Gilead or Gilad is the name of three people and two geographic places in the Bible. Gilead may mean hill of testimony. If this the case, it is derived from gal‛êd, which in turn comes from gal and ‛êd. There exists an alternative theory that it means rocky region, it is now within the Kingdom of Jordan. Gilead was a mountainous region east of the Jordan River divided among the tribes of Reuben and Manasseh, situated in Jordan, it is referred to by the Aramaic name Yegar-Sahadutha, which carries the same meaning as the Hebrew Gileed, namely: "heap of testimony". From its mountainous character, it is called the mount of Gilead. Gilead is an Arabic term used to refer to the mountainous land extending south of Jabbok, it was used more for the entire region east of the Jordan River. It corresponds today to the northwestern part of the Kingdom of Jordan; the name Gilead first appears in the biblical account of the last meeting of Laban. According to Easton's Bible Dictionary, it refers to a region in Transjordan 20 by 60 miles in area.
It is called the land of Gilead in many translations, sometimes Gilead. As a whole, it included the tribal territories of Gad and the eastern half of Manasseh. In the Book of Judges, the thirty sons of the biblical judge Jair controlled the thirty towns of Gilead, in the First Book of Chronicles, Segub controlled twenty-three towns in Gilead, it was bounded on the north by Bashan, on the south by Moab and Ammon. "Half Gilead" was possessed by Sihon, the other half, separated from it by the river Jabbok, by Og, king of Bashan. The deep ravine of the river Hieromax separated Bashan from Gilead, about 60 miles in length and 20 miles in breadth, extending from near the south end of the Lake of Gennesaret to the north end of the Dead Sea. Abarim, Pisgah and Peor are its mountains mentioned in Scripture. "Gilead" mentioned in the Book of Hosea may refer to Ramoth-Gilead, Jabesh-Gilead, or the whole Gilead region. After king Sihon was defeated, the Tribe of Reuben, Tribe of Gad, half the Tribe of Manasseh were assigned to the area.
Ammon and Moab sometimes expanded to include southern Gilead. King David fled to Mahanaim in Gilead during the rebellion of Absalom. Gilead is mentioned as the homeplace of the prophet Elijah. King Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria says. Gilead may refer to: A grandson of Manasseh and son of Machir, ancestor of the Iezerites and Helekites and of Segub, he may have been the founder of the Israelite tribal group of Gilead, mentioned in biblical passages which textual scholars attribute to early sources. Textual scholars regard the genealogy in the Book of Numbers, which identifies Gilead as Machir's son, as originating in the priestly source, a document written centuries after the early JE source, in which the Gilead and Machir tribal groups are mentioned, having been written to rival the JE source. Biblical scholars view the biblical genealogies as postdiction, an eponymous metaphor providing an aetiology of the connectedness of the group to others in the Israelite confederation; the text of the Book of Numbers appears to portray Gilead as the father of Asriel, but the Book of Chronicles states that Manasseh was the father of Asriel.
The son of Michael and father of Jaroah, in the Gadite genealogies. In Hebrew, גלעד is used as a male given name and is analysed as deriving from גיל "happiness, joy" and עד "eternity, forever". Gilead is the theocratic nation which replaces the United States in Margaret Atwood's dystopic novel, The Handmaid's Tale. Gilead is the fictional home of Roland Deschain and Capital of the Barony of New Canaan, from Stephen King's series The Dark Tower. Gilead is mentioned in verse 15 of The Raven. Gilead, is the first title of a multi-generational trilogy by Marilynne Robinson; the story is about the spiritual battles that still rage at America's heart. The title of the trilogy comes from the fictional setting of the town in the novel, Iowa. Gilead Sciences is the name of an American biopharmaceutical company. Balm of Gilead Machir Machir Shibboleth Tribe of Manasseh
A legal case is a dispute between opposing parties resolved by a court, or by some equivalent legal process. A legal case may be either criminal law. In each legal case there is one or more defendants. A civil case, more known as a lawsuit or controversy, begins when a plaintiff files a document called a complaint with a court, informing the court of the wrong that the plaintiff has suffered because of the defendant, requesting a remedy; the remedy sought may be money, an injunction, which requires the defendant to perform or refrain from performing some action, or a declaratory judgment, which determines that the plaintiff has certain legal rights. The remedy will be prescribed by the court. A civil case can be arbitrated through arbitration, which may result in a faster settlement, with lower costs, than could be obtained by going through a trial; the plaintiff must make a genuine effort to inform the defendant of the case through service of process, by which the plaintiff delivers to the defendant the same documents that the plaintiff filed with the court.
