Hokum is a particular song type of American blues music—a humorous song which uses extended analogies or euphemistic terms to make sexual innuendos. This trope goes back to early blues recordings and is used from time to time in modern American blues and blues rock. An example of hokum lyrics is this sample from "Meat Balls", by Lil Johnson, recorded about 1937: In a general sense, hokum was a style of comedic farce, spoken and spoofed, while masked in both risqué innuendo and "tomfoolery", it is one of the many techniques of 19th century blackface minstrelsy. Like so many other elements of the minstrel show, stereotypes of racial and sexual fools were the stock in trade of hokum. Hokum was stagecraft and routines for embracing farce, it was so broad. Hokum encompassed dances like the cakewalk and the buzzard lope in skits that unfolded through spoken narrative and song. W. C. Handy, himself a veteran of a minstrel troupe, remarked that, "Our hokum hooked'em," meaning that the low comedy snared an audience that stuck around to hear the music.
In the days before ragtime and hillbilly music and the blues were identified as specific genres, hokum was a component of all-around performing, entertainment that seamlessly mixed monologues, dances and humor. The minstrel show began in Northern cities in New York's Five Points section, in the 1830s. Minstrelsy was a mélange of Scottish and Irish folk music forms fused with African rhythms and dance, it is difficult to tease out those strands, considering the mixed motives of the showmen who presented the minstrel show and the mixed audience who patronized it. It is said that T. D. Rice invented the buck and wing and the Jim Crow, by imitating the stumbling of an old lame black man, added numerous steps and shuffles after watching an African American boy improvise a version of an Irish jig in a back alley. Soon, the confusion became so complete that any minstrel tune played upon the banjo became known as a jig, regardless of time signatures or lyric accompaniment. Banjo player Joe Ayers told old-time musician and writer Bob Carlin that "the origins of playing Irish jigs on the banjo go back to minstrel banjoist Joel Walker Sweeney's appearances in Dublin in 1844."
Genuine appreciation among white observers for music and dance so African in origin existed and now. Charles Dickens praised the intricacies of the "lively hero" whom he watched in a New York performance in 1842. Many songs that originated in minstrelsy are now considered American classics. While it was performed by whites costumed in either fanciful "dandy" gear or pauper's rags with their faces covered in burnt cork, or blackface, the minstrels were joined in the 1850s by African-American performers; the dancer William Henry Lane and the fiddling dwarf Thomas Dilward were "corking up" and performing alongside whites in such touring ensembles as the Virginia Minstrels, the Ethiopian Serenaders, Christy's Minstrels. Minstrel troupes composed of African Americans appeared in the same decade. After the American Civil War, traveling productions like Callender's Georgia Minstrels would rival the white ensembles in fame, while falling short of them in earnings; the difficulties racism presented to African-American entrepreneurs during postwar Reconstruction era made touring a dangerous and precarious livelihood.
Although Northern in origin, many minstrel shows, black or white, celebrated "Dixieland" and presented a loose concoction of "Negro melodies" and "plantation songs" infused with slapstick, word play, puns and stock characters. The hierarchies of the social order were satirized, but challenged. While hokum mocked the propriety of "polite" society, the presumptions and pretensions of the parodists were simultaneous targets of the humor. "Darkies" dancing the cakewalk might mimic the elite cotillion dance styles of wealthy Southern whites, but their exaggerated high-stepping exuberance was judged all the funnier for its ineptitude. Nonetheless, styles of song and dance that began as inversions of the social structure were adopted among the upper echelons of society without a trace of self-consciousness. Social insults were more overt; as the underclass being ridiculed shifted, the racist lampoons and blackface burlesques sometimes gave way to other conflations, such as the stage Irishman Paddy and belligerent, a cruel caricature in blackface himself.
Political nativism and xenophobia encouraged similar mean-spirited responses to perceived threats of the time. After 1848, when the first substantial influx of Chinese immigrants began seeking their fortunes in the California Gold Rush, "Chink" characters joined the minstrel walkaround. Hokum enjoyed the license to be outrageous, since the clowning was purportedly "all in fun". By the beginning of the twentieth century, the hierarchy of social mores that sanctioned stereotyping came under attack. W. E. B. Du Bois's book The Souls of Black Folk linked the subjective self-appraisal of African Americans to their struggle with pejorative stereotyping in his essays about "double consciousness"; this inner conflict was central to the African-American experience, "this sense of always looking at one's self through the eyes of others, of measuring one's soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity". Anticipating social psychology, DuBois had identified a whole sphere of comparative attitudes that allowed for the reinterpretation of the black "mask".
