United Press International
United Press International is an international news agency whose newswires, news film, audio services provided news material to thousands of newspapers, magazines and television stations for most of the 20th century. At its peak, it had more than 6,000 media subscribers. Since the first of several sales and staff cutbacks in 1982, the 1999 sale of its broadcast client list to its rival, the Associated Press, UPI has concentrated on smaller information-market niches. Formally named "United Press Associations" for incorporation and legal purposes, but publicly known and identified as United Press or UP, the news agency was created by the 1907 uniting of three smaller news syndicates by the Midwest newspaper publisher E. W. Scripps, it was headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955. At the time of his retirement, UP had 2,900 clients in the United States, 1,500 abroad. In 1958, it became United Press International after absorbing the International News Service in May; as either UP or UPI, the agency was among the largest newswire services in the world, competing domestically for about 90 years with the Associated Press and internationally with AP, Reuters and Agence France-Presse.
At its peak, UPI had more than 2,000 full-time employees. With the rising popularity of television news, the business of UPI began to decline as the circulation of afternoon newspapers, its chief client category, began to fall, its decline accelerated after the 1982 sale of UPI by the Scripps company. The E. W. Scripps Company controlled United Press until its absorption of William Randolph Hearst's smaller competing agency, INS, in 1958 to form UPI. With the Hearst Corporation as a minority partner, UPI continued under Scripps management until 1982. Since its sale in 1982, UPI has changed ownership several times and was twice in Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization. With each change in ownership came deeper service and staff cutbacks and changes of focus and a corresponding shrinkage of its traditional media customer base. Since the 1999 sale of its broadcast client list to its one-time major rival, the AP, UPI has concentrated on smaller information market niches, it no longer services media organizations in a major way.
In 2000, UPI was purchased by News World Communications, an international news media company founded in 1976 by Unification Church leader Sun Myung Moon. It now maintains a news website and photo service and electronically publishes several information product packages. Based on aggregation from other sources on the Web and gathered by a small editorial staff and stringers, UPI's daily content consists of a newsbrief summary service called "NewsTrack," which includes general, sports, science and entertainment reports, "Quirks in the News." It sells a premium service, which has deeper coverage and analysis of emerging threats, the security industry, energy resources. UPI's content is presented in text and photo formats, in English and Arabic. UPI's main office is in the Miami metropolitan area and it maintains office locations in five other countries and uses freelance journalists in other major cities. Beginning with the Cleveland Press, publisher E. W. Scripps created the first chain of newspapers in the United States.
Because the recently reorganized Associated Press refused to sell its services to several of his papers, most of them evening dailies in competition with existing AP franchise holders, in 1907 Scripps merged three smaller syndicates under his ownership or control, the Publishers Press Association, the Scripps-McRae Press Association, the Scripps News Association, to form United Press Associations, with headquarters in New York City. Scripps had been a subscriber to an earlier news agency named United Press, that existed in the late 1800s in cooperation with management of the original New York-based AP and in existential competition with two Chicago-based organizations using the AP name. Drawing lessons from the battles between the earlier United Press and the various AP's, Scripps required that there be no restrictions on who could buy news from his news service, he made the new UP service available to anyone, including his competitors. Scripps hoped to make a profit from selling that news to papers owned by others.
