bank of the Daugava river, 52 km southeast of Riga. The area was a contact zone between the Finnic Livonians and the Balts, many prehistoric artifacts have been uncovered there. A Baltic hill-fort named Lennewarden being taken in fief by Albert of Buxhoeveden in 1201 is mentioned in the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia; this site is called Dievukalns in Latvian. A stone castle was constructed by the Riga diocese in 1229. A parochial school was established when the area was part of Swedish Livonia, but ca. 70% of the population perished in the Great Plague of 1710. The opening of the Riga–Daugavpils Railway in 1861 led to the expansion of the town around the railway station Ringmundhofa named Rembate; the town was destroyed in World War I but was swiftly rebuilt after Latvia achieved independence. After the occupation of Latvia and its incorporation into the Soviet Union as the Latvian SSR, Edgars Kauliņš, the local Communist Party secretary, was able to save all of the farmers in the district from deportation during the period of forced collectivization, declaring that there were no kulaks in the area and he would rather be deported himself.
In 1948 Kauliņš became the founding chairman of the kolkhoz Lāčplēsis, now part of Lielvārde. The kolkhoz became famous for its beer, still brewed in Lielvārde by AS Lāčplēša alus, part of the Scandinavian Royal Unibrew brewing group since 2005. Lielvārde air base was built by the Soviets in 1970. Lielvārde is renowned as the area that inspired the prominent Latvian poets Auseklis and Andrejs Pumpurs, author of the epic Lāčplēsis, for the Lielvārdes josta, a traditional woven belt with 22 ancient symbols. Portions of the belt's design are featured on Latvian banknotes, its symbolism has inspired many artists and folklore enthusiasts those associated with the pagan revival, dievturība. Lielvārde Castle Arveds Švābe, ed.: Latvju enciklopēdija. Stockholm: Trīs Zvaigznes, 1952-1953. Guntis Zemītis, Ornaments un simbols Latvijas aizvēsturē. Rīga: Latvijas vēstures institūta apgāds, 2004. ISBN 9984-601-20-X Ogres rajona pašvaldību vortāls. Retrieved 25. II. 2006. James A. Brundage, The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia.
Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1961
Ogre is the principal town of Ogre Municipality in Central Latvia, 36 kilometres east of the capital Riga, situated at the confluence of the Daugava and Ogre rivers. It has been a town since 1928. Ogre is composed of three parts: Jaunogre, Pārogre; the name of the town comes from the Ogre river. The Ogre village was first mentioned in 1206, called "Oger" in German. In 1861, when a railway Riga–Daugavpils was built, Riga's residents started to build summer cottages here. In 1862 Ogre became a health resort; the town's coat of arms shows the beautiful river and pinewoods of Ogre. There is an art school and a music school in Ogre, it has three Latvian language schools, one Russian language school — Jaunogre Secondary School. The town has a cemetery with the remains of German soldiers who died during the First and Second World Wars, or died in captivity between 1944 and 1951. Ogre is the hometown for most recent Latvian ice hockey champions HK Kurbads. There are two main versions of the etymology of Ogre's name.
The first states that the name of the river from which this town derives its name is of Russian origin because there used to be many eels in the river Ogre. Whereas Estonian linguist Paul Alvre takes into consideration an older form of the Ogre river's name first found in Livonian Chronicle of Henry, argues that it cognates with Estonian word voog, therefore showing connection with Finno-Ugric languages, most early Livonian language. A popular folk legend says that Catherine the Great of Russia was the one who gave the river this name because there were a lot of eels in the river; the building of Ogre railway station Architect: A. Siņicins This was built in 1859. In 1944 the building was blown up, it was restored in 1947 following the Soviet standard project of railway stations. The Pārogre railway station It was opened on 1939 thanks to the donated building materials; this building is a unique example of wooden railway stations. It is one of few wooden stations along the railway line Riga—Daugavpils that has still remained unmodernized.
The Ogre Museum of History and Art Address: Kalna prospekts 3, T. 5024345 Structural engineer: T. Hermanovskis This building was designed as the detached house and built in the style of Constructivism in 1927. There is an exposition in the museum displaying the history and the development of Ogre Town and Ogre District. Regular exhibitions, both art and thematic ones, are organized in the exhibition hall; the Museum of Latvian Scouts and Guides Address: Mālkalnes prospekts 10, T. 5046145 This is the only one in the Baltic States. In the museum you can find information about Scouting. St. Meinhard's Roman Catholic church Address: Meža prospekts 1, T. 5022458 Architect: L. Šmits The church was built in 1997. The altar, built in 1901, was donated by St. Mary Magdalene's church in Riga; the Ogre Lutheran church Address: Brīvības iela 51, T. 5047915 Architect: H. Kundziņš The church was built in 1930 in the Neo-Gothic style. St. Nicolas Brīnumdarītāja Orthodox church Address: Krasta iela 15 Architect: L. Kļešņina The house "Kūrmāja" Address: Brīvības iela 32 Architect: V. Šervinskis This was built in 1926 as a cafe and a boarding house with specially made palm tree garden.
In 1928 the editorial office of the first town's newspaper, Ogres Straume, was located in this building. The first competition of "Miss Ogre" took place there; the high circles of society used to gather in this place for various social events. Brīvības Street 12 The house was built in 1901 as a shopping centre. There was the Militia of Ogre District for 40 years. After the restoration there was the recreation centre "The Police Academy'98". Brīvības Street 11 Architect: E. Smurģis This was built in 1925, it was the first hotel and the restaurant in Ogre, "Esplanāde". Now the building houses the Ogre branch bank of Hansabanka; the monument to the victims of Communist regime This was unveiled in 1989, is situated on the crossing of Upes and Meža Prospekt. The Lazdukalni dendrology park Address: Pavasara gatve 6, T. 5067503 One can see here more than 7 000 plants, 412 different trees and decorative shrubs. To reach the top of the hill and enjoy the beauty of water lilies, a visitor must climb 100 steps up the hill.
