New Calton Burial Ground
New Calton Burial Ground was built as an overspill and functional replacement to Old Calton Burial Ground and lies half a mile to its east on Regent Road in Edinburgh, Scotland, on the south-east slopes of Calton Hill. On its southern edge it attaches to the north-east edge of the Canongate in the Old Town, it lies on a steep south-facing slope with views to Holyrood Palace, the Scottish Parliament Building and Arthur’s Seat. Of particular note is the Stevenson family plot, the resting place of several notable members of the family of Robert Louis Stevenson, it was necessitated by the construction of Waterloo Place, which had cut through the Old Calton Burial Ground, requiring an immediate re-interment of the bodies affected. This major engineering exercise took from 1817 to 1820 to complete. Bodies were identified and moved, with their corresponding gravestone, if existing, to the new cemetery. Due to this unusual circumstance a number of stones predate the cemetery but are indeed true markers of those interred.
The new cemetery was made far larger than needed for the required reburials, indeed exceeds the area of the entire space occupied by Old Calton Burial Ground as it was seen as a convenient and more open way of accommodating the growing number of dead caused by Edinburgh’s major expansion of the early 19th century. Both the Old and New Calton burial grounds are not private cemeteries but were burial grounds run by the city, detached from any church or requirement for any given religious belief; the design task of driving the cut through Old Calton Burial Ground to create Regent Bridge and Waterloo Place was undertaken by Archibald Elliot who died shortly thereafter and is buried in New Calton Burial Ground. The New Calton Burial Ground was laid out by Thomas Bonnar and the design was refined and completed by Thomas Brown; the first recorded interment is noted on a vault on the north wall, relates to John Fyfe who died on 27 February 1817 and was buried in the newly constructed vault of his father, Andrew Fyfe midway along the north wall.
It was "opened to the public" in 1820. The period prior to this would have included the long process of reburying up to 300 persons, it would not be appropriate to have visited during this period. The task of laying out the new burial ground is believed to have been undertaken by Thomas Brown, Superintendent of Works for the city at that time; the older stones all lie on the north-most edge of the cemetery. In some cases entire vaults are rebuilt; the layout is rectilinear, is laid out in a series of east-west terraces stepping down the hill. A watch-tower was built near the entrance, to protect against graverobbing; the tower was occupied as a house from the mid 19th century until around 1955. Despite being tiny it is said to have accommodated a family of ten at one time: parents sleeping on the central floor, daughters on the top floor, sons on the lower floor. Adjacent empty plots were utilised as garden ground to grow vegetables; the remnant rhubarb patch was still extant until the mid1980s. The story that David Bryce lived here is unlikely to be true given his status and is more a confusion to his being buried here.
While the ground is well maintained in terms of grass-cutting, many stones are broken or vandalised plus many have been laid flat "for safety reasons" by the local authority. Rev George Husband Baird principal of Edinburgh University Dr James Begbie Rear Admiral James Bisset James Boyd Dr John Brown author David Bryce, architect Alexander Bryson scientist Sir Alexander Christison Robert Christison toxicologist Croall family plot Prof L. B. C. Cunningham FRSE physicist inventor of the Gyro gunsight used in the Spitfire William Dick renowned vet and founder of the "Dick Vet" College in Edinburgh Archibald Elliot, architect William Fowler Vice Admiral Alexander Frazer Vice Admiral Thomas Frazer Andrew Fyfe chemist Dr John Gairdner physician Admiral John Graham Very Rev John Inglis Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland and his son, John Inglis, Lord Glencorse politician and judge James Ivory, Lord Ivory judge William Knox Abraham Lincoln’s favourite poet David Laing bookseller and librarian William MacGillivray naturalist Alexander Kincaid Mackenzie Lord Provost of Edinburgh 1817 to 1819 John McLeod Sir William Miller, Lord Glenlee John Moir David Ness Simon Taylor Ogilvie Commander in the Royal Navy Admiral David Peat - memorial only, buried in Markinch Robert Pitcairn General Roger Hale Sheaffe Andrew Skene FRSE Solicitor General for Scotland in 1834 Rear Admiral Andrew Smith Alan Stevenson, lighthouse engineer Robert Stevenson father to Alan and Thomas Thomas Stevenson’ lighthouse engineer Rev Dr Charles Richard Teape Chaplain to the Bishop of Edinburgh Rt Rev Charles Terrot, Bishop of Edinburgh John Thin Other graves of note include: The Commonwealth War Grave to five merchant navy seamen "known unto God" whose bodies were recovered from the sea following an attack on t
Scottish baronial architecture
Scottish Baronial is an architectural style that developed during the 16th and 17th century and was revived in the 19th century. The style of the first period, the original Scottish Baronial style, was limited to small castles and tower houses in Scotland and Ulster, it introduced Renaissance elements to buildings that preserved many of the features of the Scottish medieval castles and tower houses. The style of the second period, the Scottish Baronial Revival, was considered a British national idiom and was used for public buildings, country houses and follies throughout the British Empire. European architecture of the 19th century was dominated by revivals of various historic styles; this current took off in the middle of the 18th century with the Gothic Revival in Britain. The Scottish Baronial Revival is associated with the Gothic Revival because it includes so many medieval features. However, it originated as a vernacular variety of Scottish Renaissance architecture; the Scottish Baronial Style is called Scotch Baronial, Scots Baronial or just Baronial Style.