While black minstrel performers were once seen as the degraded victims o
The 2017 Troy Trojans baseball team represented the Troy University in the 2017 NCAA Division I baseball season. The Trojans played their home games at Riddle–Pace Field. Troy announced its 2017 football schedule on October 27, 2016; the 2017 schedule consisted of 28 home and 28 away games in the regular season. The Trojans hosted Sun Belts foes Appalachian State, Georgia Southern, Louisiana–Lafayette, Louisiana–Monroe, Texas State and will travel to Coastal Carolina, Georgia State, Little Rock, South Alabama, Texas–Arlington; the 2017 Sun Belt Conference Championship was contested May 24–28 in Statesboro and was hosted by Georgia Southern. Troy finished 4th in the east division of the conference which qualified the Trojans to compete in the tournament as the 6th seed seeking for the team's 4th Sun Belt Conference tournament title. Rankings are based on the team's current ranking in the Collegiate Baseball poll
Mannen som älskade träd is a music album recorded by Swedish-Dutch folk singer-songwriter Cornelis Vreeswijk in 1985. Recorded in Tromsø, four years after his previous album. "Mannen som älskade träd no. 1" "Mannen som älskade träd no. 2" "Babyland" "Skyddsrumsboogie" "En dag var hela jorden" "Goddag yxskaft-blues" "I väntan på Pierrot" "Blues för Dubrovnik" "Från mitt delfinarium" "50-öres-blues" "På en näverdosa" "Sång om coyote och varför han bara sjunger om natten" "En resa"
The Hague Netherlands Temple is the 114th operating temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The building of an LDS temple in Zoetermeer, a satellite city of The Hague, was announced on August 16, 1999; this temple serves more than 13,000 members from the Netherlands and parts of France. Orson Hyde, a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, first entered the Netherlands in 1841 to serve a church mission. On his way to Jerusalem, he stayed for a little more than a week preaching the gospel, it was not until twenty years in 1861 that the first LDS missionaries were sent to the Netherlands. On October 1, 1861 near the village Broek bij Akkerwoude the first converts to the LDS Church in the Netherlands were baptized. People from the Netherlands joined the LDS Church by the thousands, but most emigrated to the United States to be in Utah near church headquarters. In more recent years church leadership has asked members to stay in their own lands and build up the church; the LDS Church has continued to grow in the Netherlands and there are now three stakes and 7,800 members.
A groundbreaking ceremony and site dedication for The Hague Netherlands Temple was held on August 26, 2000. The site chosen for the temple is in a city park. Temple construction began; because the site bought by the church is only larger than the area needed for the temple, a parking garage and temple clothing store were built underneath the temple. An open house for the public was held August 17–31, 2002. LDS Church president Gordon B. Hinckley dedicated The Hague Netherlands Temple on September 8, 2002; the Hague Netherlands Temple has a total of 10,500 square feet, two ordinance rooms, two sealing rooms. Comparison of temples of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints List of temples of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints List of temples of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints by geographic region Temple architecture The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the Netherlands Media related to The Hague Netherlands Temple at Wikimedia Commons Official The Hague Netherlands Temple page The Hague Netherlands Temple page
Kinsman Mountain is a mountain located in Grafton County, New Hampshire. It is named after Nathan Kinsman, an early resident of Easton, New Hampshire, is part of the Kinsman Range of the White Mountains. To the northeast, Kinsman is connected by The Cannon Balls ridge to Cannon Mountain; the west side of Kinsman drains into Reel and Slide Brooks, thence into the Ham Branch of the Gale River, the Gale River, Ammonoosuc River, Connecticut River, into Long Island Sound in Connecticut. The east side drains into Cascade Brook, thence into the Pemigewasset River, the Merrimack River, into the Gulf of Maine in Massachusetts; the south face drains into Eliza Brook, thence into Harvard Brook, another tributary of the Pemigewasset. The Appalachian Mountain Club considers both North and South Kinsman to be "four-thousand footers" because the divide between them gives the former more than 200 ft of topographic prominence. South Kinsman is the sixth most prominent of the White Mountains, because it is the highest point between Franconia Notch and Kinsman Notch.
Hikers climbing North Kinsman Mountain, when reaching the viewless summit, should be sure to take a short bushwhack east to steep granite ledges falling off to Kinsman Pond and offering views of Cannon Mountain, South Kinsman, Franconia Ridge, Lonesome Lake. List of mountains in New Hampshire White Mountain National Forest "South Peak Kinsman Mountain". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. "North Peak". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. "Kinsman Mountain, New Hampshire". Peakbagger.com. "Kinsman Mountain and South". SummitPost.org. South Kinsman. HikeTheWhites.com