Daja's Book, the third installment in the Circle of Magic quartet by Tamora Pierce, is a young adult fantasy novel. Daja Kisubo, an outcast to her people after she was the lone survivor of her family ship's wreck, a smith mage in training, travels with her three friends and their teachers north of Emelan, to a valley plagued with drought and forest fires. While she and her friends are in Golden Ridge Valley, she creates a living metal vine. Polyam, wirok of Tenth Caravan Idaram, bids on the vine; the story opens with their teachers at the end of a caravan. Rosethorn, Briar's teacher, stops to examine the tree-litter and while she does this, Daja catches a glimpse of a forest fire miles off. Tris and Sandry all turn to look at the fire while Rosethorn asks their local guide when the last time was that they had a forest fire. However, their guide only laughs and says their mage, called Firetamer, takes care of all their fires, just like his father did; the caravan moves on, but Daja still has an uneasy feeling about the huge fire, noting how fire could be her friend and enemy.
The caravan stops in a small town to assist the Duke of Emelan with the drought. As Daja is working in the smithy, a woman, a wirok, a scorned Trader who negotiates with lugsha, stops by to talk to the smith; as she notices the blank cap on Daja's Trader staff which signifies her exile status, the Trader refuses to talk to her. Moments Daja loses control of her magic because of her anger, putting energy into a clump of melted iron. Soon, it turns into a branch and the Trader is stunned. Throughout the book and the Trader converse in a bargain for the'living metal'. All of the student's magic is so combined that Sandry is forced to create a map of their magic, which she can use to separate their twined magic, their teachers first noticed the mixed magic when Sandry used lightning by accident. While Daja is on her way to the privy, she releases a stream of hot water from within the earth, which spills out onto the stones before her, she and Briar investigate, finding. Melting the water would refill the drying lake, saving one of the town's problems.
They discover a vein of copper which could be used to replenish the town's supply and stimulate trade. While all the teachers and students are at a watch tower, a huge fire erupts, utilizing all the mast that had built up in the years that Yarrun Firetamer had been suppressing all the fires. After the conceited fire tamer dies in an attempt to stop the fire, the rest of the people try to stop it. Daja is caught in the middle and has to first convince the caravan she is riding with to listen to her, stop heading for the fire, she saves the caravan by thrusting all of the fire into a vein in the earth which leads to the glacier. Lastly, Daja creates a living metal leg with the copper, now a part of her for the wirok, restoring the wirok's ability to work with horses, her original job. Daja is a trangshi, a Trader word which means "doesn't exist" or "bad luck". In the end, she becomes a Trader again because she had gained enough zokin, or honor, by saving the Tenth Caravan Idaram from the huge forest fire
Young adult fiction
Young adult fiction is a category of fiction written for readers from 12 to 18 years of age. While the genre is targeted to teenagers half of YA readers are adults; the subject matter and genres of YA correlate with the experience of the protagonist. The genres available in YA include most of those found in adult fiction. Common themes related to YA include: friendship, first love and identity. Stories that focus on the specific challenges of youth are sometimes referred to as problem novels or coming-of-age novels. Young adult fiction was developed to soften the transition between children's novels and adult literature; the history of young adult literature is tied to the history of how childhood and young adulthood has been perceived. One early writer to recognize young adults as a distinct group was Sarah Trimmer, who, in 1802, described "young adulthood" as lasting from ages 14 to 21. In her children's literature periodical, The Guardian of Education, Trimmer introduced the terms "Books for Children" and "Books for Young Persons", establishing terms of reference for young adult literature that still remains in use.
Nineteenth century literature presents several early works, that appealed to young readers, though not written for them, including The Swiss Family Robinson, Walter Scott's Waverley, Charles Dickens' Oliver Twist, Alexandre Dumas' The Count of Monte Cristo, Tom Brown's Schooldays, Dickens' Great Expectations, Alice in Wonderland, Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Robert Louis Stevenson's Kidnapped, Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book, Moonfleet by J. Meade Falkner. In the 1950s, two influential adult novels, The Catcher in the Rye and Lord of the Flies, which were not marketed to adolescents, still attracted the attention of the adolescent demographic; the modern classification of young-adult fiction originated during the 1950s and 1960s after the publication of S. E. Hinton's The Outsiders; the novel features a truer, darker side of adolescent life, not represented in works of fiction of the time, was the first novel published marketed for young adults as Hinton was one when she wrote it.