The name was invented in the 19th century and may come from Robert William Billings's book "Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Scotland", published in 1852. Before, the style does not seem to have had a name; the buildings produced by the Scottish Baronial Revival by far outnumber those of the original Scottish Baronial Style. The original and the revival styles are discussed separately below; the original Scottish Baronial Style was part of the Scottish Renaissance. It developed in the 16th century and was abandoned by about 1660; the style kept many of the features of the high-rising medieval Gothic castles and introduced Renaissance features. The high and thin-walled medieval fortifications had been made obsolete by gunpowder weapons but were associated with chivalry and landed nobility. High roofs and turrets were kept for status reasons. Renaissance elements were introduced; this concerned the windows that became bigger, had straight lintels or round bows and lacked mullions. The style drew on peel towers, retaining many of their external features.
French Renaissance kept the steep roofs of medieval castles as can be seen for example at Azay-le-Rideau, the original Scottish Baronial style might have been influenced by French masons brought to Scotland to work on royal palaces. The style was quite limited in scope: a style for lesser Scottish landlords; the walls are rubble work and only quoins, window dressings and copings are in ashlar. Sculpted ornaments are sparsely used. In most cases the windows lack pediments; the style uses corbelled turrets sometimes called tourelles, bartizans or pepperpot turrets. The corbels supporting the turret are roll-moulded, their roofs were conical. Gables are crow-stepped. Round towers supporting square garret chambers corbelled out over the cylinder of their main bodies are particular the Scottish Baronial style, they can be seen at Claypotts, Colliston, Auchans and Fiddes. Such castles or tower houses are built on asymmetric plans; this is a Z-plan as at Claypotts Castle, or on an L-plan as at Colliston.
Roof lines are irregular. The original Scottish Baronial Style coexisted in Scotland with northern Renaissance architecture, preferred by the wealthier clients. William Wallace's work at the North Range of Linlithgow Palace and at Heriot's Hospital are examples of a contemporaneous Scottish Renaissance architecture; the Baronial style as well as the Scottish Renaissance style gave way to the grander English forms associated with Inigo Jones in the part of the seventeenth century. The Gothic Revival in architecture has been seen as an expression of romanticism and according to Alvin Jackson, the Scots Baronial Style was "a Caledonian reading of the gothic"; some of the earliest evidence of a revival in Gothic architecture is from Scotland. Inveraray Castle, built starting from 1746 with design input from William Adam, incorporates turrets; these were conventional Palladian style houses that incorporated some external features of the Scots baronial style. William Adam's houses in this style include Mellerstain and Wedderburn in Berwickshire and Seton House in East Lothian, but it is most seen at Culzean Castle, remodelled by William Adam from 1777.
Large windows of plate glass are not uncommon. Bay windows have their individual roofs adorned by pinnacles and crenulations. Porches and porte-cocheres, are given the castle treatment. An imitation portcullis on the larger houses would be suspended above a front door, flanked by heraldic beasts and other medieval architectural motifs. Important for the adoption of the style in the early nineteenth century was Abbotsford House, the residence of the novelist and poet Sir Walter Scott. Rebuilt for him from 1816, it became a model for the Scottish Baronial Revival style. Common features borrowed from 16th- and 17th-century houses included battlemented gateways, crow-stepped gables, spiral stairs, pointed turrets and machicolations. Orchardton Castle near Auchencairn, Scotland is a superb example dating from the 1880s. Important for the dissemination of the style was Robert Billings' four-volume work Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Scotland, it was applied to many modest dwellings by architects such as William Burn, David Bryce, Edward Blore, Edward Calvert and Robert Stodart Lorimer and in urban contexts, including the building of Cockburn Street in Edinburgh as well as the National Wallace Monument at Stirling (1
William Burn was a Scottish architect. A talented architect, he received major commissions from the age of 20 until his death at 81, he was a pioneer of the Scottish Baronial Revival. Burn was born on Rose Street in the son of architect Robert Burn, he was educated at the Royal High School. After training with the architect Sir Robert Smirke, designer of the British Museum, he returned to Edinburgh in 1812. Here he established a practice from the family builders' yard. In 1841, he took on a pupil, David Bryce, with whom he went into partnership. From 1844 he worked in London. In 1827 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, unusual for an architect, his proposer being James Skene, he resigned in 1845 following his move to London. In the 1830s he was working at 131 George Street in the New Town. Burn was a master of many styles, but all are typified by well-proportioned simplicity externally and frequent stunning interiors, he was a pioneer of the Scottish baronial Revival with Helen's Tower, Castlewellan Castle, Balintore Castle.