At that time and until World War II, most newspapers relied on news agencies for stories outside their immediate geographic areas. Despite strong newspaper industry opposition, UP started to sell news to the new and competitive radio medium in 1935, years before competitor AP, controlled by the newspaper industry, did likewise. Scripps' United Press was considered "a scrappy alternative" news source to the AP. UP reporters were called "Unipressers" and were noted for their fiercely aggressive and competitive streak. Another hallmark of the company's culture was little formal training of reporters, they were weaned on UP's famous and well-documented slogan of "Get it first, but FIRST, get it RIGHT." Despite controversy, UP became a common training ground for generations of journalists. Walter Cronkite, who started with United Press in Kansas City, gained fame for his coverage of World War II in Europe and turned down Edward R. Murrow's first offer of a CBS job to stay with UP, but who went on to anchor the CBS Evening News, once said, "I felt every Unipresser got up in the morning saying,'This is the day I'm going to be
The Detroit Pistons are an American professional basketball team based in Detroit, Michigan. The Pistons compete in the National Basketball Association as a member of the league's Eastern Conference Central Division and plays its home games at Little Caesars Arena; the team was founded in Fort Wayne, Indiana as the Fort Wayne Pistons in 1941, a member of the National Basketball League where it won two NBL championships: in 1944 and 1945. The Pistons joined the Basketball Association of America in 1948; the NBL and BAA merged to become the NBA in 1949, the Pistons became part of the merged league. Since moving to Detroit in 1957, the Pistons have won three NBA championships: in 1989, 1990 and 2004; the Detroit Pistons franchise was founded as the Fort Wayne Zollner Pistons, a National Basketball League team, in Fort Wayne, Indiana. Owner Fred Zollner's Zollner Corporation was a foundry that manufactured pistons for car and locomotive engines; the Zollner Pistons were NBL champions in 1944 and 1945.
They won the World Professional Basketball Tournament in 1944, 1945 and 1946. In 1948, the team became the Fort Wayne Pistons. In 1949, Fred Zollner brokered the formation of the National Basketball Association from the BAA and the NBL at his kitchen table. There are suggestions that Pistons players conspired with gamblers to shave points and throw various games during the 1953–54 and 1954–55 seasons. In particular, there are accusations that the team may have intentionally lost the 1955 NBA Finals to the Syracuse Nationals. In the decisive Game 7, the Pistons led 41–24 early in the second quarter before the Nationals rallied to win the game; the Nationals won on a free throw by George King with twelve seconds left in the game. The closing moments included a palming turnover by the Pistons' George Yardley with 18 seconds left, a foul by Frank Brian with 12 seconds left that enabled King's winning free throw, a turnover by the Pistons' Andy Phillip in the final seconds which cost them a chance to attempt the game winning shot.
Though the Pistons enjoyed a solid local following, Fort Wayne's small size made it difficult for them to be profitable as other early NBA teams based in smaller cities started folding or relocating to larger markets. After the 1956–57 season, Zollner decided that Fort Wayne was too small to support an NBA team and announced the team would be playing elsewhere in the coming season, he settled on Detroit. Although it was the fifth largest city in the United States at the time, Detroit had not seen professional basketball in a decade, they lost the Detroit Eagles due to World War II, both the Detroit Gems of the NBL and the Detroit Falcons of the BAA in 1947, the Detroit Vagabond Kings in 1949. Zollner decided to keep the Pistons name, believing it made sense given Detroit's status as the center of the automobile industry; the Pistons played in Olympia Stadium for their first four seasons moved to Cobo Arena. During the 1960s and 1970s, the Pistons were characterized by strong individuals and weak teams.
Some of the superstars who played for the team included Dave DeBusschere, Dave Bing, Bob Lanier. At one point, DeBusschere was the youngest player-coach in the history of the NBA. A trade during the 1968–69 season sent DeBusschere to the New York Knicks for Howard Komives and Walt Bellamy, both of whom were in the stages of their careers. DeBusschere became a key player in leading the Knicks to two NBA titles. In 1974, Zollner sold the team to glass magnate Bill Davidson, who remained the team's principal owner until his death in 2009. While the Pistons did qualify for the postseason in four straight seasons from 1974 to 1977, they never had any real sustained success. In 1978, Davidson became displeased with Cobo Arena, but opted not to follow the Red Wings to the under-construction Joe Louis Arena. Instead, he moved the team to the suburb of Pontiac, where they played in the 82,000 capacity Silverdome, a structure built for professional football; the Pistons stumbled their way out of the 1970s and into the 1980s, beginning with a 16–66 record in 1979–80 and following up with a 21–61 record in 1980–81.
