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David Bowie

David Robert Jones, known professionally as David Bowie, was an English singer-songwriter and actor. He was a leading figure in the music industry and is considered one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century, acclaimed by critics and musicians for his innovative work during the 1970s, his career was marked by reinvention and visual presentation, with his music and stagecraft having a significant impact on popular music. During his lifetime, his record sales, estimated at over 100 million records worldwide, made him one of the world's best-selling music artists. In the UK, he was awarded ten platinum album certifications, eleven gold and eight silver, released eleven number-one albums. In the US, he received nine gold certifications, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996. Born in Brixton, South London, Bowie developed an interest in music as a child studying art and design before embarking on a professional career as a musician in 1963. "Space Oddity" became his first top-five entry on the UK Singles Chart after its release in July 1969.

After a period of experimentation, he re-emerged in 1972 during the glam rock era with his flamboyant and androgynous alter ego Ziggy Stardust. The character was spearheaded by the success of his single "Starman" and album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars, which won him widespread popularity. In 1975, Bowie's style shifted radically towards a sound he characterised as "plastic soul" alienating many of his UK devotees but garnering him his first major US crossover success with the number-one single "Fame" and the album Young Americans. In 1976, Bowie starred in the cult film The Man Who Fell to Earth, directed by Nicolas Roeg, released Station to Station; the following year, he further confounded musical expectations with the electronic-inflected album Low, the first of three collaborations with Brian Eno that came to be known as the "Berlin Trilogy". "Heroes" and Lodger followed. After uneven commercial success in the late 1970s, Bowie had UK number ones with the 1980 single "Ashes to Ashes", its parent album Scary Monsters, "Under Pressure", a 1981 collaboration with Queen.

He reached his commercial peak in 1983 with Let's Dance. Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, Bowie continued to experiment with musical styles, including industrial and jungle, he continued acting. He stopped touring after 2004 and his last live performance was at a charity event in 2006. In 2013, Bowie returned from a decade-long recording hiatus with The Next Day, he remained musically active until he died of liver cancer at his home in New York City, two days after his 69th birthday and the release of his final album, Blackstar. Bowie was born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947 in London, his mother, Margaret Mary "Peggy", was born at Shorncliffe Army Camp near Kent. Her paternal grandparents were Irish immigrants, she worked as a waitress at a cinema in Royal Tunbridge Wells. His father, Haywood Stenton "John" Jones, was from Doncaster and worked as a promotions officer for the children's charity Barnardo's; the family lived at 40 Stansfield Road, on the boundary between Brixton and Stockwell in the south London borough of Lambeth.

Bowie attended Stockwell Infants School until he was six years old, acquiring a reputation as a gifted and single-minded child—and a defiant brawler. In 1953, Bowie moved with his family to Bromley. Two years he started attending Burnt Ash Junior School, his voice was considered "adequate" by the school choir, he demonstrated above-average abilities in playing the recorder. At the age of nine, his dancing during the newly-introduced music and movement classes was strikingly imaginative: teachers called his interpretations "vividly artistic" and his poise "astonishing" for a child; the same year, his interest in music was further stimulated when his father brought home a collection of American 45s by artists including the Teenagers, the Platters, Fats Domino, Elvis Presley, Little Richard. Upon listening to Little Richard's song "Tutti Frutti", Bowie would say that he had "heard God". Bowie was first impressed with Presley when he saw his cousin dance to "Hound Dog". By the end of the following year, Bowie had taken up the ukulele and tea-chest bass, begun to participate in skiffle sessions with friends, had started to play the piano.

Like someone from another planet". After taking his eleven-plus exam at the conclusion of his Burnt Ash Junior education, Bowie went to Bromley Technical High School, it was an unusual technical school, as biographer Christopher Sandford wrote: Despite its status it was, by the time David arrived in 1958, as rich in arcane ritual as any public school. There were houses named after eighteenth-century statesmen like Wilberforce. There was a uniform, an elaborate system of rewards and punishments. There was an accent on languages and design, where a collegiate atmosphere flourished under the tutorshi

Pelléas et Mélisande (Herbert von Karajan recording)

Pelléas et Mélisande is a 162-minute studio album of Claude Debussy's opera, performed by Christine Barbaux, José van Dam, Nadine Denize, Ruggero Raimondi, Frederica von Stade, Richard Stilwell and Pascal Thomas with the Chorus of the German Opera Berlin and the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra under the direction of Herbert von Karajan. It was released in 1979; the album was recorded using analogue technology in December 1978 in Berlin. Lionel Salter reviewed the album on LP in Gramophone in December 1979, comparing it with an earlier recording of the opera conducted by Pierre Boulez. Frederica von Stade, he wrote, "well conveys Mélisande's wide-eyed innocence and simplicity by her purity of voice and lightness of tone, makes credible the transition from the startled gazelle of the opening to the awakening woman of Act 4". Richard Stilwell was well cast as a keen, likeable Pelléas, rhapsodic in his two brief erotic climaxes, his bariton-martin negotiated Pelléas's tricky tessitura without any signs of strain.