At any point during the case, the parties can agree to a settlement, which will end the case, although in some circumstances, such as in class actions, a settlement requires court approval in order to be binding. Cases involving separation including asset division and matters related to children are handled differently in different jurisdictions; the court's procedure for dealing with family cases is similar to that of a civil case. Divorce and separation from a spouse is one of the most stressful situations, as rated by the Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale, so family proceedings are being "divorced" from the very formal and impersonal process of civil proceedings, given special treatment. A criminal case, in common law jurisdictions, begins when a person suspected of a crime is indicted by a grand jury or otherwise charged with the offense by a government official called a prosecutor or district attorney. A criminal case may in some jurisdictions be settled before a trial through a plea bargain.
In a plea bargain, the defendant agrees to plead guilty to a lesser charge than that, brought by the grand jury or prosecutor. A defendant who goes to trial risks greater penalties than would be imposed through a plea bargain. Legal cases, whether criminal or civil, are premised on the idea that a dispute will be resolved when a legal procedure exists by which the dispute can be brought to a factfinder not otherwise involved in the case, who can evaluate evidence to determine the truth with respect to claims of guilt, liability, or lack of fault. Details of the procedure may depend on both the kind of case and the kind of system in which the case is brought - whether, for example, it is an inquisitorial system or a solo In most systems, the governing body responsible for overseeing the courts assigns a unique number/letter combination or similar designation to each case in order to track the various disputes that are or have been before it; the outcome of the case is recorded, can be reviewed by obtaining a copy of the documents associated with the designation assigned to the case.
However, it is more convenient to refer to cases – landmark and other notable cases – by a title of the form Claimant v Defendant. Where a legal proceeding does not have formally designated adverse parties, a form such as In re, Re or In the matter of is used; the "v" separating the parties is an abbreviation of the Latin versus, when spoken in Commonwealth countries, it is rendered as "and" or "against". Where it is considered necessary to protect the anonymity of a natural person, some cases may have one or both parties replaced by a standard pseudonym or by an initial. In titles such as R v Adams, the initial "R" is an abbreviation for the Latin Rex or Regina, i.e. for the Crown. Case law Early case assessment Lists of case law
Joshua or Jehoshua is the central figure in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Joshua. According to the books of Exodus and Joshua, he was Moses' assistant and became the leader of the Israelite tribes after the death of Moses, his name was Hoshea the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, but Moses called him Joshua, the name by which he is known. The name is shortened to Yeshua in Nehemiah. According to the Bible he was born in Egypt prior to the Exodus. According to the Hebrew Bible, Joshua was one of the twelve spies of Israel sent by Moses to explore the land of Canaan. In Numbers 13:1–16, after the death of Moses, he led the Israelite tribes in the conquest of Canaan, allocated the land to the tribes. According to biblical chronology, Joshua lived some time in the late Bronze Age. According to Joshua 24:29, Joshua died at the age of 110. Joshua holds a position of respect among Muslims. According to Islamic tradition, he was, along with Caleb, one of the two believing spies whom Moses had sent to spy the land of Canaan.