Written during high-school and published when Hinton was only 17, The Outsiders lacked the nostalgic tone common in books about adolescents written by adults. The Outsiders remains one of the best-selling young adult novels of all time; the 1960s became the era "when the'under 30' generation became a subject of popular concern, research on adolescence began to emerge. It was the decade when literature for adolescents could be said to have come into its own"; this increased the new idea of adolescent authors. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, what has come to be known as the "fab five" were published: I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, an autobiography of the early years of American poet Maya Angelou; the works of Angelou and Plath were not written for young readers. As publishers began to focus on the emerging adolescent market and libraries began creating young adult sections distinct from children's literature and novels written for adults; the 1970s to the mid-1980s have been described as the golden age of young-adult fiction, when challenging novels began speaking directly to the interests of the identified adolescent market.
In the 1980s, young adult literature began pushing the envelope in terms of the subject matter, considered appropriate for their audience: Books dealing with topics such as rape, parental death, murder, deemed taboo, saw significant critical and commercial success. A flip-side of this trend was a strong revived interest in the romance novel, including young adult romance. With an increase in number of teenagers the genre "matured and came into its own, with the better written, more serious, more varied young adult books published during the last two decades"; the first novel in J. K. Rowling's seven-book Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, was published in 1997; the series was praised for its complexity and maturity, attracted a wide adult audience. While not technically YA, its success led many to see Harry Potter and its author, J. K. Rowling, as responsible for a resurgence of young adult literature, re-established the pre-eminent role of speculative fiction in the field, a trend further solidified by The Hunger Games trilogy by Suzanne Collins.
The end of the decade saw a number of awards appear such as the Michael L. Printz Award and Alex Awards, designed to recognize excellence in writing for young adult audiences; the category of young adult fiction continues to expand into other media and genres: graphic novels/manga, light novels, mystery fiction, romance novels, subcategories such as cyberpunk, techno-thrillers, contemporary Christian fiction. Many young adult novels feature coming-of-age stories; these feature adolescents beginning to transform into adults, working through personal problems, learning to take responsibility for their actions. YA serves many literary purposes, it provides a pleasurable reading experience for young people, emphasizing real life experiences and
Wolf-Speaker is a fantasy novel by Tamora Pierce, the second in a series of four books, The Immortals. This book details the journey of Veralidaine Sarrasri as she learns more about her wild magic and her journey to Dunlath to help the wolves, only to find there is a bigger and more dangerous plot afoot. Daine receives a summons from some old friends—the wolf pack from her old village, led by Brokefang and his mate Frostfur, who are unhappy with the nobles ruining the Long Lake, their territory, they send messengers to ask Daine for help and disappear back into the night to hunt while Daine discusses this over with her teacher, Numair Salmalin. Numair agrees to help the wolves, but he decides that he first must visit the nobles in Fief Dunlath at a party to further investigate after they find the burnt remains of the Ninth Rider Group. Numair recognizes a battle mage at Fief Dunlath. After Daine boldly approaches them about the threat to the wolves and to the area with a warning that if they don't change, things will happen, the nobles all laugh at her.
She retires with Numair back to their quarters and they stealthily leave in the night from Fief Dunlath. Tristan Staghorn, the mage in Dunlath is a war mage from the Carthaki university where Numair studied to become one of the 7 most powerful mages in the world. Upon discovering Tristan was there, Numair realized that the situation in Dunlath was worse than they had thought, he creates a magical simulacra of himself and plays on Tristan's knowledge of him back in Carthak, where he was a "book-bound idiot." He explains to learn nothing practical. Daine seems to think. Shortly after this, Numair decides to go back to the city where King Jonathan is and warns him of something afoot in Dunlath. Daine stays to sort out the mess with her friend Brokefang and Numair tells her not to do anything extreme or he will lock her in the deepest dankest dungeon he can find when he gets his hands on her again. Throughout the book, Daine reaches the next level in the development of her wild magic as she starts to share minds with animals, a useful ability as she uses the eyes of squirrels and other creatures to spy.
