Cardinal Beaton (play)
Cardinal Beaton. It was not received well; this dramatic poem few have read, of that few not half of the number would care to remember it. The subject itself is a noble one, the character of the cardinal, that "less than a king, yet greater," was amply fitted to develop the highest of poetic talent. But, the poet, instead of exhibiting this bold bad man with the lofty regal and intellectual qualities which he undoubtedly possessed, has stuck to the sordid and sensual vices with which Beaton was chargeable, has thus converted him into a mere vulgar incubus. In fact, he has made him talk, not in the elevated language of one to whom high designs, by which Europe itself was to be shaken, were familiar, but rather after the fashion of the vulgar sensualist, who, in the phrase of Knox, "was busie at his compts with Mistris Marion Ogilbie." This was not a picture suited to the improved tastes of the day, therefore the public would none of "Cardinal Beaton."Tennant wrote another unsuccessful play after this, retired from stagewriting: "The public now wondered, well it might, that the rich promise given in "Anster Fair" had been so poorly redeemed.
What had become of that ungovernable wit that had burst its bounds, overflowed in such profusion? A single stanza of Rob the Ranter was worth fifty Beatons to boot. For Tennant’s character as a poet, his retirement from the stage was calm and graceful."David Macbeth Moir in Sketches of the Poetical Literature of the Past Half-Century described Beaton as "ineffective as a drama, but abounding in passages of high merit and interest"
University of Glasgow
The University of Glasgow is a public research university in Glasgow, Scotland. Founded by papal bull in 1451, it is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities. Along with the universities of Edinburgh, St. Andrews, the university was part of the Scottish Enlightenment during the 18th century. In common with universities of the pre-modern era, Glasgow educated students from wealthy backgrounds, however, it became a pioneer in British higher education in the 19th century by providing for the needs of students from the growing urban and commercial middle class. Glasgow University served all of these students by preparing them for professions: the law, civil service and the church, it trained smaller but growing numbers for careers in science and engineering. The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £626.5 million of which £180.8 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £610.1 million. It is a member of Universitas 21, the Russell Group and the Guild of European Research-Intensive Universities.
The university was located in the city's High Street. Additionally, a number of university buildings are located elsewhere, such as the Veterinary School in Bearsden, the Crichton Campus in Dumfries. Alumni or former staff of the university include James Wilson, philosopher Francis Hutcheson, engineer James Watt and economist Adam Smith, physicist Lord Kelvin, surgeon Joseph Lister, seven Nobel laureates, three British Prime Ministers; the University of Glasgow was founded in 1451 by a charter or papal bull from Pope Nicholas V, at the suggestion of King James II, giving Bishop William Turnbull, a graduate of the University of St Andrews, permission to add a university to the city's Cathedral. It is the second-oldest university in Scotland after St Andrews and the fourth-oldest in the English-speaking world; the universities of St Andrews and Aberdeen were ecclesiastical foundations, while Edinburgh was a civic foundation. As one of the ancient universities of the United Kingdom, Glasgow is one of only eight institutions to award undergraduate master's degrees in certain disciplines.
The university has been without its original Bull since the mid-sixteenth century. In 1560, during the political unrest accompanying the Scottish Reformation, the chancellor, Archbishop James Beaton, a supporter of the Marian cause, fled to France, he took with him, for safe-keeping, many of the archives and valuables of the Cathedral and the university, including the Mace and the Bull. Although the Mace was sent back in 1590, the archives were not. Principal Dr James Fall told the Parliamentary Commissioners of Visitation on 28 August 1690, that he had seen the Bull at the Scots College in Paris, together with the many charters granted to the university by the monarchs of Scotland from James II to Mary, Queen of Scots; the university enquired of these documents in 1738, but was informed by Thomas Innes and the superiors of the Scots College that the original records of the foundation of the university were not to be found. If they had not been lost by this time, they went astray during the French Revolution when the Scots College was under threat.