The 1979–80 team lost its last 14 games of the season which, when coupled with the seven losses at the start of the 1980–81 season, comprised a then-NBA record losing streak of 21 games. The franchise's fortunes began to turn in 1981, when they drafted point guard Isiah Thomas from Indiana University. In November 1981, the Pistons acquired Vinnie Johnson in a trade with the Seattle SuperSonics, they would acquire center Bill Laimbeer in a trade with the Cleveland Cavaliers in February 1982. Another key move by the Pistons was the hiring of head coach Chuck Daly in 1983; the Pistons had a tough time moving up the NBA ladder. In 1984, the Pistons lost a tough five-game series to the underdog New York Knicks, 3–2. In the 1985 playoffs, Detroit won its first-round series and faced the defending champion Boston Celtics in the conference semifinals. Though Boston would prevail in six games, Detroit's surprise performance promised that a rivalry had begun. In the 1985 NBA draft, the team selected Joe Dumars 18th overall, a selection that would prove to be wise.
They acquired Rick Mahorn in a trade with the Washington Bullets. However, the team took a step backwards, losing in the first round of the 1986 playoffs to the more athletic Atlanta Hawks. After the series, changes were made in order to make the team more defensive-minded. Prior to the 1986–87 season, the Pistons acquired more key players: John Salley (
50 Greatest Players in NBA History
The 50 Greatest Players in National Basketball Association History were chosen in 1996 to honor the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the National Basketball Association. These fifty players were selected through a vote by a panel of media members, former players and coaches, current and former general managers. In addition, the top ten head coaches and top ten single-season teams in NBA history were selected by media members as part of the celebration; the fifty players had to have played at least a portion of their careers in the NBA and were selected irrespective of position played. The list was announced by NBA commissioner David Stern on October 29, 1996, at the hotel Grand Hyatt New York, the former site of the Commodore Hotel, where the original NBA charter was signed on June 6, 1946; the announcement marked the beginning of a season-long celebration of the league's anniversary. Forty-seven of the fifty players were assembled in Cleveland, during the halftime ceremony of the 1997 All-Star Game.
Three players were absent: Pete Maravich, who had died in 1988, at forty. At the time of the announcement, eleven players were active. O'Neal was the last to be active in the NBA; the list was made through unranked voting completed by fifty selected panelists. Sixteen of the panelists were former players voting in their roles as players, thirteen were members of the print and broadcast news media, twenty-one were team representatives: contemporary and former general managers, head coaches, executives. Of the last group, thirteen were former NBA players. Players were prohibited from voting for themselves. Only three voting veterans were not selected to the team. Eleven players were active in the 1996 -- 97 season. All have since retired. O'Neal was the last to be active in the NBA. All of the selected players have been inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. Lenny Wilkens was the only member of the players list to have been selected as a member of the coaches list. At the time of the list, only Pete Maravich was deceased.
Since Wilt Chamberlain, Dave DeBusschere, Paul Arizin, Hal Greer, George Mikan, Bill Sharman, Moses Malone, Dolph Schayes and Nate Thurmond have all died. Note: Statistics are correct through the end of the 2010–11 season, the last in which any player on the 50 Greatest list was active. Alongside the selection of the 50 greatest players, was the selection of the Top 10 Coaches in NBA History; the list was compiled based upon unranked selection undertaken by members of the print and broadcast media who cover the NBA. All 10 coaches named were alive at the time of the list's announcement, four of them—Phil Jackson, Don Nelson, Pat Riley, Lenny Wilkens—were active. Five have since died: Red Holzman in 1998, Red Auerbach in 2006, Chuck Daly in 2009, Jack Ramsay in 2014, John Kundla in 2017. Jackson was the last of the ten to coach in the NBA. Nelson was the only member to have never won a championship as a coach though he won five as a player. Wilkens was the only member of the coaches list to have been selected as a member of the players list.
