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Low-ionization nuclear emission-line region

A low-ionization nuclear emission-line region is a type of galactic nucleus, defined by its spectral line emission. The spectra include line emission from weakly ionized or neutral atoms, such as O, O+, N+, S+. Conversely, the spectral line emission from ionized atoms, such as O++, Ne++, He+, is weak; the class of galactic nuclei was first identified by Timothy Heckman in the third of a series of papers on the spectra of galactic nuclei that were published in 1980. Galaxies that contain LINERs are referred to as LINER galaxies. LINER galaxies are common. 75% of LINER galaxies are either elliptical galaxies, lenticular galaxies, or S0/a-Sab galaxies. LINERs are found less in Sb-Scd galaxies, they are rare in nearby irregular galaxies. LINERs may be found in luminous infrared galaxies, a class of galaxies defined by their infrared luminosities that are formed when two galaxies collide with each other. One-quarter of LIRGs may contain LINERs. LINERs have been at the center of two major debates. First, astronomers have debated the source of energy that excites the ionized gas in the centers of these galaxies.

Some astronomers have proposed that active galactic nuclei with supermassive black holes are responsible for the LINER spectral emission. Other astronomers have asserted; the other major issue is related to. Some astronomers have suggested that shock waves propagating through the gas may ionize the gas, while others have suggested that photoionization may be responsible; these debates are complicated by the fact that LINERs are found in a wide variety of objects with different brightnesses and morphologies. Moreover, the debate over the energy sources for LINERs is entangled with a similar debate over whether the light from star formation regions or the light from AGN produce the high infrared luminosities seen in LIRGs. Although both the energy sources and the excitation mechanisms for LINER emission are still being studied, many LINERs are referred to as AGN. A number of surveys have been performed to explore the connection between star formation and LINER activity. If a connection can be found between star formation activity and LINER activity this strengthens the possibility that LINERs are powered by the hot gas found in star formation regions.

However, if star formation cannot be found in LINERs this definitively excludes star formation as powering LINER emission. Recent observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope show a clear connection between LINER emission in luminous infrared galaxies and star formation activity; the mid-infrared spectra of LIRGs with LINERs have been shown to look similar to the mid-infrared spectra of starburst galaxies, which suggest that infrared-bright LINERs are powered by star formation activity. However, some mid-infrared spectral line emission from AGN have been detected in these galaxies, indicating that star formation may not be the only energy sources in these galaxies. Normal nearby galaxies with LINERs, appear to be different. A few near-infrared spectroscopic surveys have identified some LINERs in normal galaxies that may be powered by star formation. However, most LINERs in nearby galaxies have low levels of star formation activity. Moreover, the stellar populations of many LINERs appear to be old, the mid-infrared spectra, as observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope, do not appear similar to the spectra expected from star formation.

These results demonstrate that most LINER in nearby normal galaxies may not be powered by star formation, although a few exceptions exist. Messier 94 NGC 5005 NGC 5195 Sombrero Galaxy Seyfert galaxy - Another class of galaxies that contain AGN

Anurag Anand

Anurag Anand is an Indian author with several bestselling titles in the self-help, general fiction and historical fiction genres. He double-hats as a corporate professional with experience across industries like pharmaceuticals, fast-moving consumer goods and financial services. After obtaining his primary education from Kurseong in Darjeeling District, Anand moved to Delhi, he completed his schooling from Delhi Public School, Mathura Road, New Delhi in 1996. Thereafter he did is B. A. in Economics from Delhi University before pursuing his PGDBM from Lal Bahadur Shastri Institute of Management, Delhi. Anand's writing career began with the book Pillars of Success, a self-help book that owes its genesis to Anand's association during his college days with the Delhi based NGO, UNES; as a part of the Youth Development Program of UNES, Anand delivered lectures on aspects of personality development to school students across the country and it is the learnings from these interactions that he summarised in his first book.

Since Anand has written general fiction and historical fiction novels. Anurag's articles and columns have been published in several major publications, one of the most significant ones being his monthly column, Corporate Whispers, published in Suburb Live magazine. Anurag has penned a song, titled Bhaga, the theme song for his book - To Hell and Back; the song has been sung by the popular music director Ram Sampath. This is one of the first instances when a theme song has been released as a part of a book's promotion. In 2016 Anurag was conferred with the Lal Bahadur Shastri Award for Corporate Excellence to commemorate his contributions to the society and the spirit of entrepreneurship through his achievements in the corporate world; the award was presented by Air Chief Marshal S. K Sareen, former Indian Air Force Chief and Anil Shastri former Union Minister. In February 2019, Anurag Anand was felicitated among the Top HR 40under40 leaders in the country at the Leading From Behind Summit, he was recognized among the Role Players - 2019 by the World Training and Development Congress.