Its records and valuables were moved for safe-keeping out of the city of Paris. The Bull remains the authority. Teaching at the university began in the chapterhouse of Glasgow Cathedral, subsequently moving to nearby Rottenrow, in a building known as the "Auld Pedagogy"; the university was given 13 acres of land belonging to the Black Friars on High Street by Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1563. By the late 17th century its building centred on two courtyards surrounded by walled gardens, with a clock tower, one of the notable features of Glasgow's skyline – reaching 140 feet in height – and a chapel adapted from the church of the former Dominican friary. Remnants of this Scottish Renaissance building parts of the main facade, were transferred to the Gilmorehill campus and renamed as the "Pearce Lodge", after Sir William Pearce, the shipbuilding magnate who funded its preservation; the Lion and Unicorn Staircase was transferred from the old college site and is now attached to the Main Building. John Anderson, while professor of natural philosophy at the university, with some opposition from his colleagues, pioneered vocational education for working men and women during the Industrial Revolution.
To continue this work in his will, he founded Anderson's College, associated with the university before merging with other institutions to become the University of Strathclyde in 1964. In 1973, Delphine Parrott became its first female professor, as Gardiner Professor of Immunology. In October 2014, the university court voted for the university to become the first academic institution in Europe to divest from the fossil fuel industry; the university is spread over a number of different campuses. The main one is the Gilmorehill campus, in Hillhead; as well as this there is the Garscube Estate in Bearsden, housing the Veterinary School, Ship model basin and much of the University's sports facilities, the Dental School in the city centre, the section of Mental Health and Well Being at Gartnavel Royal Hospital on Great Western Road, the Teaching and Learning Centre at the Queen Elizabeth University Hospital and the Crichton campus in Dumfries. The Imaging Ce
Leith is an area to the north of the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, at the mouth of the Water of Leith. The earliest surviving historical references are in the royal charter authorising the construction of Holyrood Abbey in 1128; the medieval settlements of Leith had grown into a burgh by 1833, the burgh was merged into Edinburgh in 1920. Part of the county of Midlothian, Leith is sited on the coast of the Firth of Forth and lies within the council area of the City of Edinburgh; the port remains one of its most valuable enterprises, handling over 1.5 million tonnes of cargo in 2003. Previous to the bridge being built in the late 15th century, Leith had settlements on either side of the river, lacking an easy crossing. South Leith was larger and was controlled by the lairds of Restalrig: the Logan family, it had many merchants' houses and warehouses. This was where ships offloaded their cargoes at The Shore where they were collected by Edinburgh merchants. Leithers were explicitly forbidden by statute to participate directly in the trade at the port, to ensure that landed goods were not sold elsewhere.
North Leith was proportionately richer, coming under the jurisdiction of Holyrood Abbey. It was a fishing village consisting of one street, now Sandport Street and Quayside Lane. Burgage plots ran down to the river from each house; this has traditionally been the shipbuilding side of Leith with several wet and dry docks built over time. The first dry dock in Scotland was built here in 1720. A small peninsula of land on the east bank came under the same jurisdiction on what is now Sheriff Brae/Sheriff Bank; the first bridge to link both banks of the river was built in 1493 by Abbot Bellenden, who controlled the church at North Leith. The bridge was the revenue supplementing the church's income. Reputedly Leith's oldest building, it was demolished in 1780 to allow ships to sail further upstream; the earliest evidence of settlement in Leith comes from several archaeological digs undertaken in the Shore area in the late 20th century. Amongst the finds were medieval wharf edges from the 12th century.
This date fits with the earliest documentary evidence of settlement in Leith - the foundation charter of Holyrood Abbey. Leith has played a prominent role in Scottish history; as the major port serving Edinburgh, it has been the stage on which many significant events in Scottish history have taken place. Mary of Guise ruled Scotland from Leith in 1560 as Regent while her daughter, Queen of Scots remained in France. Mary of Guise moved the Scottish Court to Leith, to a site, now Parliament Street, off Coalhill. According to the 18th-century historian William Maitland, her palace was situated on Rotten Row, now Water Street. Artifacts from the demolished residence are held by the National Museum of Scotland, her sculptured coat of arms, dated 1560, can be seen in South Leith Parish Church; when the large French garrison stationed in Leith was attacked by Scottish Protestant lords, reinforced by troops and artillery sent from England, Mary of Guise was forced to shut herself in Edinburgh Castle.
