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David Brewster

Sir David Brewster KH PRSE FRS FSA FSSA MICE was a Scottish scientist, inventor and academic administrator. In science he is principally remembered for his experimental work in physical optics concerned with the study of the polarization of light and including the discovery of Brewster's angle, he studied the birefringence of crystals under compression and discovered photoelasticity, thereby creating the field of optical mineralogy. For this work, William Whewell dubbed him the "father of modern experimental optics" and "the Johannes Kepler of optics."A pioneer in photography, Brewster invented an improved stereoscope, which he called "lenticular stereoscope" and which became the first portable 3D-viewing device. He invented the binocular camera, two types of polarimeters, the polyzonal lens, the lighthouse illuminator, the kaleidoscope. Brewster was a Presbyterian and walked arm in arm with his brother on the Disruption procession which formed the Free Church of Scotland; as a historian of science, Brewster focused on the work of his hero, Isaac Newton.

Brewster published a detailed biography of Newton in 1831 and became the first scientific historian to examine many of the papers in Newton's Nachlass. Brewster wrote numerous works of popular science, was one of the founders of the British Science Association, of which he was elected President in 1849, he became the public face of higher education in Scotland, serving as Principal of the University of St Andrews and of the University of Edinburgh. Brewster edited the 18-volume Edinburgh Encyclopædia. David Brewster was born in the Canongate in Jedburgh, Roxburghshire, to Margaret Key and James Brewster, the rector of Jedburgh Grammar School and a teacher of high reputation. David was the third of six children, two daughters and four sons: James, minister at Craig, Ferryden. At the age of 12, David was sent to the University of Edinburgh, being intended for the clergy, he was licensed a minister of the Church of Scotland, preached around Edinburgh on several occasions. He had shown a strong inclination for natural science, this had been fostered by his intimacy with a "self-taught philosopher and mathematician", as Sir Walter Scott called him, of great local fame, James Veitch of Inchbonny, a man, skilful in making telescopes.

He is buried in the grounds of Melrose Abbey in the Scottish Borders. Though Brewster duly finished his theological studies and was licensed to preach, his other interests distracted him from the duties of his profession. In 1799 fellow-student Henry Brougham persuaded him to study the diffraction of light; the results of his investigations were communicated from time to time in papers to the Philosophical Transactions of London and other scientific journals. The fact that other scientists – notably Étienne-Louis Malus and Augustin Fresnel – were pursuing the same investigations contemporaneously in France does not invalidate Brewster's claim to independent discovery though in one or two cases the priority must be assigned to others. A lesser-known classmate of his, Thomas Dick went on to become a popular astronomical writer; the most important subjects of his inquiries can be enumerated under the following five headings: The laws of light polarization by reflection and refraction, other quantitative laws of phenomena.

In this line of investigation, the prime importance belongs to the discovery of the connection between the refractive index and the polarizing angle. These discoveries were promptly recognised; as early as 1807 the degree of LL. D. was conferred upon Brewster by Aberdeen. In 1821, he was made a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, in 1822 a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Among the non-scientific public, his fame spread more effectually by his invention in about 1815 of the kaleidoscope, for which there was a great demand in both the United Kingdom and the United States; as a reflection of this fame, Brewster portrait was printed in some cigar boxes. Brewster chose renowned achromatic lens developer Philip Carpenter as the sole manufacturer of the kaleidoscope in 1817. Although Brewster patented the kaleidoscope in 1817, a copy of the prototype was shown to London opticians and copied before the patent was granted; as a consequence, the kaleidoscope became produced in large numbers, but yielded no direct financial benefits to Brewster.

It proved to be a massive success with two hundred thousand kaleidoscopes sold in London and Paris in just three months. An instrument of more significance, the stereoscope, which – though of much date – along with the kaleidoscope did more than anything else to popularise his name, was not as has been asserted the invention of Brewster. Sir Charles

Yahoo! Time Capsule

The Yahoo! Time Capsule, a brainchild of Jonathan Harris, is a time capsule project by Yahoo! Inc. where users could contribute to a digital legacy of how life was in 2006. The Time Capsule was intended to be beamed with a laser into space from a Mexican pyramid in an attempt to communicate with extraterrestrial life. Open to contributions from October 10, 2006 to November 8, 2006, the Time Capsule hoped to capture the thoughts and feelings of the world in 2006 as an exercise in electronic or "digital anthropology". At the time of the closing of the capsule, the total number of submissions was 170,857; the highest number of contributions came from the 20–29 age group. Although slated to be produced at the Pyramid of the Sun in Teotihuacan, Mexican authorities denied Yahoo! Permission fearing damage to the ancient historical site. Instead the 2006 Yahoo! Time Capsule culminated in a celebrated production on the Jemez Pueblo in New Mexico; the 18-hour live event spanned the evenings of October 25, 26 and 27th, featured the projection of giant digital images of Time Capsule submissions onto an ancient red rock cliff on the reservation.