Non-FictionPillars of Success Corporate Mantras FictionTic Toc – A tale of love and terror. The book was launched in Mumbai by acclaimed filmmaker Mahesh Bhatt; the Quest for Nothing. The book was launched by a panel comprising Gul Panag and Mini Mathur. Reality Bites; the book was launched at Landmark, Mumbai by Bollywood personalities including Sudhir Mishra, Randeep Hooda and Kanishtha Dhankhar. The Legend of Amrapali; the book was launched in Mumbai, New Delhi and Ahmedabad by panellists comprising Prahlad Kakkar, Mallika Sarabhai, Shashi Tharoor, Sonalika Sahay, Indrani Dasgupta and Alokananda Roy. Of Tattoos and Taboos!. Where The Rainbow. Birth of The Bastard Prince, he describes in thrilling detail the war between Vaishali and Magadh, in which Amrapali played a crucial role. Love on 3 Wheels. To Hell and Back; the Assassination of Rajat Gandy. Anand's works have been extensively covered in all forms of media including most national dailies and magazines, he has been invited to various television news channels like CNN IBN and UTV Bloomberg to participate in panel discussions and debates.

He has been invited by FM Radio channels like Radio Mirchi, Radio City and Red FM for on-air discussions. Anurag Anand lives in Gurugram with his wife daughter Naisha. Anurag met Neeru while pursuing his higher studies in Delhi. Neeru Anand works with a Multinational Pharmaceutical company. Official Website Official Youtube Channel


The sarrusophones are a family of transposing woodwind musical instruments patented and placed into production by Pierre-Louis Gautrot in 1856. Designed as double-reed instruments, single-reed mouthpieces were developed, at least for some of the larger sizes, it was named after the French bandmaster Pierre-Auguste Sarrus, credited with the concept of the instrument, though it is not clear whether Sarrus benefited financially from this association. The instrument was intended to serve as a replacement in wind bands for the oboe and bassoon which, at that time, lacked the carrying power required for outdoor band music; the sarrusophone was manufactured in the following sizes and had the following theoretical ranges: E-flat Sopranino B♭-G B-flat Soprano B♭-G E-flat Alto B♭-G B-flat Tenor B♭-G E-flat Baritone A-G B-flat Bass B♭-G EE-flat Contrabass B♭-G CC Contrabass B♭-G BB-flat Contrabass B♭-G The non-transposed range of the sarrusophone is nearly identical to that of the saxophone. The traditional conventional range of the saxophone is written B♭-F.

Gautrot advertised the range of the sarrusophone to high F as well, but fingering charts indicated a range to high G. Sometime after 1868, Gautrot released a fingering chart indicating fingerings higher still up to a top B-flat, giving a range of three full octaves. All members of the sarrusophone family are made of metal, with a conical bore, the larger members of the family resemble the ophicleide in shape. Like the oboe and bassoon, all sizes of sarrusophone were designed to be played with a double reed. Single reed mouthpieces were developed which resemble alto or soprano saxophone mouthpieces, it is unclear if these were available for all sizes of the sarrusophone family, the most common examples being for the E♭ contrabass. Approximate reed measurements for certain sarrusophones, expressed as, are as follows: Soprano Alto Tenor Baritone Bass Contrabass in Eb or C The fingering of the sarrusophone is nearly identical to that of the saxophone; this similarity caused Adolphe Sax to file and lose at least one lawsuit against Gautrot, claiming infringement upon his patent for the saxophone.

Sax lost on the grounds that the tone produced by the two families of instruments is markedly different, despite their mechanical similarities. However, because the sarrusophone never gained wide acceptance, makers were not inclined to develop its mechanism to the same extent as that of the saxophone. Features of the sarrusophone's mechanism include: Non-automatic octave keys. From sopranino through bass, 2 octave keys; the contra basses have 3, the 3rd key being used for the notes D and E♭ directly above the octave break, only No articulated G♯, bis B♭, F♯ trill keys or 1/1 and 1/2 B♭ as found on the saxophone. The top and bottom key stacks are not linked. Though, a B to C trill key as found on the saxophone did more or less become standard The key for low B♭ is activated by the left thumb as opposed to the left little finger as on the saxophone A key for rapid alternation across the C-D break; this key can be used to play high D as well. This may be taken to be an equivalent of the high D palm key of a saxophone, although on the sarrusophone the location of the touchpiece varied.