Muslims see Joshua as the leader of the Israelites, following the death of Moses. Some Muslims believe Joshua to be the "attendant" of Moses mentioned in the Quran, before Moses meets Khidr and Joshua plays a significant role in Islamic literature with significant narration in the Hadith, therefore he is a point of study in comparative religion, see Joshua in Islam; the English name "Joshua" is a rendering of the Hebrew language Yehoshua, meaning "Yahweh is salvation". The vocalization of the second name component may be read as Hoshea—the name used in the Torah before Moses added the divine name."Jesus" is the English derivative of the Greek transliteration of "Yehoshua" via Latin. In the Septuagint, all instances of the word "Yehoshua" are rendered as "Ἰησοῦς", the closest Greek pronunciation of the Aramaic: ישוע Yeshua, Nehemiah 8:17). Thus, in modern Greek, Joshua is called "Jesus son of Naue"; this is true in some Slavic languages following the Eastern Orthodox tradition. Joshua was a major figure in the events of the Exodus.
He was charged by Moses with selecting and commanding a militia group for their first battle after exiting Egypt, against the Amalekites in Rephidim, in which they were victorious. He accompanied Moses when he ascended biblical Mount Sinai to commune with God, visualize God's plan for the Israelite tabernacle and receive the Ten Commandments. Joshua was with Moses when he descended from the mountain, heard the Israelites' celebrations around the Golden Calf, broke the tablets bearing the words of the commandments. In the narrative which refers to Moses being able to speak with God in his tent of meeting outside the camp, Joshua is seen as custodian of the tent when Moses returned to the Israelite encampment. However, when Moses returned to the mountain to re-create the tablets recording the Ten Commandments, Joshua was not present, as the biblical text states'no man shall come up with you'. Joshua was identified as one of the twelve spies sent by Moses to explore and report on the land of Canaan, only he and Caleb gave an encouraging report, a reward for which would be that only these two of their entire generation would enter the promised land.
According to Joshua 1:1-9, God appointed Joshua to succeed Moses as leader of the Israelites along with giving him a blessing of invincibility during his lifetime. The first part of the book of Joshua covers the period. At the Jordan River, the waters parted; the first battle after the crossing of the Jordan was the Battle of Jericho. Joshua led the destruction of Jericho moved on to Ai, a small neighboring city to the west. However, they were defeated with thirty-six Israelite deaths; the defeat was attributed to Achan taking an "accursed thing" from Jericho. Joshua went to defeat Ai; the Israelites faced an alliance of five Amorite kings from Jerusalem, Jarmuth and Eglon. At Gibeon, Joshua asked Yahweh to cause the sun and moon to stand still, so that he could finish the battle in daylight; this event is most notable because "There has been no day like it before or since, when the Lord heeded the voice of a man, for the Lord fought for Israel". God fought for the Israelites in this battle, for he hurled huge hailstones from the sky which killed more Canaanites than those which the Israelites slaughtered.
From there on, Joshua was able to lead the Israelites to several victories, securing much of the land of Canaan. He presided over the Israelite gatherings at Gilgal and Shiloh which allocated land to the tribes of Israel, the Israelites rewarded him with the Ephraimite city of Timnath-heres or Timnath-serah, where he settled; when he was "old and well advanced in years", Joshua convened the elders and chiefs of the Israelites and exhorted them to have no fellowship with the native population, because it could lead them to be unfaithful to God. At a general assembly of the clans at Shechem, he took leave of the people, admonishing them to be loyal to their God, so mightily manifested in the midst of them; as a witness of their promise to serve God, Joshua set up a great stone under an oak by the sanctuary of God. Soon afterward he died, at the age of 110, was buried at Timnath-heres, in the hill country of Ephraim, north of Moun
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom. Tribal societies with social stratification under a single leader emerged in the Neolithic period out of earlier tribal structures with little stratification, they remained prevalent throughout the Iron Age. In the case of indigenous tribal societies existing within larger colonial and post-colonial states, tribal chiefs may represent their tribe or ethnicity in a form of self-government; the most common types are the chairman of a council and/or a broader popular assembly in "parliamentary" cultures, the war chief, the hereditary chief, the politically dominant medicineman. The term is distinct from chiefs at lower levels, such as village chief or clan chief; the descriptive "tribal" requires an ethno-cultural identity as well as some political expression. In certain situations, in a colonial context, the most powerful member of either a confederation or a federation of such tribal, clan or village chiefs would be referred to as a paramount chief.
