David Warren Brubeck was an American jazz pianist and composer, considered one of the foremost exponents of cool jazz. Many of his compositions have become jazz standards including "In Your Own Sweet Way" and "The Duke". Brubeck's style ranged from refined to bombastic, reflecting both his mother's classical training and his own improvisational skills, his music is known for employing unusual time signatures as well as superimposing contrasting rhythms and tonalities. Brubeck experimented with time signatures throughout his career, recording "Pick Up Sticks" in 64, "Unsquare Dance" in 74, "World's Fair" in 134, "Blue Rondo à la Turk" in 98, he was a composer of orchestral and sacred music and wrote soundtracks for television, such as Mr. Broadway and the animated miniseries This Is America, Charlie Brown. Incorrectly attributed to Brubeck, the song "Take Five", which has become a jazz standard, was composed by Brubeck's long-time musical partner, alto saxophonist Paul Desmond. Appearing on one of the top-selling jazz albums, Time Out, written in 54 time, "Take Five" has endured as a jazz classic associated with Brubeck.
Dave Brubeck was born in the San Francisco Bay Area city of Concord and grew up in a city located in the Mother Lode called Ione, California. His father, Peter Howard "Pete" Brubeck, was a cattle rancher, his mother, who had studied piano in England under Myra Hess and intended to become a concert pianist, taught piano for extra money, his father had Swiss ancestry and Native American Modoc lineage, while his maternal grandparents were English and German. Brubeck did not intend to become a musician, but took lessons from his mother, he could not read music during these early lessons, attributing this difficulty to poor eyesight, but "faked" his way through well enough that this deficiency went unnoticed. Intending to work with his father on their ranch, Brubeck entered the College of the Pacific in Stockton, studying veterinary science, he changed to music on the urging of the head of zoology, Dr. Arnold, who told him "Brubeck, your mind's not here. It's across the lawn in the conservatory. Please go there.
Stop wasting my time and yours." Brubeck was nearly expelled when one of his professors discovered that he could not read music on sight. Several of his professors came forward, arguing that his ability to write counterpoint and harmony more than compensated, demonstrated his familiarity with music notation; the college was still afraid that it would cause a scandal, agreed to let Brubeck graduate only after he had promised never to teach piano. After graduating in 1942, Brubeck was drafted into the U. S. Army, he served in Europe in the Third Army. He volunteered to play piano at a Red Cross show and was such a hit that he was spared from combat service and ordered to form a band, he created one of the U. S. armed forces' first racially integrated bands, "The Wolfpack". While serving in the military, Brubeck met Paul Desmond in early 1944, he returned to college after serving nearly four years in the army, this time attending Mills College in Oakland. He studied under Darius Milhaud, who encouraged him to study fugue and orchestration, but not classical piano.
While on active duty, he received two lessons from Arnold Schoenberg at UCLA in an attempt to connect with high modernist theory and practice. However, the encounter did not end on good terms since Schoenberg believed that every note should be accounted for, an approach which Brubeck could not accept, although according to his son Chris Brubeck, there is a twelve-tone row in The Light in the Wilderness, Dave Brubeck's first oratorio. In it, Jesus's twelve disciples are introduced each singing their own individual notes. In 1949, Sheedy was talked into making the first recording of Brubeck's octet and his trio, but Sheedy was unable to pay his bills and in 1949 turned his masters over to his record stamping company, the Circle Record Company, owned by Max and Sol Weiss. The Weiss brothers soon changed the name of their business to Fantasy Records; these initial Brubeck records sold well, he recorded and issued new records for Fantasy. Soon the company was shipping 40,000 to 50,000 copies of Brubeck records each quarter, making enormous profits.