Each night opened with traditional dancing and music by the people of Jemez Pueblo, set in front of the immense projections and lighting that could be seen for miles through the desert. Recordings of international folk music provided by Smithsonian Folkways Recordings accompanied the live global webcast; the Time Capsule event was designed and produced by environmental media artist Marc Herring, of Herring Media Group, Inc. and featured the projection and display engineering services of Quince Imaging, Inc. The Time Capsule closed on November 8, 2006, after which the digital collection of submissions was entrusted to Smithsonian Folkways Recordings based in Washington D. C. where it remained until Yahoo!'s 25th birthday in 2020. It is thought that the capsule represents one of the largest compilations of digital media of its kind in the world. In addition to being able to contribute text, audio and videos, visitors could browse included entries, comment on them, or forward them. In return for submitting content to the Time Capsule, Yahoo! asked users to vote for one among a list of seven charities which received a portion of $100,000 from Yahoo! based upon the ratio of votes received by contributors.

The charities were the World Wildlife Fund, the International Rescue Committee, the Grameen Foundation, UNICEF,, Seeds of Peace, the International Child Art Foundation. In February 2020, media commentators suggested that following Yahoo! Inc's decline as a company since 2006, there was some prospect that the Time Capsule would not be reopened in March 2020. On March 2, 2020, during an all company meeting; the Time Capsule was reopened. Crypt of Civilization Westinghouse Time Capsules International Time Capsule Society Reflections on the Time Capsule - Jonathan Harris Herring Media Group

Peterborough Musicfest

The Peterborough Summer Festival of Lights renamed Peterborough Musicfest, is a non-profit, charitable organization in Peterborough, Canada, which hosts a series of free outdoor concerts. In 2015, Peterborough Musicfest was recognized as Event in Ontario; the concerts are held at Del Crary Park, located in the downtown on George Street, adjacent to Little Lake. Founded in 1986 by Fred Anderson, these concerts were followed by a choreographed illuminated boat show and a fireworks display. Beginning in 2005, the festival chose to forgo the aging boat show in favour of hiring more well-known performers and improving the fireworks display. In 2009, the fireworks were sacrificed due to cuts to the festival's budget; the festival board is proposing a name change to "Little Lake MusicFest" by 2010. Board members want the new name to focus on the music, seeing as the lights are no longer part of the festival; the festival was rebranded as "Peterborough Musicfest". Serena Ryder Kiefer Sutherland I Mother Earth Gowan Hey Rosetta!

The Box The Spoons Platinum Blonde High Valley Buffy Sainte-Marie Tegan and Sara Tebey Sloan Hanson Colin James 54 40 Carly Rae Jepsen Monkeyjunk The Proclaimers Tom Cochrane & Red Rider April Wine I Mother Earth Kalan Porter Gordon Lightfoot Natalie MacMaster Arrogant Worms Lighthouse Cowboy Junkies Beatlemania Blue Rodeo Wide Mouth Mason Emerson Drive John McDermott The Trews Davy Jones Thousand Foot Krutch The Stampeders The Spades Tommy Hunter The Leahys Glass Tiger Sweet Lights Official website Quid Novis - Peterborough Festival of Lights

Wathena (YTB-825)

Wathena was a United States Navy Natick-class large harbor tug named for Wathena, Kansas. The contract for Wathena was awarded 9 August 1971, she was laid down on 4 April 1973 at Marinette, Wisconsin, by Marinette Marine and launched 6 September 1973. Placed in service soon thereafter at Norfolk, Virginia, in the 5th Naval District, Wathena provided assistance and towing services there until 1997. Stricken from the Navy List 28 October 1997, Wathena was sold by the General Services Administration 17 May 2000. Renamed Patrick McAllister, ex-Wathena is in commercial service; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here; this article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U. S. government publication, is in the public domain. The entry can be found here. Photo gallery of Wathena at NavSource Naval History Patrick McAllister

2014 Women's European Water Polo Championship

The 2014 Women's European Water Polo Championship was held from 16 to 26 July 2014 in Budapest, Hungary. Spain won their first title by defeating the Netherlands 10-5 in the final. Hungary captured the bronze medal after a 10–9 win over Italy. There were eight teams in the 2014 championships, they qualified as follows: The host nation The best three teams from the 2012 European Championships not qualified as the host nation Four qualifiers The structure of the championships is that there were two groups of four teams followed by a knockout phase. The first teams in each group automatically qualified to compete for the semis, the second & third teams played a crossed match to qualify for the semis too; the last teams in each group played a classification playoff for 7th–8th place. The draw was held on 9 March 2014; the schedule was announced on 10 May 2014. All times are CEST. All times are CEST. All times are CEST. All times are CEST. All times are CEST. All times are CEST. All times are CEST. All times are CEST.