This term has fallen out of use and such personages are now called kings. A woman who holds a chieftaincy in her own right or who derives one from her marriage to a male chief has been referred to alternatively as a chieftainess, a chieftess or in the case of the former, a chief. Anthropologist Elman Service distinguishes two stages of tribal societies: simple societies organized by limited instances of social rank and prestige, more stratified societies led by chieftains or tribal kings. Tribal societies represent an intermediate stage between the band society of the Paleolithic stage and civilization with centralized, super-regional government based in cities. Stratified tribal societies led by tribal kings thus flourished from the Neolithic stage into the Iron Age, albeit in competition with civilisations and empires beginning in the Bronze Age. An important source of information for tribal societies of the Iron Age is Greco-Roman ethnography, which describes tribal societies surrounding the urban, imperialist civilisation of the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, tribal kingdoms were again established over much of Europe in the wake of the Migration period. By the High Middle Ages, these had again coalesced into super-regional monarchies. Tribal societies remained prevalent in much of the New World. Exceptions to tribal societies outside of Europe and Asia were Paleolithic or Mesolithic band societies in Oceania and in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. Europeans forced centralized governments onto these societies during colonialism, but in some instances tribes have retained or regained partial self-government. Lonco among the Mapuche Morubixaba — tribal Cacique of the Tupi people Oubutu Rajiv Tyee, a tribal chief of the Chinookan peoples in the Pacific Northwest of the present-day United States Cacique, a term used among the Taino Nation of the Caribbean islands adopted by the Spanish to refer to all heads of chiefdoms whom they encountered: Cuauhtémoc, Tecun Uman, Atlacatl, Nicarao, Tupac Amaru II Sachem, term of chiefdom of the Algonquian nations of present-day New England in the United States Afro Bolivian king Eze Gbong Gwon Jos Kgosi Mogho Naba Nkosi Oba and Oloye.
Obai Omanhene Orkoiyot Sarkin Obong Tor Tiv of the Tiv people of Central Nigeria Aliʻi and Aliʻi nui were the chiefs and high chiefs of the islands of Hawaii Islands Ariki,'ariki henua Grade-taking systems of northern Vanuatu Ibedul Meena means Chief of tribals in South Asia. Iroijlaplap Matai, in the Samoan fa'amatai system Nahnmwarki, Lepen Palikir Rangatira, a chief of Māori in New Zealand Ratu, Fijian Chief, Malay for Queen Datu and Filipino Chief Arabs, in particular peninsular Arabs and nomadic Bedouins, are organized in tribes, many of whom have official representatives in governments. Tribal chiefs are known as Sheikhs, though this term is sometimes applied as an honorific title to spiritual leaders of Sufism; the Afro-Bolivian people, a recognized ethnic constituency of Bolivia, are led by a king whose title is recognized by the Bolivian government. In Botswana, the reigning chiefs of the various tribes are empowered to serve as advisers to the government as members of the Ntlo ya Dikgosi, the national House of Chiefs.
In addition to this, they serve as the ex officio chairs of the tribal kgotlas, meetings of all of the members of the tribes, where political and social matters are discussed. The band is the fundamental unit of governance among the First Nations in Canada. Most bands have elected chiefs, either directly elected by all members of the band, or indirectly by the band council, these chiefs are recognized by the Canadian state under the terms of the Indian Act; as well, there may be traditional hereditary or charismatic chiefs, w
The Promised Land is the land which, according to the Tanakh, was promised and subsequently given by God to Abraham and his descendants, in modern contexts an image and idea related both to the restored Homeland for the Jewish people and to salvation and liberation is more understood. The promise was first made to Abraham confirmed to his son Isaac, to Isaac's son Jacob, Abraham's grandson; the Promised Land was described in terms of the territory from the River of Egypt to the Euphrates river. A smaller area of former Canaanite land and land east of the Jordan River was conquered and occupied by their descendants, the Israelites, after Moses led the Exodus out of Egypt, this occupation was interpreted as God's fulfilment of the promise. Moses anticipated that God might subsequently give the Israelites land reflecting the boundaries of God's original promise, if they were obedient to the covenant; the concept of the Promised Land is the central tenet of Zionism, whose discourse suggests that modern Jews descend from the Israelites and Maccabees through whom they inherit the right to re-establish their "national homeland".