All ten coaches are members of the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. Included in the NBA's 50th-anniversary celebration was the selection of the Top 10 Teams in NBA History; the list was compiled based upon unranked selection undertaken by members of the print and broadcast media who cover the NBA. Teams were chosen from among all single-season individual teams; each team won the NBA championship, they combined to average 66 wins per season. The 1995–96 Chicago Bulls had, at the moment, the best single-season record in NBA history with 72 wins. Six out of the thirty NBA franchises had a team named to the list. Six players were on the roster of two teams on the list—Wilt Chamberlain with the 1966–67 Sixers and 1971–72 Lakers. Three other individuals both played for and coached honored teams, all of whom completed this "double" with a single franchise—K. C. Jones with the Celtics as a player in 1964–65 and coach in 1985–86, Billy Cunningham with the Sixers as a player in 1966–67 and coach in 1982–83, Pat Riley with the Lakers as a player in 1971–72 and coach in 1986–87.
Phil Jackson, head coach of the Bulls from 1989 to 1998, was the only man to coach two teams that made the list. Although Jackson was under contract to the Knicks as a player in their 1969–70 championship season, he did not play that season as he was recovering from spinal fusion surgery. Players whose names are italicized were inducted after the announcement of the ten best teams; the Hall of Famers listed for each individual team are those inducted as players, do not include those inducted in other roles. ABA All-Time Team General Specific NBA.com: The 50 Greatest Players page NBA.com: Top 10 Coaches page NBA.com: Top 10 Teams page
1962 NBA draft
The 1962 NBA draft was the 16th annual draft of the National Basketball Association. The draft was held on March 1962, before the 1962 -- 63 season. In this draft, nine NBA teams took turns selecting amateur U. S. college basketball players. A player who had finished his four-year college eligibility was eligible for selection. If a player left college early, he would not be eligible for selection until his college class graduated. In each round, the teams selected in reverse order of their won–loss record in the previous season. Before the draft, a team could forfeit its first-round draft pick select any player from within a 50-mile radius of its home arena as their territorial pick; the Chicago Packers, who finished last in the previous season, were renamed the Chicago Zephyrs. The Philadelphia Warriors relocated to San Francisco and became the San Francisco Warriors prior to the start of the season; the draft consisted of 16 rounds. Dave DeBusschere and Jerry Lucas were selected before the draft as the'Detroit Pistons' and'Cincinnati Royals' territorial picks, respectively.
Bill McGill from the University of Utah was selected first overall by the Chicago Zephyrs. Terry Dischinger from Purdue University, who went on to win the Rookie of the Year Award in his first season, was selected eight overall by the Chicago Zephyrs. Four players from this draft, DeBusschere, seventh pick John Havlicek and twelfth pick Chet Walker, have been inducted to the Basketball Hall of Fame, they were named in the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History list announced at the league's 50th anniversary in 1996. Lucas opted to sign for the Cleveland Pipers of the American Basketball League. However, the Pipers folded before the start of the season and Lucas opted to sit out a year to complete his education, he entered the NBA and went on to win the Rookie of the Year Award in the 1963–64 season. Lucas' achievements include an NBA championship with the New York Knicks in 1973, 5 All-NBA Team selections and 7 All-Star Game selections. DeBusschere's achievements include 2 NBA championships with the Knicks in 1970 and 1973, 1 All-NBA Team selection, 8 All-Star Game selections and 6 All-Defensive Team selections.
In the 1964–65 season, he was named as a player-coach for the Pistons, becoming the youngest head coach in the NBA at the age of 24. He coached the Pistons for three years before returning to a full-time player, he had a brief professional baseball career with the Chicago White Sox. He played two seasons in the Major League Baseball in 1962 and 1963, another season in the minor-league before he gave up his dual-sport career to focus on basketball, he is one of only 12 athletes who have played in both NBA and MLB. Havlicek spent all of his 16-year playing career with the Boston Celtics, his achievements include 8 NBA championships with the Celtics, 1 Finals MVP, 11 All-NBA Team selection, 13 All-Star Game selections and 8 All-Defensive Team selections. Walker, the 12th pick, won the NBA championship with the Philadelphia 76ers in 1967 and was selected to 7 All-Star Games. Zelmo Beaty, the 3rd pick, played in both American Basketball Association, he was selected to 2 NBA All-Star Games, 3 ABA All-Star Games and 3 All-ABA Teams.