As Golaud, José van Dam gave a "distinguished" performance convincing in the Prince's inability to understand Mélisande, his chilling passive aggression and his paroxysms of murderous fury. Christine Barbaux was an "effective and unaffectedly childlike" en travesti Yniold, there was no cause for complaint either about Nadine Denize's Geneviève; the only soloist, disappointing was Ruggero Raimondi. It was not his fault that his Arkel sounded too much like Pascal Thomas's physician in their scene at Mélisande's death bed, but he should have defined the King's character more and he should have been more conscientious in observing Debussy's meticulously crafted speech rhythms. Conducting a "uniquely subtle score" in which "understatement customary", Herbert von Karajan presented an interpretation, "decidedly unorthodox" to the point of blatantly defying some of the dynamics that Debussy had stipulated, his Pelléas "seethes with barely-suppressed tensions which erupt in passionate outbursts: again and again the orchestra boils over in an ecstasy which can scarcely be contained by the sound engineers".

Karajan's reading was powerfully atmospheric and "often ravishing, with a rich, glowing warmth", but his handling of his orchestra threw a veil over some of the score's finer details. The album's audio quality too had both weaknesses. On the one hand, the changes of acoustic in the scenes set in a grotto and in the castle's vaults were managed adroitly. On the other, Pelléas was sometimes too loud, Geneviève's letter reading was too quiet and a few of Mélisande's words and the cries of the off-stage sailors were audible at all. In sum, the album provided "a characteristic Karajan performance committed and full of beautiful if contentious things". Whether it was better or worse than Boulez's cooler, clearer version depended upon where one believed the truth of Debussy's opera to lie. James Goodfriend reviewed the album on LP in Stereo Review in March 1980. Frederica von Stade, he wrote, as the "mystery-surrounded Mélisande, is not only innocent and evasive, when the time comes, despondent, welcoming of death... tragic rather than pathetic".

Richard Stilwell's Pelléas was eager despite his fear, José van Dam's Golaud genuine and traumatized, Ruggero Raimondi's Arkel embracing and aptly Debussyan, Christine Barbaux's Yniold excellent, Nadine Denize's Geneviève euphonious and Pascal Thomas's shepherd and physician satisfactory. The Berlin Philharmonic supplied a "voluptuous sonic cushion" with none of the nasal string sound that a French orchestra would have produced; the salient features of Herbert von Karajan's interpretation were its "meticulous attention to changing sonorities" and its muscularity as a piece of music drama. An opera represented as though it were a dream was instead made into a story of "real characters with real emotions", "a bigger, more varied music" than anyone had discovered in the score before. EMI's production team had favoured strings over woodwinds and voices but not culpably so, had achieved an audio quality commendable for "its clarity, its warmth and beauty of sound and its exceedingly wide dynamic range".

The album, in short, was "splendid". J. B. Steane reviewed the album on LP in Gramophone in April 1980. Frederica von Stade, he wrote, "so girl-like, unoperatic in tone, gives an infinitely touching performance"; the recording's male singers did not give him quite as much pleasure, not because they were guilty of doing anything wrong but because their voices were too alike to allow Debussy to deploy the full range of colours on his palette. The orchestra played with "great beauty" and the production was first rate, but the album's supreme excellence lay in "the inspiration of Karajan's intellect and sensitivity, seen here at the service of finding out the heart of the music". From the first bar of the opera to its last, Karajan had achieved an "extraordinary dreamlike concentration" in which the listener was engaged in the emotional life of believable men and women. Never before, Steane thought, had Pelléas et Mélisande moved him so either on disc or in the theatre, he had no doubt that the album would endure as "one of the classics of the gramophone".

Hilary Finch reviewed the album on CD in Gramophone in February 1988. "Frederica von Stade's Mélisande", she wrote, "is without doubt the central performance: there is the sense of animal instinct, the raw nerve endings, the simplicity... And there is, above all, her sensitivity to the changes of register". José van Dam's Golaud managed to elicit compassion despite being altogether the man "fait au fer e

421 Zähringia

Zähringia, provisional designation 1896 CZ, is a stony asteroid from the intermediate asteroid belt 14 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 7 September 1896, by astronomer Max Wolf at Heidelberg Observatory in Germany; the asteroid was named for the House of Zähringen, an medieval noble family that ruled parts of Swabia and Switzerland. Lightcurve plot of 421 Zahringia, Palmer Divide Observatory, B. D. Warner Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Observatoire de Genève, Raoul Behrend Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 421 Zähringia at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 421 Zähringia at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters