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Dauphin of France

Dauphin of France Dauphin of Viennois, was the title given to the heir apparent to the throne of France from 1350 to 1791 and 1824 to 1830. The word dauphin is French for dolphin. At first the heirs were granted the County of Viennois to rule, but only the title was granted. Guigues IV, Count of Vienne, was nicknamed le Dauphin; the title of Dauphin de Viennois descended in his family until 1349, when Humbert II sold his seigneury, called the Dauphiné, to King Philippe VI on condition that the heir of France assume the title of le Dauphin. The wife of the Dauphin was known as la Dauphine; the first French prince called le Dauphin was Charles the Wise to become Charles V of France. The title was equivalent to the English Prince of Wales, the Scottish Duke of Rothesay, the Portuguese Prince of Brazil, the Brazilian Prince of Grão-Pará and the Spanish Prince of Asturias; the official style of a Dauphin of France, prior to 1461, was par la grâce de Dieu, dauphin de Viennois, comte de Valentinois et de Diois.

A Dauphin of France united the coat of arms of the Dauphiné, which featured dolphins, with the French fleurs-de-lis, might, where appropriate, further unite that with other arms. The Dauphin was responsible for the rule of the Dauphiné, part of the Holy Roman Empire, which the Emperors, in giving the rule of the province to the French heirs, had stipulated must never be united with France; because of this, the Dauphiné suffered from anarchy in the 14th and 15th centuries, since the Dauphins were minors or concerned with other matters. During his period as Dauphin, son of Charles VII, defied his father by remaining in the province longer than the king permitted and by engaging in personal politics more beneficial to the Dauphiné than to France. For example, he married Charlotte of Savoy against his father's wishes. Savoy was a traditional ally of the Dauphiné, Louis wished to reaffirm that alliance to stamp out rebels and robbers in the province. Louis was driven out of the Dauphiné by Charles VII's soldiers in 1456, leaving the region to fall back into disorder.

After his succession as Louis XI of France in 1461, Louis united the Dauphiné with France, bringing it under royal control. The title was automatically conferred upon the next heir apparent to the throne in the direct line upon birth, accession of the parent to the throne or death of the previous Dauphin, unlike the British title Prince of Wales, which has always been in the gift of the monarch; the sons of the King of France hold the style and rank of fils de France, while male-line grandsons hold the style and rank of petits-enfants de France. The sons and grandsons of the Dauphin ranked higher than their cousins, being treated as the king's children and grandchildren respectively; the sons of the Dauphin, though grandsons of the king, are ranked as Sons of France, the grandsons of the Dauphin ranked as Grandsons of France. The title was abolished by the Constitution of 1791. Under the constitution the heir-apparent to the throne was restyled Prince Royal, taking effect from the inception of the Legislative Assembly on 1 October 1791.

The title was restored in potentia under the Bourbon Restoration of Louis XVIII, but there would not be another Dauphin until after his death. With the accession of his brother Charles X, Charles' son and heir Louis-Antoine, Duke of Angoulême automatically became Dauphin. With the removal of the Bourbons the title fell into disuse, the heirs of Louis-Philippe being titled Prince Royal. After the death of Henri, comte de Chambord, Duke of Madrid, the heir of the legitimist claimant, Count of Montizón, made use of the title in pretense, as have the Spanish legitimist claimants since. In Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Huck encounters two odd characters who turn out to be professional con men. One of them claims that he should be treated with deference, since he is "really" an impoverished English duke, the other, not to be outdone, reveals that he is "really" the Dauphin. Louis, Duke of Guyenne, the Dauphin of Viennois, is a character in Shakespeare's Henry V. In Baronness Emma Orczy's Eldorado, the Scarlet Pimpernel rescues the Dauphin from prison and helps spirit him from France.

Alphonse Daudet wrote a short story called "The Death of the Dauphin", about a young Dauphin who wants to stop Death from approaching him. The Dauphin is mentioned in Cormac McCarthy's Blood Meridian. "The Dauphin" is a 1988 episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation. As the titular character is female, the episode title gets the gender incorrect. Dauphine of France List of heirs to the French throne Prince of Wales Prince of Asturias Prince of Beira Duke of Braganza Crown Prince Tsarevich Dauphins of Viennois Dauphins of Auvergne King of Rome Madame Royale Monsieur Madame Fils de France Petit-Fils de France Prince du Sang Prince of Tarnovo

Saqib Saleem

Saqib Saleem Qureshi is an Indian film actor and model who works in the Hindi film industry. He worked as a model before beginning his film career. After moving to Mumbai, Saleem appeared in several advertisements. While doing television commercials, he grew interest in films and started auditioning for film roles signing a two-film deal with the Y-Films, a subsidiary of the Yash Raj Films, as an actor. Saleem made his acting debut with a leading role in the 2011 romantic comedy Mujhse Fraaandship Karoge, a box-office success, he was appreciated for his performance and earned a nomination at the Filmfare Award in the Best Male Debut category. The following year, he completed his two-film contract with the Y-Films by appearing in Mere Dad Ki Maruti, a romantic comedy that proved to be a critical and commercial success. Subsequently, he played a supporting role in the experimental anthology Bombay Talkies. While not a box-office success, the film garnered him positive response from critics, he received further praise for played the lead in the critically acclaimed passionate drama Hawaa Hawaai.

In addition to acting in films, Saleem is an active Charitable worker, has a number of endorsement deals, a member of the "Mumbai Heroes" at the Celebrity Cricket League, a non-professional men's cricket league in India. Saqib Saleem was born in India, his father, Saleem Qureshi, is a restaurateur, runs a chain of 10 restaurants called Saleem's, all around Delhi. His mother, Ameena Qureshi, is a house wife, he has Naeem Qureshi and Haseen Qureshi. During college, Saqib assisted in the running of the restaurants, but did not like it. By that time Saqib had started modelling, he moved to Mumbai despite his father's preference that he stay in Delhi and earn a Master of Business Administration degree. Saqib started his career with Cricket playing for Jammu & Kashmir. A cricketer all his life Saqib never thought of becoming an actor. After reaching Mumbai, Saleem started out by doing a few modelling assignments moving into television advertisements for brands like Pepsi, Tata Docomo, Bar One, KFC, Airtel and others.

While shooting for the ads, Saqib's interest grew in acting and he started auditioning for film roles in Bollywood films. His close friend, fashion designer Varun Bahl, helped him get a chance to audition for Yash Raj Films. "It was gruelling," he recalls. After eight months of auditioning, he bagged the leading role in the Y-Films romantic comedy Mujhse Fraaandship Karoge. In 2010, one of his friends informed him that Bollywood film production house Yash Raj Films was auditioning for new faces. Saleem was interested and he gave his audition. However, it was 8–9 months before he got confirmation from the production house that he had been selected; the film for which he was selected for was Mujhse Fraaandship Karoge, a romantic comedy set against the backdrop of social networking site Facebook. Mujhse Fraaandship Karoge is a love story which develops on Facebook where the protagonists change identities to make their partners fall in love with them. Starring newcomers Nishant Dahiya and Saba Azad, along with Saleem and Tara D’Souza, the film was released under Y-Films, a subsidiary of YRF.

The role that Saleem had to play was that of a college prankster called Vishal Bhatt, who with his friend Hacky, go on playing pranks on their friends. Saleem explained that he "liked the script and I did it. I feel the youth will connect with it. I think the movie will put me in a different light and open lot of doors for me." The youngsters had to undergo a month of workshops under Aditya Chopra, where they rehearsed each other's lines from the script. Filming began in April 2011, with production continuing till August 2011. Mujhse Fraaandship Karoge released all over India on 14 October 2011, became a critical success. Anupama Chopra from NDTV complimented the film for being a hackneyed love story, but excitingly brewed with fresh faces, she commended Saleem's and Azad's acting, calling them faces to look out for in the coming years. Filmfare's Karishma Loynmoon applauded the chemistry and comic timing between Saleem and Azad, overall dedicating the success of the film to them, her view was shared by Nikhat Kazmi from The Times of India, who added that the film "brimmed over" with youth iconography.

Mujhse Fraaandship Karoge scored high over the other releases like My Friend Pinto. The film collected about ₹5 million on the first day of its release, adding it to first weekend collection of about ₹22.5 million in the opening weekend. It was declared an average grosser by Box Office India. By the end of 2011, Saleem was touted as the best newcomer of the year, with Robin Bansal from Hindustan Times commenting that "Saleem’s American Pie college boy style is expected to take him places, if he manages to get plum film projects in the future." Critic Joginder Tuteja commented that although Saleem did not have the personality of a quintessential Bollywood hero, he made his presence felt in Mujhse Fraaandship Karoge. "It will be a pity if he isn’t seen in the years to come", concluded Tuteja. At the 57th Filmfare Awards, Saleem was nominated in the Best Male Debut category; the following year, Saleem appeared in Y-Films's Mere Dad Ki Maruti directed by Ashima Chibber. The film revolves around a Punjabi wedding, where a boy steals his father's car to impress a girl and portrays how his plans go astray.