Dischinger and 4th pick Len Chappell are the only other players from this draft who have been selected to an All-Star Game. During his stint with the Detroit Pistons, Dischinger served as an interim player-coach for two games in 1971. Wayne Hightower, the 5th pick, had left college after his junior year in 1961, he wasn't eligible to be drafted until his college class had graduated, therefore he spent a year playing in the Spanish League with Real Madrid. In his only season there, he helped Real Madrid to a Spanish League title and to the European Champions Cup final. Reggie Harding, the 29th pick, became the first player drafted out of high school when the Detroit Pistons selected him in the fourth round. However, he did not enter the league until the 1963–64 season due to the rules that prevent a high school player to play in the league until one year after his high school class graduated, he was drafted again in the 1963 Draft by the Pistons with the 48th pick in the sixth round. Kevin Loughery, the 11th pick, had a stint as a player-coach with the Philadelphia 76ers in 1973.
At the end of the season, he moved to the ABA to coach the New York Nets. He won 2 ABA championships with the Nets in 1974 and 1976, he moved to the NBA with the Nets after the ABA–NBA merger. He coached 6 NBA teams, most with the Miami Heat. Don Nelson, the 17th pick, played 14 seasons in the NBA, winning 5 NBA championships with the Celtics, he became a head coach soon after retiring as a player in 1976. He coached 4 NBA teams, most with the Golden State Warriors, he held the record for most wins as a head coach, surpassing Lenny Wilkens' previous record of 1,332 wins. He won the Coach of the Year Award for a record three times, tied with Pat Riley, he was named among the Top 10 Coaches in NBA History announced at the league's 50th anniversary in 1996. The following list includes other draft picks. ^ 1: Reggie Harding played and graduated from Detroit Eastern High School in January but he played high school basketball in Nashville, prior to the draft. General Specific NBA.com NBA.com: NBA Draft History
New York Knicks
The New York Knickerbockers, more referred to as the Knicks, are an American professional basketball team based in the borough of Manhattan, in New York City. The Knicks compete in the National Basketball Association as a member of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference; the team plays its home games at Madison Square Garden, an arena they share with the New York Rangers of the National Hockey League. They are one of two NBA teams located in New York City. Alongside the Boston Celtics, the Knicks are one of two original NBA teams still located in its original city; the team, established by Ned Irish in 1946, was one of the founding members of the Basketball Association of America, which became the NBA after merging with the rival National Basketball League in 1949. The Knicks were successful during their early years and were constant playoff contenders under the franchise's first head coach Joe Lapchick. Beginning in 1950, the Knicks made three consecutive appearances in the NBA Finals, all of which were losing efforts.
Lapchick resigned in 1956 and the team subsequently began to falter. It was not until the late 1960s when Red Holzman became head coach that the Knicks began to regain their former dominance. Holzman guided the Knicks to two NBA championships, in 1970 and 1973; the Knicks of the 1980s had mixed success. The playoff-level Knicks of the 1990s were led by future Hall of Fame center Patrick Ewing. During this time, they were known for playing tough defense under head coaches Pat Riley and Jeff Van Gundy, making two appearances in the NBA Finals, in 1994 and 1999. However, they were unable to win an NBA championship during this era. Since 2000, the Knicks have struggled to regain their former glory, but won its first division title in 19 years in 2012–13, led by a core of forwards Carmelo Anthony and Amar'e Stoudemire, they were eliminated in the Eastern Conference semi-finals by the Indiana Pacers, have failed to make the playoffs since. In 1946, basketball college basketball, was a growing and profitable sport in New York City.