In 1951, Brubeck damaged several neck vertebrae and his spinal cord while diving into the surf in Hawaii. He would remark that the rescue workers who responded had described him as a "DOA". Brubeck recovered after a few months, but suffered with residual nerve pain in his hands for years after; the injury influenced his playing style towards complex, blocky chords rather than speedy, high-dexterity, single-note runs. Brubeck organized the Dave Brubeck Quartet with Paul Desmond on alto saxophone, they took up a long residency at San Francisco's Black Hawk nightclub and gained great popularity touring college campuses, recording a series of albums with such titles as Jazz at Oberlin, Jazz at the College of the Pacific, Brubeck's debut on Columbia Records, Jazz Goes to College. When Brubeck signed with Fantasy Records, he thought he had a half interest in the company and he worked as a sort of A & R man for the label, encouraging the We
Ghostfest was an extreme metal and hardcore punk festival in Leeds, England that first took place at The Cockpit across two days in August 2005, returning in 2006. It brought together the UK's underground metal and hardcore music, along with metal and hardcore bands from Europe and America. There was no Ghostfest in 2007, but it returned every year from 2008 until 2015 and became a household name in the European indoor metal and hardcore scene, growing to ten times its original capacity since its inception in 2005 and selling out nearly every year in advance until 2015; the first Ghostfest took place on Saturday 13 August and Sunday 14 August at the Leeds Cockpit on its smaller stage due to the main stage being unavailable. 18 of the underground metal and hardcore acts played. It was priced at £15 for a two-day pass; the whole festival was shot and released as a DVD. The second Ghostfest took place on Saturday 12 Sunday 13 August, it was once again on both stages. In a bid to let people see as many bands as possible without any potential clashes, stage times were alternated between the two stages so one band would play on the main stage while another would set up on the second stage.
A day ticket cost £19, whilst a weekend pass cost £25. Main Stage Second Stage *Pulled out The third Ghostfest took place on Saturday 28 June and Sunday 29 June and was this time held at Rios Leeds. A day ticket cost £20 and a weekend ticket cost £30; some bands pulled out of their slots, including Consort With Romeo, who were replaced by Clone The Fragile for their last show. Annotations Of An Autopsy were replaced by The Rotted. Tuborg Stage Jagermeister Stage *Pulled out Ghostfest 2009 took place on Saturday 27 June and Sunday 28 June and was again held at Rios Leeds; the ticket prices dropped to £ £ 25 for the weekend. Front Stage Monster Energy / Honour Over Glory Stage *Pulled out Ghostfest 2010 took place at Leeds University Union on 26 and 27 June. Monster Energy Stage Honour Over Glory Stage / Thirty Days Of Night Records Stage *Pulled out Ghostfest 2011 took place at Leeds University Union on 25 and 26 June. Monster Energy Stage Honour Over Glory Stage All Shall Perish pulled out due to problems with the release date of their album and were replaced by While She Sleeps.
Ghostfest 2012 took place at Leeds University Union on 30 June until 1 July and for the first time bands were spread across three stages. Impericon Stage Monster Stage Time Will Tell Stage Ghostfest 2013 took place at Leeds University Union on 29 June until 30 June. Impericon Stage Hype Stage Ghost Music Stage The Acacia Strain pulled out of their European tour and were replaced by a secret band, called Bar School 101, who revealed themselves to be Your Demise. Ghostfest 2014 was announced 18 March 2014 with secret headliners revealed 16 June 2014; the event took place at Leeds University Union on 28 June until 29 June across two stages. Impericon Stage Skull And Bones Boys Club Stage Close Your Eyes and Rotting Out pulled out of their European tours and were replaced by Breakdown Of Sanity and the 2004 lineup of Your Demise. Your Demise pulled out and were replaced by Pay No Respect. Breakdown Of Sanity were replaced by Demoraliser; the ten-year anniversary of Ghostfest took place on the 5 and 6 September 2015.
The festival was reduced to one lineup as the event took place at the Leeds University Union and the Bristol Motion across three stages. Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 The Eyes of a Traitor pulled out of their final shows and were replaced by Counting Days. Emmure pulled out of the Leeds Festival date which resulted in Broken Teeth playing on the main stage instead of the third stage
Trans-2-Phenyl-1-cyclohexanol is an organic compound. The two enantiomers of this compound are used in organic chemistry as chiral auxiliaries; the enantioselective synthesis was accomplished by J. K. Whitesell by adding Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase to racemic trans-2-phenylcyclohexyl chloroacetate; this enzyme is able to hydrolyze the ester bond of the -enantiomer but not the -enantiomer. The -cyclohexanol and the -ester are separated by fractional crystallization and the isolated -ester hydrolyzed to the -cyclohexanol in a separate step; the enantiomers have been prepared by the Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation of 1-phenylcyclohexene to the diol followed by the selective reduction of the 1-hydroxyl group by Raney nickel