This ability soon translates to gaining certain characteristics of animals once she returns to her natural body. Daine discovers she has the power to morph into animals after Maura, Lady Yolane's somewhat plain and much younger sister, runs away from Fief Dunlath. Shortly afterwards, Rikash Moonsword the Stormwing appears to be fond of Maura and he makes Daine rethink her theory about all Stormwings being evil. Maura tells Daine about Yolane's plans to become Queen—a deal with Emperor Ozorne of Carthak, hinted at causing the siege at Pirate's Swoop in the first book. In the meantime, Daine meets a basilisk named Tkaa, who comes to be an important ally and a partial tutor to Kitten, her dragonet. Tristan creates a magical barrier to isolate fief Dunlath from help. Daine learns that Tristan and his mage friends Alamid and Gissa are going to dump a poison called bloodrain into the river at the north of Dunlath to kill everything living within ten miles of the river. Tristan tries to hurt Daine with his magic, Numair turns Tristan into an apple tree with a word of power causing a tree somewhere in the world to turn into a human.
With the help of Maura, Kitten, the Stormwing Lord Rikash, Huntsman Tait, Alanna the Lioness, Raoul of Goldenlake, the animals of the Long lake of Dunlath and Daine manage to rip the entire plot to pieces in the biggest siege Daine has foiled yet. 1994, US, Simon & Schuster / Atheneum Books, Pub date 2 May 1994, hardback
Lady Knight is the fourth book in the Protector of the Small quartet by Tamora Pierce. This book is Kel's first appearance as a Knight of the Realm. War with the neighboring country of Scanra is declared at last, Kel finds herself in charge of a refugee camp, her district commander, Lord Wyldon, has chosen not to place her in control of a border post or a portion of the army like the other knights, so she's certain that he wishes to keep her—who, as a woman, he views as inferior in combat to males—out of fighting. However, it is revealed that she was chosen for her post because she is the only knight Wyldon knows who wouldn't discriminate against those not of noble blood. Kel soon comes to realize that these refugees, torn from their homes, robbed of their wealth and self-respect, are her responsibility, she must feed them, house them, keep them safe from harm far too close to the Scanran border. She is able to be a hero outside of the battlefield. In her work at the camp Kel names Haven, she receives help in the shape of her old friends Neal and Merric, the horses Peachblossom and Hoshi, the dog Jump, her personal sparrow flock, as well as from a mixed myriad group of others: the Wildmage Daine.
While Kel struggles with her responsibilities and the urge to abandon the camp and find a real fight, another obligation hangs over her. Before the war began, she was given a task by the Chamber of the Ordeal: to find and destroy the mage whose necromancy creates the giant, swift-moving, deadly metallic machines from the souls of children, known to the Tortallans as "killing devices." But, tied to the camp, she cannot pursue it. However, as the summer wears on and the war intensifies, events move to put that perverted mage and his conscienceless war-leader in Kel's path, at last her resolve is tested, she and all of Tortall find out if she is worthy of her shield. After months of hard work with the refugees, Kel feels that they can sufficiently take care of the camp while she is gone for several days to deliver a requested oral report to Lord Wyldon. However, when Tobe is brought into the fort, tired from a long trek from Kel's refugee camp, she knows that something is wrong; the Scanrans have captured her people, Kel believes that the children will be used to create the horrible metal killing devices terrorizing Tortall.
Worse, Lord Wyldon forbids her to go after them. She is left with a choice: obey Wyldon's orders and leave her people for the killing devices, or go after them and be declared a traitor. After burying the few dead at Haven, Kel tricks her guards into returning to Lord Wyldon without her, begins what she believes will be a long and harrowing journey into enemy territory. Much to her surprise and dismay, she is soon joined by Neal, several of her other year-mates, Owen and members of the King's Own, they follow the path of the kidnapped refugees into Scanra. A series of altercations result in the Scanran guards being depleted, the rescue of the adult refugees and convict guards of Haven. Continuing to track the kidnapped children, they are led to Fief Rathhausak, a final battle between the Tortallans and the Scanrans leaves Blayce dead, the people of Rathhausak free from his tyranny; the Tortallans and villagers of Rathhausak return across the border to Tortall. In recompense for disobeying orders, she is ordered to build and command a new refugee camp, known as New Hope.
There is a minor continuity error between Lady Knight and Lioness Rampant, the fourth book in the earlier Song of the Lioness quartet, concerning the Chamber of the Ordeal. In Chapter One of Lady Knight, Kel's former knight master Raoul of Goldenlake tells her that no one has been allowed back inside the Chamber a second time in all of history; this conflicts with events in Chapter 8 of Lioness Rampant, in which Jonathan of Conté enters the Chamber a second time for the Ordeal of Kings—his first experience being his Ordeal of Knighthood
The Woman Who Rides Like a Man
The Woman Who Rides Like a Man is a fantasy novel by Tamora Pierce, the third in a series of four books, The Song of the Lioness. It details the knighthood of Alanna of Trebond as she lives in the Bazhir desert after becoming a knight. A newly knighted Alanna leaves the capital to travel among the Bazhir in the desert becoming adopted by one of the tribes, though clashing with the tribe's shaman who seeks to destroy her name among the rest of the tribe. After fighting to the death with the shaman for her honor and winning, she has to replace the shaman and cannot leave until she trains another; the third book sees Alanna through her journey through the Bazhir desert, where she and her manservant Coram are adopted by the Bloody Hawk tribe. During their stay, Alanna duels with the Bloody Hawk shaman, a crazed wizard, convinced Alanna is evil, kills him. According to Bazhir law she must be the tribe's shaman until she trains a new one to replace her or someone kills her and takes her place. Alanna selects three Gifted children of the tribe, Ishak and Kourrem, begins to train them in magic.
She inherits the former shaman's sword, with a crystal on the hilt, symbols that remind her of the dead sorcerer Duke Roger, a terrifying amount of dark power. She keeps it because her old sword, broke during a battle, she teaches the traditional Bazhir to lose some of their prejudice against women. During their training, Alanna sees glimpses of the shamans the girls will become, but the boy, Ishak attempts stronger, darker sorcery. In a sudden encounter, Ishak steals the crystal sword from Alanna and tries to master its power, but it consumes him and kills him. Alanna continues to train Kourrem. Prince Jonathan and Sir Myles of Olau make a visit to the Bloody Hawk tribe, where Jonathan and Alanna renew their love affair and spend a passionate night together; when Jonathan asks her to marry him, Alanna asks for time to think it over. During their stay, Jonathan is adopted by the tribe and takes up training under the Voice of the Tribes, an old friend of Alanna's and Jonathan's; when the Voice dies, Jonathan is made the new Voice, thus acting as a sacred link between all the Bazhir tribes.
This status will help unite northerners and southerners when he becomes King of Tortall. Myles adopts Alanna as his daughter and heir to his lands. Jonathan, tired from the Rite of the Voice, wants to go home soon and assumes that Alanna will marry him though she has asked for time to think about it, when he begins to make arrangements for her to return to Corus with him, they argue, she refuses to marry him, he wounds her by saying he'd rather marry a woman who knows how to act like a woman. Jonathan and Myles leave, Alanna continues her training of Kourrem and Kara, who pass the required tests and are made shamans for the tribe, Kourrem being the head shaman. Alanna and Coram travel to Port Caynn to visit George Cooper, putting down a Rogue rebellion there. While Coram woos George's cousin Rispah, Alanna begins a love affair with George, who has loved her for years, but when he wants her to return to Corus with him, she refuses to go with him; the two split, Coram accompanies Alanna back to the desert, where the Bloody Hawk chief asks her to check on a sorceress, a friend of his, whom he has been having bad dreams about.
When Alanna and Coram arrive at the sorceress' drought-stricken village, they see the starved, crazed villagers burning the sorceress, thinking the sacrifice will please the gods and provide them food. Alanna and Coram rescue her, but not in time, the sorceress dies after leaving Alanna with a scroll to give to the Bloody Hawk chief; the chief tells them it is a map to the Dominion Jewel, a legendary stone that provides untold powers in the hands of Gifted or unGifted rulers. Alanna and Coram decide to go after it. Alanna of Trebond – Now knighted and a shaman of the Bazhir Jonathan of Conté – Heir apparent to the throne of Tortall George Cooper – Tortall's King of Thieves, in love with Alanna Myles of Olau – Alanna's friend and mentor, who adopts her as his heir. Ali Mukhtab – Voice of the Tribes Coram Smythesson – Alanna's manservant Kara and Kourrem – Alanna's female trainee shamans, they jointly become shamans of the Bloody Hawk tribe after Alanna. Ishak – Alanna's male trainee shaman, he is killed by the crystal sword.