Palestinians claim partial descent from the Israelites and Maccabees, as well as all the other peoples who have lived in the region. The imagery of the "Promised Land" was invoked in African-American spirituals as heaven or paradise and as an escape from slavery, which can only be reached by death; the imagery and term have been used in popular culture, sermons and in speeches, such as the "I've Been to the Mountaintop" speech by Martin Luther King Jr.: "I just want to do God's will. And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain, and I've looked over. And I've seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you, but I want you to know tonight. So I'm happy, tonight. I'm not worried about anything. I'm not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord." The promise, the basis of the term is contained in several verses of Genesis in the Torah. In Genesis 12:1 it is said: The LORD had said to Abram, "Leave your country, your people and your father's household and go to the land I will show you."and in Genesis 12:7: The LORD appeared to Abram and said, "To your offspring I will give this land."Commentators have noted several problems with this promise and related ones: It is to Abram's descendants that the land will be given, not to Abram directly nor there and then.
However, in Genesis 15:7 it is said: He said to him, "I am the LORD, who brought you out from Ur of the Chaldeans to give you this land to take possession of it." However, how this verse relates to the promises is a matter of controversy. There is nothing in the promise to indicate God intended it be applied to Abraham’s physical descendants unconditionally exhaustively or in perpetuity. Jewish commentators drawing on Rashi's comments to the first verse in the Bible, assert that no human collective has any a priori claim to any piece of land on the planet, that only God decides which group inhabits which land in any point in time; this interpretation has no contradictions since the idea that the Jewish people have a claim to ownership rights on the physical land is based on the idea of God deciding to give the land to the Jewish people and commanding them to occupy it as referred to in Biblical texts mentioned. In Genesis 15:18-21 the boundary of the Promised Land is clarified in terms of the territory of various ancient peoples, as follows: On that day the LORD made a covenant with Abram and said, "To your descendants I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the Euphrates - the land of the Kenites, Kadmonites, Perizzites, Amorites, Canaanites and Jebusites."The verse is said to describe what are known as "borders of the Land".
In Jewish tradition, these borders define the maximum extent of the land promised to the descendants of Abraham through his son Isaac and grandson Jacob. The promise was confirmed to Jacob at Genesis 28:13, though the borders are still vague and is in terms of "the land on which you are lying". Other geographical borders are given in Exodus 23:31 which describes borders as marked by the Red Sea, the "Sea of the Philistines" i.e. the Mediterranean, the "River,". The promise is fulfilled at the end of the Exodus from Egypt. Deuteronomy 1:8 says: See, I have given you this land. Go in and take possession of the land that the LORD swore he would give to your fathers—to Abraham and Jacob—and to their descendants after them, it took a long time. The furthest extent of the Land of Israel was achieved during the time of the united Kingdom of Israel under David; the actual land controlled by the Israelites has fluctuated over time, at times the land has been under the control of various empires. However, under Jewish tradition when it is not in Jewish occupation, the land has not lost its status as the Promised Land.