Hockey generated considerable profits. Max Kase, a New York sportswriter, became the sports editor at the Boston American in the 1930s, when he met Boston Garden owner Walter A. Brown. Kase developed the idea of an organized professional league to showcase college players upon their graduation and felt it could become profitable if properly assembled. Brown, intrigued by the opportunity to attain additional income when the hockey teams were not playing or on the road, contacted several arena owners. On June 6, 1946, Kase and Brown and a group of seventeen others assembled at the Commodore Hotel in New York City, as the Basketball Association of America, where charter franchises were granted to major cities throughout the country. Ned Irish, a college basketball promoter, retired sportswriter and president of Madison Square Garden, was in attendance. Kase planned to own and operate the New York franchise himself and approached Irish with a proposal to lease the Garden. Irish explained that the rules of the Arena Managers Association of America stated that Madison Square Garden was required to own any professional teams that played in the arena.
On the day of the meeting, Kase made his proposal to the panel of owners. Irish wanted a distinct name for his franchise, representative of the city of New York, he called together members of his staff for a meeting to cast their votes in a hat. After tallying the votes, the franchise was named the Knickerbockers; the "Knickerbocker" name comes from the pseudonym used by Washington Irving in his book A History of New York, a name that became applied to the descendants of the original Dutch settlers of what became New York, by extension, to New Yorkers in general. In search of a head coach, Irish approached successful St. John's University coach Joe Lapchick in May 1946. Lapchick accepted after Irish promised to make him the highest paid coach in the league. Irish obliged, hiring former Manhattan College coach Neil Cohalan as interim coach for the first year. With no college draft in the league's initial year, there was no guarantee that the Knicks or the league itself would thrive. Teams focused on signing college players from their respective cities as a way to promote the professional league.
The Knicks held their first training camp in the Catskill Mountains at the Nevele Country Club. Twenty-five players were invited to attend the three-week session. Players worked out twice a day and the chemistry between the New York natives was instant. With a roster assembled, the Knicks faced the Toronto Huskies at Toronto's Maple Leaf Gardens on November 1, 1946, in what would be the franchise's first game—as well as the first in league history. In a low-scoring affair presented in front of 7,090 spectators, the Knicks defeated the Huskies 68–66 with Leo Gottlieb leading the Knicks in scoring with 14 points. With Madison Square Garden's crowded schedule, the Knicks were forced to play many of their home games at the 69th Regiment Armory during the team's early years; the Knicks went on to finish their inaugural campaign with a 33–27 record and achieved a playoff berth under Cohalan despite a dismal shooting percentage of 28 perce
Earned run average
In baseball statistics, earned run average is the mean of earned runs given up by a pitcher per nine innings pitched. It is determined by dividing the number of earned runs allowed by the number of innings pitched and multiplying by nine. Runs resulting from defensive errors are recorded as unearned runs and omitted from ERA calculations. Henry Chadwick is credited with devising the statistic, which caught on as a measure of pitching effectiveness after relief pitching came into vogue in the 1900s. Prior to 1900—and, in fact, for many years afterward—pitchers were expected to pitch a complete game, their win-loss record was considered sufficient in determining their effectiveness. After pitchers like James Otis Crandall and Charley Hall made names for themselves as relief specialists, gauging a pitcher's effectiveness became more difficult using the traditional method of tabulating wins and losses; some criterion was needed to capture the apportionment of earned-run responsibility for a pitcher in games that saw contributions from other pitchers for the same team.
Since pitchers have primary responsibility for putting opposing batters out, they must assume responsibility when a batter they do not retire at the plate moves to base, reaches home, scoring a run. A pitcher is assessed an earned run for each run scored by a batter who reaches base while batting against that pitcher; the National League first tabulated official earned run average statistics in 1912, the American League accepted this standard and began compiling ERA statistics. Written baseball encyclopedias display ERAs for earlier years, but these were computed retroactively. Negro League pitchers are rated by RA, or total runs allowed, since the statistics available for Negro League games did not always distinguish between earned and unearned runs; as with batting average, the definition of a good ERA varies from year to year. During the dead-ball era of the 1900s and 1910s, an ERA below 2.00 was considered good. In the late 1920s and through the 1930s, when conditions of the game changed in a way that favored hitters, a good ERA was below 4.00.
In the 1960s, sub-2.00 ERAs returned, as other influences such as ballparks with different dimensions were introduced. Today, an ERA under 4.00 is again considered good. The all-time single-season record for the lowest ERA is held by Dutch Leonard, who in 1914 had an earned run average of 0.96, pitching 224.2 innings with a win-loss record of 19-5. The all-time record for the lowest single season earned run average by a pitcher pitching 300 or more innings is 1.12, set by Bob Gibson in 1968. The record for the lowest career earned run average is 1.82, held by Ed Walsh, who played from 1904 through 1917. Some researchers dissent from the official Major League Baseball record and claim that the pitcher with the all-time lowest earned run average is Tim Keefe, who had an earned run average of 0.86 in 1880 while appearing in 12 of his team's 83 games and pitching 105 innings. But a purported record based on so few innings pitched is misleading. Over the years, more than a dozen part-time pitchers have pitched 105 or more innings and had an earned run average lower than 0.86.
Major League Baseball recognizes many records from the 19th century—including Will White's 1879 record of 680 innings pitched, Charles Radbourne's 1884 record of 59 wins, Pud Galvin's 1883 record for 75 games started, but does not recognize Keefe as the pitcher having the all-time lowest single season earned run average. Some sources may list players with infinite ERAs; this can happen. Additionally, an undefined ERA occurs at the beginning of a baseball season, it is sometimes incorrectly displayed as zero or as the lowest ranking ERA though it is more akin to the highest. At times it can be misleading to judge relief pitchers on ERA, because they are charged only for runs scored by batters who reached base while batting against them. Thus, if a relief pitcher enters the game with his team leading by 1 run, with 2 outs and the bases loaded, gives up a single which scores 2 runs, he is not charged with those runs. If he retires the next batter, his ERA for that game will be 0.00 despite having surrendered the lead.
Starting pitchers operate under the same rules but are not called upon to start pitching with runners on base. In addition, relief pitchers know beforehand that they will only be pitching for a short while, allowing them to exert themselves more for each pitch, unlike starters who need to conserve their energy over the course of a game in case they are asked to pitch 7 or more innings; the reliever's freedom to use their maximum energy for a few innings, or for just a few batters, helps relievers keep their ERAs down. ERA, taken by itself, can be misleading when trying to objectively judge starting pitchers, though not to the extent seen with relief pitchers; the advent of the designated hitter rule in the American League in 1973 made the pitching environment different. Since pitchers spending all or most of their careers in the AL have been at a disadvantage in maintaining low ERAs, compared to National League pitchers who can get an easy
In baseball, a complete game is the act of a pitcher pitching an entire game without the benefit of a relief pitcher. A pitcher who meets this criterion will be credited with a complete game regardless of the number of innings played - pitchers who throw an entire official game, shortened by rain will still be credited with a complete game, while starting pitchers who are relieved in extra innings after throwing nine or more innings will not be credited with a complete game. A starting pitcher, replaced by a pinch hitter in the final half inning of a game will still be credited with a complete game; the frequency of complete games has evolved since the early days of baseball. The complete game was an expectation in the early 20th century and pitchers completed all of the games they started. In modern baseball, the feat is much more rare and no pitcher has reached 30 complete games in a season since 1975. In the early 20th century, it was common for most good Major League Baseball pitchers to pitch a complete game every start, barring injury or ejection.