Halef Seif – Headman of the Bloody Hawk tribe
An audiobook is a recording of a text being read. A reading of the complete text is described as "unabridged", while readings of a shorter version, or abridgement of the text are labeled as "abridged". Spoken audio has been available in schools and public libraries and to a lesser extent in music shops since the 1930s. Many spoken word albums were made prior to the age of cassette tapes, compact discs, downloadable audio of poetry and plays rather than books, it was not until the 1980s that the medium began to attract book retailers, book retailers started displaying audiobooks on bookshelves rather than in separate displays. The term "talking book" came into being in the 1930s with government programs designed for blind readers, while the term "audiobook" came into use during the 1970s when audiocassettes began to replace records. In 1994, the Audio Publishers Association established the term "audiobook" as the industry standard. Spoken word recordings first became possible with the invention of the phonograph by Thomas Edison in 1877.
"Phonographic books" were one of the original applications envisioned by Edison which would "speak to blind people without effort on their part." The initial words spoken into the phonograph were Edison's recital of "Mary Had a Little Lamb", the first instance of recorded verse. In 1878, a demonstration at the Royal Institution in Britain included "Hey Diddle Diddle, the Cat and the Fiddle" and a line of Tennyson's poetry thus establishing from the beginning of the technology its association with spoken literature. Many short, spoken word recordings were sold on cylinder in the late 1800s and early 1900s, however the round cylinders were limited to about 4 minutes each making books impractical. "One early listener complained that he would need a wheelbarrow to carry around talking books recorded on discs with such limited storage capacity." By the 1930s close-grooved records increased to 20 minutes making possible longer narrative. In 1931, the American Foundation for the Blind and Library of Congress Books for the Adult Blind Project established the "Talking Books Program", intended to provide reading material for veterans injured during World War I and other visually impaired adults.
The first test recordings in 1932 included a chapter from Helen Keller's Midstream and Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven". The organization received congressional approval for exemption from copyright and free postal distribution of talking books; the first recordings made for the Talking Books Program in 1934 included sections of the Bible. Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic was founded in 1948 by Anne T. Macdonald, a member of the New York Public Library's Women's Auxiliary, in response to an influx of inquiries from soldiers who had lost their sight in combat during World War II; the newly passed GI Bill of Rights guaranteed a college education to all veterans, but texts were inaccessible to the blinded veterans, who did not read Braille and had little access to live readers. Macdonald mobilized the women of the Auxiliary under the motto "Education is a right, not a privilege". Members of the Auxiliary transformed the attic of the New York Public Library into a studio, recording textbooks using state-of-the-art six-inch vinyl SoundScriber phonograph discs that played 12 minutes of material per side.
In 1952, Macdonald established recording studios in seven additional cities across the United States. Caedmon Records was a pioneer in the audiobook business, it was the first company dedicated to selling spoken work recordings to the public and has been called the "seed" of the audiobook industry. Caedmon was formed in New York in 1952 by college graduates Barbara Marianne Roney, their first release was a collection of poems by Dylan Thomas. The LP's B-side contained A Child's Christmas in Wales, added as an afterthought - the story was obscure and Thomas himself couldn't remember its title when asked what to use to fill up the B-side - but this recording went on to become one of his most loved works, launched Caedmon into a successful company; the original 1952 recording was a selection for the 2008 United States National Recording Registry, stating it is "credited with launching the audiobook industry in the United States". Caedmon used LP records, invented in 1948, which made longer recordings more affordable and practical, however most of their works were poems and other short works, not unabridged books due to the LP's limitation of about a 45-minute playing time.