Most Valuable Player Maica García Best Goalkeeper Giulia Gorlero Top Scorer Rita Keszthelyi — 19 goals Official website

Ban the Box

Ban the Box is the name of an American campaign by civil rights groups and advocates for ex-offenders, aimed at removing the check box that asks if applicants have a criminal record from hiring applications. Its purpose is to enable ex-offenders to display their qualifications in the hiring process before being asked about their criminal records; the premise of the campaign is that anything that makes it harder for ex-offenders to find a job makes it likelier that they will re-offend, bad for society. The campaign began in Hawaii in the late 1990s, has gained strength in other U. S. states following the 2007–2009 recession. Its advocates say it is necessary because a growing number of Americans have criminal records due to tougher sentencing laws for drug crimes, are having difficulty finding work because of high unemployment and a rise in background checks that followed the September 11 terror attacks on the United States; as of 2016, 25 states, including the District of Columbia, 150 cities have in place legislation that "bans the box" for government job applications and in some cases those of their private contractors.

Many such ordinances exempt applications for "sensitive" positions, such as those involving work with children. Target Corporation "banned the box" in October 2013. In the United Kingdom, corporate social responsibility advocacy charity Business in the Community launched a "ban the box" campaign in October 2013; the campaign has been criticized by U. S. industry group the National Retail Federation for exposing companies, their customers and employees to potential crime, by the New Jersey Chamber of Commerce, which says it could expose employers to lawsuits from unsuccessful applicants. Ban the box can put businesses in a difficult position where they can face a lawsuit for not hiring a former prisoner, but might face a negligent hiring lawsuit if they hire an ex-prisoner who goes on to reoffend at the job. In addition, some businesses smaller ones, feel that ban the box forces them to waste time and money interviewing candidates they will not hire. If a company ends up not hiring a person after doing a background check late in the process, they may have lost qualified applicants without criminal records, who have lost interest in the job or have found another job.

Some people have argued that ban the box laws cause former criminals to waste their own time interviewing for jobs they will never get, rather than applying for jobs that are more to hire ex-cons. In June 2016, a large experimental study was published by Amanda Agan and Sonja Starr on the racial gap in callback rates of employers to job applicants of different racial backgrounds in New Jersey and New York City before and after Ban the Box laws went into effect. Agan and Starr sent out 15,000 fictitious online job applications to companies in those areas with racially stereotypical names on the job applications. Prior to the implementation of Ban the Box laws in New Jersey and New York City, the gap in the callback rate between the job applications with stereotypically black names and stereotypically white names was 7 percent. After the implementation of Ban the Box laws, the racial gap in the callback rate increased to 45 percent. A July 2016 study by Jennifer L. Doleac and Benjamin Hansen found that in jurisdictions where Ban the Box laws have been implemented, the probabilities of young, non-college educated and Hispanic males being employed have declined.

An October 2006 study with a similar finding published by Harry J. Holzer, Steven Raphael, Michael A. Stoll found that employers who made routine criminal background checks for all job applicants, regardless of their racial backgrounds, hired black applicants at a higher rate than those employers that did not make routine criminal background checks for all applicants. A 2017 study reported by The Quarterly Journal of Economics found that before the Ban The Box was implemented, whites received 7% more employer callbacks than blacks. After the BTB was implemented, the gap rose to 43%, concluding that blacks were negatively affected by the BTB. A 2019 study in Economic Inquiry found that BTB raised "the probability of public employment for those with convictions by about 30% on average" without any adverse effects for young low-skilled minority males; the terms Ban the Box and Fair Chance Act are used interchangeably. In 2014, the San Francisco Board of Supervisors unanimously passed the Fair Chance Ordinance, authored by Supervisors Jane Kim and Malia Cohen.

October 27, 2015, NYC enacted the Fair Chance Law. In 2016, Austin became the first city in the south to ban the box, led by Gregorio Casar. In March 2018, Washington Governor Jay Inslee signed the Washington Fair Chance Act into law. In August 2017, Seattle additionally adopted a "Fair Chance Housing Ordinance", which prohibits landlords from considering the criminal history of a renter except for some sex crimes; the "Ban the Box" movement requires employers to eliminate the question on a job application that asks about an applicant's criminal history and attempts to reduce an employers' accessibility to criminal records until on in the application process. The goal of this initiative is to decrease discrimination against applicants who may have a criminal history. Hawaii was the first state to implement the law in 1998. In 2015, President Obama "banned the box" on applications for federal government jobs. Many private employers, including Wal-Mart and Koch Industries, decided to initiate the policy before it was required to do so due to public pressure.

As of 2018, 11 US states have mandated the removal of conviction history questions from job applications for private employers. Restrictions that Ban the Box imposes on employers in regards to criminal