Pitchers were expected to complete games. Over the course of the 20th century, complete games became less common, to the point where a good modern pitcher achieves only 1 or 2 complete games per season. To put this in perspective, as as the 1980s, 10–15 complete games a year by a star pitcher was not unheard of, in 1980, Oakland Athletics pitcher Rick Langford threw 22 consecutive complete games. Years earlier, Robin Roberts of the Philadelphia Phillies threw 28 consecutive complete games, spanning the 1952 and 1953 seasons; this change has been brought about by strict adherence to pitch counts as a basis for removing a pitcher though he may appear to be pitching well, new pitching philosophies in general. Many have come to believe that the risk of arm injuries becomes far more prevalent after a pitcher has thrown 100 to 120 pitches in a single game. Though Hall-of-Famer Nolan Ryan once threw well over 200 pitches in a single game, it is now rare for a manager to allow a pitcher to throw more than 120 pitches in a start.
Former pitcher Carl Erskine noted the increase in ex-pitchers on coaching staffs since the 1950s, whom he considered better evaluators of a pitchers' ability to pitch late into games. Given this, sabermetricians regard Cy Young's total of 749 complete games as the career baseball record that will never be broken. Further supporting the belief is that only three pitchers made at least 749 starts in their careers. James Shields threw 11 complete games in the 2011 season for the Tampa Bay Rays, becoming the first pitcher to reach double digits in a single season since CC Sabathia threw 10 complete games for the Cleveland Indians and Milwaukee Brewers in 2008; the last pitcher to throw as many as 15 complete games in a single season was Curt Schilling, who accomplished that feat for the Philadelphia Phillies in 1998. The last pitcher to throw 20 complete games in a single season was Fernando Valenzuela, who did so for the Los Angeles Dodgers in 1986; the last pitcher to throw 25 complete games in a season was Rick Langford, who had 28 for the Oakland Athletics in 1980.
The last pitcher to throw 30 complete games in a season was Catfish Hunter, who did so for the New York Yankees in 1975. Cy Young – 749 Pud Galvin – 646 Tim Keefe – 554 Walter Johnson – 531 Kid Nichols – 531 Bobby Mathews – 525 Mickey Welch – 525 Charley Radbourn – 489 John Clarkson – 485 Tony Mullane – 468 Jim McCormick – 466 Gus Weyhing – 448 Grover Cleveland Alexander – 437 Christy Mathewson – 434 Jack Powell – 422 Eddie Plank – 410 Will White – 394 Amos Rusie – 392 Vic Willis – 388 Tommy Bond – 386All pitchers above are right-handed, except for Eddie Plank. All played most or all of their careers before the start of the modern live-ball era of baseball, which began during the 1920 season and was established in 1921. Among pitchers whose entire careers were in the live-ball era, the all-time leader in complete games is Warren Spahn, whose total of 382 places him 21st all-time. Through August 27, 2018, the top 10 active players who lead MLB in career complete games were: Will White – 75 Charley Radbourn – 73 Pud Galvin – 72 Guy Hecker – 72 Jim McCormick – 72 Pud Galvin – 71 John Clarkson –68 John Clarkson – 68 Tim Keefe – 68 Bill Hutchinson – 67 Jim Devlin – 66 Matt Kilroy – 66 Matt Kilroy –66 Charley Radbourn – 66 Toad Ramsey – 66 Pud Galvin – 65 Bill Hutchinson – 65 Jim McCormick –65 Silver King – 64 Tony Mullane – 64 Mickey Welch – 64 Will White – 64 - All pitchers right-handed except Matt Kilroy and Toad Ramsey.
The record for complete games in a live-ball season is 33, set at the dawn of the era by Grover Cleveland Alexander in 1920 and Burleigh Grimes in 1923, by Dizzy Trout in 1944, when baseball's player pool was diluted due to World War II. Jack Taylor completed 187 consecutive games he started between 1901 and 1906. Leon Cadore and Joe Oeschger share the record for the longest complete game, achieved when they pitched against each other in a 26-inning marathon that ended in a 1–1 tie on May 1, 1920. Baseball Prospectus Team of Experts. Baseball Between the Numbers: Is Wrong. New York, New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00547-5. Retrieved March 5, 2011. List