He died at 6 Stratton Street in Piccadilly, London and is buried in Kensal Green Cemetery just on the edge of the path to the north-west of the Anglican Chapel. William Burn had many pupils: John Honeyman David Bryce John Lessels George Meikle Kemp Thomas Brown James Campbell Walker William Eden Nesfield David MacGibbonDavid Bryce went on to perfect the Scottish Baronial Revival style of architecture. Burn was a prolific architect and happy to turn his hand to a variety of styles, he designed churches, public buildings, country houses and other structures in Scotland but in England and Ireland. His works include among others: Ardanaiseig House, near Kilchrenan, Argyll Balintore Castle, Angus Scottish Baronial The Binns, remodelled for the Dalyell family Gothic Blairquhan Castle, South Ayrshire Gothic Blantyre Monument, Erskine Camperdown House, Dundee Greek Revival Carstairs House, South Lanarkshire Gothic Corstorphine Old Parish Church - considered too radical and returned to its medieval orientation in 1905 The Duke of Gordon's Monument, Moray Dundas Castle, near Edinburgh Gothic Dunira, Perthshire demolished Dupplin Castle demolished The Edinburgh Academy George Watson's College Gallanach House, near Oban, Argyll Garscube House, Dunbartonshire Inverness Castle, Inverness Gothic John Watson's Hospital now the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh Neoclassic Keir Parish Church, Keirmill Village, Dumfriesshire Lauriston Castle, Scotland, Jacobean Murray Royal Lunatic Asylum, Perth North Leith Parish Church, Madeira Street, Leith Neoclassical Church of St John the Evangelist, Edinburgh Gothic The Melville Monument in the centre of St Andrew Square, Edinburgh New Abbey Church, Fife Madras College, St Andrews Jacobean Adderstone Hall, near Lucker, Northumberland Georgian Grecian Cliveden, Buckinghamshire Harlaxton Manor, Lincolnshire Lynford Hall, Norfolk Jacobean Montagu House, London, French Renaissance, demolished Prestwold Hall, Leicestershire Classical Revesby Abbey, Elizabethan-Jacobean Rauceby Hall, South Rauceby, Lincolnshire Bangor Castle, County Down, Northern Ireland Elizabethan-Jacobean Castlewellan Castle, County Down, Northern Ireland Scottish Baronial Dartrey Castle, near Rockcorry in County Monaghan Elizabethan-Jacobean, demolished Helen's Tower, Clandeboye Estate near Bangor Scottish Baronial Muckross House, County Kerry Tudor Walker, David: William Burn and the influence of Sir Robert Smirke and William Wilkins on Scottish Greek Revival Design, 1810-40 in Scottish Pioneers of the Greek Revival, The Scottish Georgian Society, Edinburgh, pp 3–35 Gazetteer for Scotland- William Burn "Archival material relating to William Burn".
UK National Archives
The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture. In the Italianate style, the models and architectural vocabulary of 16th-century Italian Renaissance architecture, which had served as inspiration for both Palladianism and Neoclassicism, were synthesised with picturesque aesthetics; the style of architecture, thus created, though characterised as "Neo-Renaissance", was of its own time. "The backward look transforms its object," Siegfried Giedion wrote of historicist architectural styles. The Italianate style was first developed in Britain in about 1802 by John Nash, with the construction of Cronkhill in Shropshire; this small country house is accepted to be the first Italianate villa in England, from, derived the Italianate architecture of the late Regency and early Victorian eras. The Italianate style was further developed and popularised by the architect Sir Charles Barry in the 1830s. Barry's Italianate style drew for its motifs on the buildings of the Italian Renaissance, though sometimes at odds with Nash's semi-rustic Italianate villas.
The style was not confined to England and was employed in varying forms, long after its decline in popularity in Britain, throughout Northern Europe and the British Empire. From the late 1840s to 1890 it achieved huge popularity in the United States, where it was promoted by the architect Alexander Jackson Davis. Key visual components of this style include: In interior decoration there were direct parallels to "Italianate" architecture with free re-combinations of decorative features drawn from Italian 16th-century architecture and objects, which were applied to purely 19th century forms. Wardrobes and dressers could be dressed in Italianate detailing as well as row houses; the spur to such commercial designs can be found in the "free Renaissance" style, espoused by Charles Eastlake. In 1868 he published Hints on Household Taste in Furniture and other Details, influential in Britain and in the United States, where the book was published in 1872. Although the archaeology of Mr. Eastlake's volume was always careful, most of the principles in it are beyond question, can be stated in a few words.