Listening Library was a pioneering company, it was one of the first to distribute children's audiobooks to schools and other special markets, including VA hospitals. It was founded by his wife in 1955 in their Red Bank, New Jersey home. Another early pioneering company was Spoken Arts founded in 1956 by Arthur Luce Klein and his wife, they produced over 700 recordings and were best known for poetry and drama recordings used in schools and libraries. Like Caedemon, Listening Library and Spoken Arts benefited from the new technology of LPs, but increased governmental funding for schools and libraries beginning in the 1950s and 60s. Though spoken recordings were popular in 33⅓ vinyl record format for schools and libraries into the early 1970s, the beginning of the modern retail market for audiobooks can be traced to the wide adoption
Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe inspired by real world myth and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which became literature and drama. From the twentieth century it has expanded further into various media, including film, graphic novels and video games. Fantasy is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes though these genres overlap. In popular culture, the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, fantasy consists of works by many writers, artists and musicians from ancient myths and legends to many recent and popular works. Most fantasy uses other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting. Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these worlds. An identifying trait of fantasy is the author's reliance on imagination to create narrative elements that do not have to rely on history or nature to be coherent; this differs from realistic fiction in that realistic fiction has to attend to the history and natural laws of reality, where fantasy does not.
An author applies his or her imagination to come up with characters and settings that are impossible in reality. Many fantasy authors use real-world mythology as inspiration. For instance, a narrative that takes place in an imagined town in the northeastern United States could be considered realistic fiction as long as the plot and characters are consistent with the history of a region and the natural characteristics that someone, to the northeastern United States expects. Fantasy has been compared to science fiction and horror because they are the major categories of speculative fiction. Fantasy is distinguished from science fiction by the plausibility of the narrative elements. A science fiction narrative is unlikely, though possible through logical scientific or technological extrapolation, where fantasy narratives do not need to be scientifically possible. Authors have to rely on the readers' suspension of disbelief, an acceptance of the unbelievable or impossible for the sake of enjoyment, in order to write effective fantasies.
Despite both genres' heavy reliance on the supernatural and horror are distinguishable. Horror evokes fear through the protagonists' weaknesses or inability to deal with the antagonists. Elements of the supernatural and the fantastic were a part of literature from its beginning. Fantasy elements occur throughout the ancient Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh; the ancient Babylonian creation epic, the Enûma Eliš, in which the god Marduk slays the goddess Tiamat, contains the theme of a cosmic battle between good and evil, characteristic of the modern fantasy genre. Genres of romantic and fantasy literature existed in ancient Egypt; the Tales of the Court of King Khufu, preserved in the Westcar Papyrus and was written in the middle of the second half of the eighteenth century BC, preserves a mixture of stories with elements of historical fiction and satire. Egyptian funerary texts preserve mythological tales, the most significant of which are the myths of Osiris and his son Horus. Folk tales with fantastic elements intended for adults were a major genre of ancient Greek literature.
The comedies of Aristophanes are filled with fantastic elements his play The Birds, in which an Athenian man builds a city in the clouds with the birds and challenges Zeus's authority. Ovid's Metamorphoses and Apuleius's The Golden Ass are both works that influenced the development of the fantasy genre by taking mythic elements and weaving them into personal accounts. Both works involve complex narratives in which humans beings are transformed into animals or inanimate objects. Platonic teachings and early Christian theology are major influences on the modern fantasy genre. Plato used allegories to convey many of his teachings, early Christian writers interpreted both the Old and New Testaments as employing parables to relay spiritual truths; this ability to find meaning in a story, not true became the foundation that allowed the modern fantasy genre to develop. The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, a compilation of many ancient and medieval folk tales.
Various characters from this epic have become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin and Ali Baba. Hindu mythology was an evolution of the earlier Vedic mythology and had many more fantastical stories and characters in the Indian epics; the Panchatantra, for example, used various animal fables and magical tales to illustrate the central Indian principles of political science. Chinese traditions have been influential in the vein of fantasy known as Chinoiserie, including such writers as Ernest Bramah and Barry Hughart. Beowulf is among the best known of the Nordic tales in the English speaking world, has had deep influence on the fantasy genre. Norse mythology, as found in the Elder Edda and the Younger Edda, includes such figures as Odin and his fellow Aesir, dwarves, elves and giants; these elements have been directly imported into various fantasy works. The separate folklore of Ireland and Scotland has sometimes been us