Traditional Jewish interpretation, that of most Christian commentators, define Abraham's descendants as Abraham's seed only through his son Isaac and his grandson Jacob, to the exclusion of Ishmael and Esau. This may however reflect an eisegesis or reconstruction of primary verses based on the late
Korah or Kórach is a name, associated with at least two men in the Hebrew Bible. Some older English translations, as well as the Douay–Rheims Bible, spell the name Core, many Eastern European translations have Korak. According to the Book of Genesis 36:5, Korah was the son of Esau and Aholibamah, had two brothers and Jaalam. Genesis 36:14 has Korah's mother, being daughter of Anah, granddaughter of Zibeon, making Zibeon Korah's maternal great grandfather; the same verse repeats names his two brothers again. Anah in Genesis 36:2,14,18,25 mentioned above is the same as the Anah, the son of Zibeon in verse 24. In verse 2 and 14 it says, "Aholibamah the daughter of the daughter of Zibeon the Hivite; some believe that it is saying that Anah is a daughter of Zibeon. In verse 24 it says that Zibeon's two sons were Ajah and Anah. Since the original text does not have a literal word for "grand daughter" the word "bath" was used in both cases, but this sentence is stating that Aholibamah is the daughter of Anah and the "granddaughter" of Zibeon, not that Anah is the daughter of Zibeon.
Esau had multiple wives and Korah is listed as a grandson of Esau through Eliphaz, causing some confusion. Esau and his wife Adah bore Eliphaz. Genesis 36:16 states that Eliphaz bore a number of sons that came from his son Eliphaz, one of them is Duke Korah, it is not unreasonable that Esau had a grandson named Korah. However it is more viewed rather as a grandson being one of the sons. Exodus 6:24: And the sons of Ko'rah. Exodus 6:21 cites another Korah as being the son of Izhar son of Kohath son of Levi. Korah's brothers through Izhar were Zichri. Exodus 6:18 connects this Korah with Hebron and Amram, who were his father's brothers. 1 Chronicles 6:2,18,38, 23:12, repeat this genealogy. Hebron is the patriarch from. Numbers 16:1 traces this lineage back further to Levi, son of the patriarch Israel. According to Numbers 16:21, his lineage goes: "Korah, the son of Izhar, the son of Kohath, the son of Levi," making him the great-grandson of the patriarch Levi and the cousin of Moses and Aaron. Numbers 16:1–40 indicates that Korah rebelled against Moses along with 249 co-conspirators and were punished for their rebellion when God sent fire from heaven to consume all 250 of them.
Korah's Reubenite accomplices and Abiram, were punished when God caused the ground to split open beneath their feet swallowing them, their families, anyone associated with Korah, all their possessions. Furthermore, the Israelites who did not like what had happened to Korah and Abiram objected to Moses, God commanded Moses to depart from the multitude. God smote 14,700 men with plague, as punishment for objecting to Korah's destruction "Notwithstanding, the children of Korah died not". Based on the Jewish EncyclopediaThe name "Korah" is explained by the Rabbis of the Talmudic era as meaning "baldness." It was given to Korah on blank which he made in Israel by his revolt. Korah is represented as the possessor of extraordinary wealth, he having discovered one of the treasures which Joseph had hidden in Egypt; the keys of Korah's treasuries alone formed a load for three hundred mules. He and Haman were the two richest men in the world, both perished on account of their rapacity, because their riches were not the gift of Heaven.
On the other hand, Korah is represented as a wise man, chief of his family and as one of the Kohathites who carried the Ark of the Covenant on their shoulders. The chief cause of Korah's revolt was, according to the Rabbis, the nomination of Elizaphan, son of Uzziel, as prince over the Kohathites, Korah arguing thus: "Kohath had four sons; the two sons of Amram, Kohath's eldest son, took for themselves the priesthood. Now, as I am the son of Kohath's second son, I ought to be made prince over the Kohathites, whereas Moses gave that office to Elizaphan, the son of Kohath's youngest son". Korah plied Moses with the following questions: "Does a ṭallit made of blue wool need fringes?" To Moses' affirmative answer Korah objected: "The blue color of the ṭallit does not make it ritually correct, yet according to thy statement four blue threads do so". "Does a house filled with the books of the Law need a mezuzah?" Moses replied. It is not from God, he assembled 250 men, chiefs of the Sanhedrin, having clad them in ṭallitot of blue wool, but without fringes, prepared for them a banquet.