The year 2013 saw the release of the experimental anthology film Bombay Talkies consisting of four short films. Saleem was part of the Karan Johar's segment titled "A

Mercury (Marvel Comics)

Mercury is a fictional character from Marvel Comic's X-Men series. She is a teenage member of the student body at the Xavier Institute and a recurring member of the X-Men. Mercury first appeared in New Mutants, vol. 2 #2 in August 2003. Cessily Kincaid, an Irish American, was raised in Portland, Oregon by her parents Mark and Jill, according to DeFilippis, used to dote over her; when Cessily's powers manifested, her parents were disgusted and made her stay indoors so as to hide her mutation. In response, she was sent to the Xavier Institute where she befriended Julian Keller and was placed as Laurie Collins' roommate for a while. After the school was rebuilt, she was selected by Emma Frost to be on her Hellions squad. She's close to Santo Varroco and Julian Keller whom she spends most of her time with and looks upon like big brothers. During that time, she developed a crush on her teammate Wither, but her feelings were not reciprocated; the Hellions squad won the squad challenge, during their summer vacation, they travelled with Julian to his home.

There they encountered the Kingmaker, from. Cessily's wish was to have her parents accept and love her, a wish the Kingmaker granted by manipulating her parents with telepaths; when the Hellions refused a permanent deal with the Kingmaker, Cessily's parents reverted to normal and Cessily returned to the Institute, defeated. After the events of M-Day only 27 students were left with their powers, including Cessily, although she would have preferred to lose her powers and was devastated that she did not; the depowered students and staff were sent home. One bus was bombed by anti-mutant religious zealot Reverend William Stryker, Cessily's former teammate and friend Tag was among those killed; the X-Men held a funeral for those students whose parents would not accept them, Cessily's anguish was visible. All of the remaining students were placed by Emma Frost into an all-out brawl, the ones deemed to be the best were to be assigned to become a group of in-training X-Men. Cessily began training to become an X-Man.

In the Childhood's End arc and the New X-Men defeated Stryker, Josh killing him. Shortly afterwards the team went to help Forge, sought out by Nimrod for repair. During the skirmish X-23 was forced to sever a piece of Mercury's hand to separate her from Nimrod, she commented she'd "always wanted to lose a few pounds." The team defeated the robot due to combining the powers of Surge, X-23 and Nimrod was sent back in time. After learning of Emma Frost's plan to have X-23 leave the school, Cessily takes Laura to Salem Center for coffee to cool Laura down. Just as Cessily realizes that Laura has feelings for Hellion, the coffee shop explodes. Facility agents led by Laura's former handler, Kimura come for one of them. Laura, believing it is her, begs Cessily to leave, but not before Kimura shoots Cessily with an electric bullet, incapacitating her. After capturing Cessily, Kimura leaves. At the lab, Cessily questions what they want but is given no answers; when she replies that her friends will come for her, Kimura informs that "The Elephant" said the same thing while showing a picture of his corpse in a cell.

Before dying, Stryker had requested a living weapon be made, a huge beast called Predator X. Mercury's metal skin was needed to give it added powers and durability; the Facility scientists strip some of Mercury's biometal, granting Predator X her powers. The experiments leave her physically and mentally traumatized, forcing her to recuperate for some time at the Institute, she regains some of her lost mass. Mercury is recovering in bed after what happened to her in the last arc when the students are teleported to Limbo, she is held captive by Belasco but breaks free after he'kills' X-23. She and Dust go up against Belasco and keep getting beaten down but refuse to give up, as both their mutant bodies are resistant to his magic and fight an inconclusive battle until Darkchylde and the other students arrive, teleported by Pixie. Mercury continues to fight alongside the other students, but can only watch as Belasco fends them off and proceeds to pull Earth into Limbo until he is defeated by Darkchylde and Pixie.

Mercury is one of the students. Mercury is knocked away; when X-23 blinds him she joins in taking him down alongside Surge, Beast and X-23 but they are all knocked away when Hulk's eyes grow back. Mercury gets back up and attacks him from behind but Hulk grabs her and squishes her against the ground. While the rest of the X-Men are still defeated from the Hulk's attack, Mercury tries one more time to defeat the rampaging green goliath. During the course of the battle, the Hulk was shown the recent graveyards of all of the deceased mutants that died after M-Day. Mercury describes in detail the deaths of Laurie Collins and Brian Cruz, causing the Hulk to understand his self-righteous tantrum is wrongly directed towards Xavier's affiliation with the Illuminati. Seeing these graveyards reminds the Hulk of his fallen companions on Sakaar, with that understanding, he leaves Xavier unharmed. Cessily still maintains her disapproval and distrust of Emma Frost after overhearing her conversation with X-23 during the "Mercury Falling" arc.

She feels that Emma has carelessly "lost" track of Wither and reminds her of the fact that Kevin is no longer in the school or under her surveillance. Mercury has been affected by the events of Decimation, as depicted in the "Endangered Species" miniseries, she is distraught by the death of a teenage civilian mutant and is one of