No palm keys for playing the top range. Using the non-automatic register keys, 3rd harmonics are available, rendering palm keys unnecessary; the narrow bore of the sarrusophone aids in the rendering of these 3rd harmonicsOn earlier instruments, the use of rollers on the low E♭ and C natural keys seems to have been more common than having them on the G♯, low C♯ and B natural keys. Additionally on some instruments made by Buffet in the early 20th century, the G♯ key is "semi-articulated" so that a G natural to G♯ trill can be made by an additional touchpiece for the right hand. Saxophones of this time period have this mechanism. Additionally, there is no connection from G♯ to low C♯ or low B natural, identical to how saxophones were constructed at that time; the sarrusophone is called for in orchestral music. However, around the turn of the 20th century, the contrabass sarrusophones in EE♭ and CC enjoyed a vogue, the latter as a substitute for the contrabassoon so that it is called for in, for example, Jules Massenet's Esclarmonde and Suite parnassienne.

Igor Stravinsky included a part for contrabass sarrusophone in Threni. The composer Paul Dukas used the contrabass sarrusophone to great effect in 1897 in his The Sorcerer's Apprentice, where the instrument begins the bassoon's macabre dance motif; these parts are nowadays all played on the contrabassoon, though recordings of at least some of these pieces using sarrusophones are extant. In general when the term "sarrusophon

Francis Demont

Francis Demont was a pirate active in the Caribbean. His trial was important in establishing Admiralty law in South Carolina. Demont, along with fellow pirates Stephen James De Losey, Francis Rusoe, Emanuel Ernandos, had captured the sloop Virgin Queen near Cuba, the ship Tanner in the Bahamas, the ships Penelope and Turtle Dove off Jamaica around July 1716; the Turtle Dove’s Captain testified that they had "imprisoned him and his crew in bodily fear of their life." The pirates were captured and tried in July 1717. Nicholas Trott presided over the Charleston trial; the pirates all pled not guilty. De Losey and Ernandos were found guilty and hanged. Trying and executing pirates was a priority of newly arrived Governor Robert Johnson. Having established the authority of South Carolina’s Vice-Admiralty Court, Trott would go on to preside over the trials of other pirates, notably Blackbeard’s associate Stede Bonnet. Admiralty court – the venue established by Trott, in which Demont and others were tried

Elza Kolodin

Elza Kolodin is a pianist from Poland. She studied in Warsaw and Paris, she has gained much acclaim from the international press, who have described her "rapturous playing" as being distinguished by "brilliant virtuosity" and a "personal mixture of electrifying energy and profound poetry". Elza Kolodin began her pianistic career at the Special School for Music in Kraków under Zofia Zagajewska. After being granted a scholarship from the Chopin Society, she continued her studies at the Music Academy in Warsaw under Ryszard Bakst and Zbigniew Drzewiecki. After her emigration, the Foundation Albert Roussel enabled her to complete her studies at the Ecole Normale de Musique in Paris in the class of Thierry de Brunhoff a master pupil of Alfred Cortot, she graduated with the highest distinction, the "Licence de concert a l'unanimite du jury". During the course of her career, Elza Kolodin has enjoyed much success in the competition arena, having won 3rd Prize at the Concorso Pianistico Internazionale Ferruccio Busoni, 2nd Prizes at the Concorso Pianistico Internazionale Alessandro Casagrande and the Concurso Internacional Maria Canals as well as 1st Prizes at what must have been some of the highlights of her career, the Premio Internacional de Musica de Jaen, Concurso Internacional de Piano Reina Sofia, Concurso Internacional de Piano Jose Iturbi, where she took home prizes for the best interpretation of Spanish music.

Her concerts have taken her to the music capitals of Europe and the USA and she has released several recordings under the labels Ars Musici and EMI. Alongside her concert activities, Elza Kolodin is a dedicated teacher and is a professor at the Hochschule für Musik Freiburg im Breisgau, where she has been residing since 1976, she conducts master classes in various countries and is a jury member of many international competitions. Moye Kolodin