In June 1560, Mary of Guise died, the Siege of Leith ended with the departure of the French troops in accordance with the Treaty of Leith known as the Treaty of Edinburgh. Two mounds on Leith Links, known as "Giant's Brae" and "Lady Fyfe's Brae", identified as Somerset's Battery and Pelham's Battery are believed to be artillery mounds created for the siege in April 1560 and are listed as scheduled monuments. Stuart Harris was of the opinion, based on the contemporary Petworth map, that Pelham's Battery was built on the slope to the south of Leith Links and Somerset's Battery was located adjacent to the present Pilrig House, he notes that the "tradition" that these batteries were situated on Leith Links is spurious, going no further back than Campbell's "History of Leith" 1827. Lent authority by the Ordnance Survey map of 1852, this attribution saved the mounds when several other hillocks on the links were removed in the 1880s; the best documented day of the siege was 7 May 1560, when the English and Scots charged the walls of Leith with ladders that turned out to be too short.
John Knox records the delight of Mary of Guise at the failure of the attack, English sources report 1000 casualties. Late in 1561, Queen of Scots, arrived in Leith and, finding no welcoming party to receive her, made a brief stop at the "house of Andro Lamb... beit the space of ane hour", before being collected and escorted by coach to Holyrood Palace, to begin her ill-fated six-year-long reign. The Protestant reformer, John Knox, explained the lack of preparation thus. A century Leith was a prospective battleground when the Army of the Covenant, led by General David Leslie, threw up an earthen rampart between Calton Hill and Leith to defend the northern approach to Edinburgh against Oliver Cromwell's forces; this rampart became the line of one of Edinburgh's longest streets, Leith Walk. After Cromwell's victory at the Battle of Dunbar in 1650 and subsequent occupation of Scotland, a fort known as Leith Citadel was erected in 1656
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Francis I of France
Francis I was King of France from 1515 until his death in 1547. He was the son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, Louise of Savoy, he succeeded his father-in-law Louis XII, who died without a son. Francis was the ninth king from the House of Valois, the second from the Valois-Orléans branch, the first from the Valois-Orléans-Angoulême branch. A prodigious patron of the arts, he initiated the French Renaissance by attracting many Italian artists to work on the Château de Chambord, including Leonardo da Vinci, who brought the Mona Lisa with him, which Francis had acquired. Francis' reign saw important cultural changes with the rise of absolute monarchy in France, the spread of humanism and Protestantism, the beginning of French exploration of the New World. Jacques Cartier and others claimed lands in the Americas for France and paved the way for the expansion of the first French colonial empire. For his role in the development and promotion of a standardized French language, he became known as le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres.
He was known as François du Grand Nez, the Grand Colas, the Roi-Chevalier for his personal involvement in the wars against his great rival the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V. Following the policy of his predecessors, Francis continued the Italian Wars; the succession of Charles V to the Burgundian Netherlands, the throne of Spain, his subsequent election as Holy Roman Emperor, meant that France was geographically encircled by the Habsburg monarchy. In his struggle against Imperial hegemony, he sought the support of Henry VIII of England at the Field of the Cloth of Gold; when this was unsuccessful, he formed a Franco-Ottoman alliance with the Muslim sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, a controversial move for a Christian king at the time. Francis d'Orléans was born on 12 September 1494 at the Château de Cognac in the town of Cognac, which at that time lay in the province of Saintonge, a part of the Duchy of Aquitaine. Today the town lies in the department of Charente. Francis was the only son of Charles d'Orléans, Count of Angoulême, Louise of Savoy and a great-great-grandson of King Charles V of France.