One can take a walk along the Purva Taka. The area of the park is 8,5 h. An open-air stage It was built in the 1960s and various regional and national events take place there; the bridge across the River Ogre The authors: V. Salcēvičs, J. Mēness, T. Vitkuss This was built in the late 1960s, it is the only arched bridge in Latvia. Krasta Street 11 Architect: E. Laube The house was built in 1924 as a summer cottage. During the period of 1920–1930 there was a sanatorium, but after Second World War the house was formed into the Pioneer's Club. Now there is the Ogre District Prosecutor's Office. Zilokalnu Prospekts 17 The house was built in 1927 and owned by V. Šervinskis, the architect, who designed a lot of summer cottages in Ogre. BOVU rehabilitation centre "Ogre" Address: Gaismas prospekts 2/6, T. 5022141 Architect: K. Pekšēns It was built in 1927; the building joins two architectural styles -- National Romanticism. The author of the wall paintings fresco secco have remained untouched, they were restored during 1988–1990.
The memorial signpost in honou
Gulf of Riga
The Gulf of Riga, Bay of Riga, or Gulf of Livonia is a bay of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia. The island of Saaremaa separates it from the rest of the Baltic Sea; the main connection between the gulf and the Baltic Sea is the Irbe Strait. The Gulf of Riga, as a sub-basin of the Baltic includes the Väinameri Sea in the West Estonian archipelago; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the Gulf of Riga's western limit as "A line running from Lyser Ort, in Latvia, to the South extreme of Œsel Island, through this island to Pammerort, thence to Enmast Point, the S extreme of Dagö, through Dagö to Takhkona Point, the North extreme thereof, on to Spithamn Point in Estonia". Major islands in the gulf include Saaremaa and Ruhnu, which are all controlled by Estonia. Kihnu covers an area of 16.4 square kilometres. Saaremaa island is responsible for the brackish water of the Gulf of Riga, as it is "shielded" from the Baltic Sea. Notable cities around the gulf include Riga, Pärnu, Jūrmala, Kuressaare.
The main rivers flowing into the gulf are Daugava, Pärnu, Lielupe and Salaca. The freshwater runoff entering the Baltic sea accounts for two percent of its volume. A narrow connection to the North Sea means that water stays in the Baltic for an average of 30 years; these two characteristics work to make the Baltic Sea one of the largest brackish bodies of water in the world. The Gulf of Riga has an average salt concentration for the Baltic Sea, around six to ten parts per thousand. Freshwater has a concentration of 0.5 parts per thousand, seawater is about 30 parts per thousand. A saline stratification layer is found at a depth of 70 metres. In winter, most or all of the Bay freezes; this is due to low salinity and the calming effect of the partial closure of the entrance of the gulf. During the winter, many people walk over the bay; the thickest recorded ice was 90 centimetres thick in the winter of 1941–42. Ice hole fishing has been a traditional source of winter food, remains a common activity.
The ice melts between March and April. In late March 2013, when the ice started to melt, 200 people had to be rescued from ice floes. Battle of the Gulf of Riga Pärnu Bay The Gulf of Riga
Daugavgrīva is a neighbourhood in North West Riga, Latvia on the left bank of the Daugava river. In this neighbourhood there is a Swedish-built fortress on the Daugava River's left bank, commanding its mouth. In Vecdaugava, on the right or opposite side of the Daugava outside the borders of the contemporary neighborhood, was in 1208 Dünamünde castle built by the Teutonic Knights, which served as a monastery; the Swedish fortress of Neumünde on the right bank, designed in a Dutch style by General Rothenburg in 1641, replaced the ruined Dünamünde Castle by 1680. In 1695 the Commandant was captain Heinrich Nicolaus Rüdinger, forefather of future Patriarch Alexy II of Russia. Rüdinger was knighted by Charles XI of Sweden. Joachim Cronman became the Commandant and he died on March 5, 1703. After the fortress was seized by the Russians they reconstructed it. Regent Anna Leopoldovna of Russia, her husband Anthony Ulrich, her son Ivan VI were incarcerated in Dünamünde in 1742. A local Lutheran church was rebuilt into the Orthodox Church of the Saviour's Transfiguration in 1775.
The Russian government renamed the fortress, where only Russian soldiers were living, to Ust-Dvinsk in 1893. They had its fortifications reconstructed prior to World War I. During the war Ust-Dvinsk was bombarded by the Schütte-Lanz Airship SL 7 of the German Army. After the fortress was taken by Imperial Germany, it was inspected by Emperor Wilhelm II in 1917; the Latvian government, demolished much of the fortifications several years later. During the Cold War Ust-Dvinsk was a base for Soviet troops; the site is now known in Latvian as Daugavgrīva. There is a functional lighthouse at Daugavgrīva, built in 1818, it was rebuilt in 1863, 1920, after World War II. In March 1942 took place the so called "Dünamünde Action"; the Nazis informed the Judenrat of the ghetto of Riga that the people would go to a supposed town called Dünamünde to work at fish processing. Instead the people were taken by motor transport to Biķernieki forest, where they were shot and buried in common unmarked graves; the fortress of Daugavgriva Historic plans of Dünamünde Discussion and pictures at www.fortification.ru