Aaron's sons came for the priestly share, but Korah and his people refused to give the prescribed portions to them, saying that it was not God but Moses who commanded those things. Moses, having been informed of these proceedings, went to the house of Korah to effect a reconciliation, but the latter and his 250 followers rose up against him. Korah consulted his wife w
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century. In some countries, these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, behavior, whereas in others they are ignored and suppressed, they differ from broader notions of human rights through claims of an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women and girls, in favor of men and boys. Issues associated with notions of women's rights include the right: to bodily integrity and autonomy. Women in ancient Sumer could buy, own and inherit property, they could engage in commerce, testify in court as witnesses. Nonetheless, their husbands could divorce them for mild infractions, a divorced husband could remarry another woman, provided that his first wife had borne him no offspring. Female deities, such as Inanna, were worshipped; the Akkadian poetess Enheduanna, the priestess of Inanna and daughter of Sargon, is the earliest known poet whose name has been recorded.
Old Babylonian law codes permitted a husband to divorce his wife under any circumstances, but doing so required him to return all of her property and sometimes pay her a fine. Most law codes forbade a woman to request her husband for a divorce and enforced the same penalties on a woman asking for divorce as on a woman caught in the act of adultery; the majority of East Semitic deities were male. In ancient Egypt women enjoyed the same rights under the law as a men, however rightful entitlements depended upon social class. Landed property descended in the female line from mother to daughter, women were entitled to administer their own property. Women in ancient Egypt could buy, sell, be a partner in legal contracts, be executor in wills and witness to legal documents, bring court action, adopt children. Women during the early Vedic period enjoyed equal status with men in all aspects of life. Works by ancient Indian grammarians such as Patanjali and Katyayana suggest that women were educated in the early Vedic period.
Rigvedic verses suggest that women married at a mature age and were free to select their own husbands in a practice called swayamvar or live-in relationship called Gandharva marriage. Although most women lacked political and equal rights in the city states of ancient Greece, they enjoyed a certain freedom of movement until the Archaic age. Records exist of women in ancient Delphi, Thessaly and Sparta owning land, the most prestigious form of private property at the time. However, after the Archaic age, legislators began to enact laws enforcing gender segregation, resulting in decreased rights for women. Women in Classical Athens had no legal personhood and were assumed to be part of the oikos headed by the male kyrios; until marriage, women were under the guardianship of other male relative. Once married, the husband became a woman's kyrios; as women were barred from conducting legal proceedings, the kyrios would do so on their behalf. Athenian women could only acquire rights over property through gifts and inheritance, though her kyrios had the right to dispose of a woman's property.
Athenian women could only enter into a contract worth less than the value of a "medimnos of barley", allowing women to engage in petty trading. Women were excluded both in principle and in practice. Slaves could become Athenian citizens after being freed, but no woman acquired citizenship in ancient Athens. In classical Athens women were barred from becoming poets, politicians, or artists. During the Hellenistic period in Athens, the philosopher Aristotle thought that women would bring disorder and evil, therefore it was best to keep women separate from the rest of the society; this separation would entail living in a room called a gynaikeion, while looking after the duties in the home and having little exposure with the male world. This was to ensure that wives only had legitimate children from their husbands. Athenian women received little education, except home tutorship for basic skills such as spin, weave and some knowledge of money. Although Spartan women were formally excluded from military and political life they enjoyed considerable status as mothers of Spartan warriors.
As men engaged in military activity, women took responsibility for running estates. Following protracted warfare in the 4th century BC Spartan women owned between 35% and 40% of all Spartan land and property. By the Hellenistic Period, some of the wealthiest Spartans were women. Spartan women controlled their own properties, as well as the properties of male relatives who were away with the army. Girls as well as boys received an education, but despite greater freedom of movement for Spartan women, their role in politics was just as the same as Athenian women. Plato acknowledged that extending civil and political rights to women would substantively alter the nature of the household and the state. Aristotle, taught by Plato, denied that women were slaves or subject to property, arguing that "nature has distinguished between the female and the slave", but he considered wives to be "bought", he argued that women's main economic activity is that of safeguarding the household property created by men.
According to Aristotle the la