His family was not expected to inherit the throne, as his third cousin King Charles VIII was still young at the time of his birth, as was his father's cousin the Duke of Orléans King Louis XII. However, Charles VIII died childless in 1498 and was succeeded by Louis XII, who himself had no male heir; the Salic Law prevailed in France, thus females were ineligible to inherit the throne. Therefore, the four-year-old Francis became the heir presumptive to the throne of France in 1498 and was vested with the title of Duke of Valois. In 1505, Louis XII, having fallen ill, ordered that his daughter Claude and Francis be married but only through an assembly of nobles were the two engaged. Claude was heiress to the Duchy of Brittany through Anne of Brittany. Following Anne's death, the marriage took place on 18 May 1514. On 1 January 1515, Louis died, Francis inherited the throne, he was crowned King of France in the Cathedral of Reims on 25 January 1515, with Claude as his queen consort. As Francis was receiving his education, ideas emerging from the Italian Renaissance were influential in France.
Some of his tutors, such as François Desmoulins de Rochefort and Christophe de Longueil, were attracted by these new ways of thinking and attempted to influence Francis. His academic education had been in arithmetic, grammar, reading and writing and he became proficient in Hebrew, Italian and Spanish. Francis came to learn chivalry and music and he loved archery, horseback riding, jousting, real tennis and wrestling, he ended up reading philosophy and theology and he was fascinated with art, literature and science. His mother, who had a high admiration for Italian Renaissance art, passed this interest on to her son. Although Francis did not receive a humanist education, he was more influenced by humanism than any previous French king. By the time he ascended the throne in 1515, the Renaissance had arrived in France, Francis became an enthusiastic patron of the arts. At the time of his accession, the royal palaces of France were ornamented with only a scattering of great paintings, not a single sculpture, either ancient or modern.
During Francis' reign, the magnificent art collection of the French kings, which can still be seen at the Louvre Palace, was begun. Francis patronized many great artists of his time, including Leonardo da Vinci. While da Vinci painted little during his years in France, he brought with him many of his greatest works, including the Mona Lisa, these remained in France after his death. Other major artists to receive Francis' patronage included the goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini and the painters Rosso Fiorentino, Giulio Romano, Primaticcio, all of whom were employed in decorating Francis' various palaces, he invited the noted architect Sebastiano Serlio, who enjoyed a fruitful late career in France. Francis commissioned a number of agents in Italy to procure notable works of art and ship them to France. Francis was renowned as a man of letters; when Francis comes up in a conversation among characters in Baldassare Castiglione's Book of the Courtie
Madeleine of Valois
Magdalene of Valois or Madeleine of Valois was a French princess who became Queen of Scotland as the first spouse of King James V. The marriage was arranged as a condition of the Treaty of Rouen, James was to be betrothed to another bride, but he preferred Madeleine, they married, but her health, poor since birth and she died six months after the wedding, giving her the moniker the "Summer Queen" of Scots. Madeleine was born at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the fifth child and third daughter of King Francis I of France and Claude, Duchess of Brittany. Frail from birth, she grew up in the warm and temperate Loire Valley region of France, rather than at Paris, as her father feared that the cold would destroy her delicate health. Together with her sister Margaret, she was raised by Marguerite de Navarre; this lasted until her father remarried and his new wife, Eleanor of Austria, took them into her own household. By her sixteenth birthday, she had contracted tuberculosis. Three years before Madeleine's birth, the Franco-Scottish Treaty of Rouen was made to bolster the Auld Alliance after Scotland's defeat at the Battle of Flodden.
A marriage to a French Princess for the Scottish King was one of its provisions. In April 1530, John Stewart, Duke of Albany, was appointed commissioner to finalise the royal marriage between James V and Madeleine. However, as Madeleine did not enjoy good health, another French bride, Mary of Bourbon, was proposed. Mary of Bourbon would be given a dowry. James V contracted to marry Mary of Bourbon, travelled to France in 1536 to meet her, but smitten with the delicate Madeleine, asked Francis I for her hand in marriage. Citing her illness and the harsh climate of Scotland, which he feared would prove fatal to his daughter's failing health, Francis I refused to permit the marriage. James V continued to press Francis I for Madeleine's hand, despite his reservations and nagging fears, Francis I reluctantly granted permission to the marriage when Madeleine made her interest in marrying James obvious; the pair married on 1 January 1537 at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. Francis I provided Madeleine with a generous dowry, which boosted the Scottish treasury.
According to the marriage contract made at Blois, Madeleine renounced her and any of her heirs' claims to the French throne. If James died first, Madeleine would retain for her lifetime assets including the Earldoms of Fife, Strathearn and Orkney with Falkland Palace, Stirling Castle, Dingwall Castle, with the Lordship of Galloway and Threave Castle. After months of festivities and celebrations, the couple left France for Scotland in May 1537. By this time, Madeleine's health had deteriorated further, she was sick when the royal pair landed in Scotland, they arrived at Leith at 10 o'clock on 19 May. According to John Lesley the ships were laden with her possessions. A detailed list of wedding presents from Francis I survives; some of her French courtiers came too and are included among the eleven named members of her household. Madeleine wrote to her father from Edinburgh on 8 June 1537 saying that she was better and her symptoms had diminished. However, a month on 7 July 1537, the so-called "Summer Queen" of Scots, died in her husband's arms at Edinburgh, Scotland.
Queen Madeleine was interred in the Royal Chapel Holyrood Abbey in Edinburgh, next to King James II of Scotland. The grave was desecrated by a mob in 1776 and her still beautiful head was stolen. Madeleine's marriage and death was commemorated by the poet David Lyndsay's Deploration of Deith of Quene Magdalene, the poem describes the pageantry of the marriage in France and Scotland. Of all citeis principall! Quhilk did Solempnitlie, throw arkis triumphall. * * * * * *Thou mycht have sene the preparatiounMaid be the Thre Estaitis of ScotlandIn everilk ciete, castell and town* * * * * *Thow saw makand rycht costlie scaffaldingDepaynted weill with gold and asure fyne* * * * * *Disagysit folkis, lyke creaturis devyne,On ilk scaffold to play ane syndrie storieBot all in greiting turnit thow that glorie. Less than a year after her death, her husband married the widowed Mary of Guise, who had attended his wedding to Madeleine. Twenty years listed amongst the treasures in Edinburgh Castle were two little gold cups, an agate basin, a jasper vase, crystal jug given to Madeleine when she was a child in France
Dairsie, or Osnaburgh, is a village and parish in north-east Fife, Scotland. It is 3 miles south-southwest of Leuchars Junction, 3 miles east-northeast of Cupar on the A91 Stirling to St Andrews road; the village grew out of two smaller settlements, developed principally around the industry of weaving. Since the late twentieth century it has become a dormitory settlement for nearby towns; the village may have derived its name of Osnaburgh from weaving osnaburg, a coarse linen or cotton imported from Osnabrück in Germany. The civil parish has a population of 387. Dairsie Bridge, 1 mile south of the village, dates from the early sixteenth century, although it has been modified since. Nearby Dairsie Castle dates from the early seventeenth century, was the residence of John Spottiswoode, Archbishop of St Andrews. King James VI stayed at Dairsie Castle following his escape from the Raid of Ruthven in June 1583. St Mary's Church was built by Archbishop Spottiswoode in 1621; the church is some distance from the village and ceased to be used for worship in 1966.
It is now in private hands, the parish worshippers use the former St Leonard's Church in the village. The congregation is united with St John's Church in Cupar. Local businesses include a small Village Shop and Post Office, a Petrol Station and Garage and The Dairise Inn trading as Rumbledethumps Restaurant, it has a small locals bar, a conservatory restaurant and a small function room / additional restaurant. In 2014 a hoard of Roman hacksilver was found in a field at Dairsie, it is thought that the hacksilver was used by Roman soldiers to pay off the local Pictish tribes when they travelled through the area. Entry at Fife Place-name Data