The Italianate style would have no carving or molding or other ornament glued on—such work must be done in the solid. The furniture that he thus proposed has straight, squarely cut members equal to their intention, its ornament is painted panels, porcelain plaques and tiles, metal trimmings, conventionalized carvings in sunk relief, a part of the construction entering into the ornament in the shape of narrow striated strips of wood radiating in opposite lines, after a fashion not altogether unknown in the time of Henry III. It has the solidity, but not the attraction, of the Medieval. Today "Italianate" furnishings are called "Eastlake" by American collectors and dealers, but contemporary terms ranged imaginatively, included "Neo-Grec". A late intimation of Nash's development of the Italianate style was his 1805 design of Sandridge Park at Stoke Gabriel in Devon. Commissioned by the dowager Lady Ashburton as a country retreat, this small country house shows the transition between the picturesque of William Gilpin and Nash's yet to be evolved Italianism.
While this house can still be described as Regency, its informal asymmetrical plan together with its loggias and balconies of both stone and wrought iron. Examples of the Italianate style in England tend to take the form of Palladian-style building enhanced by a belvedere tower complete with Renaissance-type balustrading at the roof level; this is a more stylistic interpretation of what architects and patrons imagined to be the case in Italy, utilises more the Italian Renaissance motifs than those earlier examples of the Italianate style by Nash. Sir Charles Barry, most notable for his works on the Tudor and Gothic styles at the Houses of Parliament in London, was a great promoter of the style. Unlike Nash he found his inspiration in Italy itself. Barry drew on the designs of the original Renaissance villas of Rome, the Lazio and the Veneto or as he put it: "...the charming character of the irregular villas of Italy." His most defining work in this style was the large Neo-Renaissance mansion Cliveden.
Although it has been claimed that one third of early Victorian country houses in England used classical styles Italianate, by 1855 the style was falling from favour and Cliveden came to be regarded as "a declining essay in a declining fashion."Anthony Salvin designed in the Italianate style in Wales, at Hafod House and Penoyre House, described by Mark Girouard as "Salvin's most ambitious classical house."Thomas Cubitt, a London building contractor, incorporated simple classical lines of the Italianate style as defined by Sir Char
Royal High School, Edinburgh
For the A-listed building on Calton Hill, see Old Royal High School, Edinburgh. The Royal High School of Edinburgh is a co-educational school administered by the City of Edinburgh Council; the school is one of the oldest schools in Scotland. It serves 1,200 pupils drawn from four feeder primaries in the north-west of the city: Blackhall, Clermiston and Davidson's Mains; the school's profile has given it a flagship role in education, piloting such experiments as the introduction of the Certificate of Secondary Education, the provision of setting in English and mathematics, the curricular integration of European Studies and the International Baccalaureate. The Royal High School was last inspected by HMIE in April 2007; the rector is Pauline Walker who replaced the first woman to head the school. The Royal High School is, by one reckoning, the 18th-oldest school in the world, with a history of 900 years. Historians associate its birth with the flowering of the 12th century renaissance, it first enters the historical record as the seminary of Holyrood Abbey, founded for Alwin and the Augustinian canons by David I in 1128.
The Grammar School of the Church of Edinburgh, as it was known by the time Adam de Camis was rector in 1378, grew into a church-run burgh institution providing a Latin education for the sons of landed and burgess families, many of whom pursued careers in the church. In 1505 the school was described as a "high school", the first recorded use of this term in either Scotland or England. In 1566, following the Reformation, Queen of Scots, transferred the school from the control of Holyrood Abbey to the Town Council of Edinburgh, from about 1590 James VI accorded it royal patronage as the Schola Regia Edimburgensis, or King's School of Edinburgh. In 1584 the Town Council informed the rector, Hercules Rollock, that his aim should be "to instruct the youth in pietie, guid maneris and letteris"; as far as possible, instruction was carried out in Latin. The study of Greek began in 1614, geography in 1742; the egalitarian spirit of Scotland and the classical tradition exerted a profound influence on the school culture and the Scottish Enlightenment.
The Romantic era at the turn of the 19th century was for Scotland a golden age of literature, winning the Royal High School an international reputation and an influx of foreign students, among them French princes. The historian William Ross notes: "Walter Scott stood head and shoulders above his literary contemporaries. By the end of the Napoleonic Wars, an old scholar remembered,'there were boys from Russia, Switzerland, the United States, Barbadoes, St. Vincent, the East Indies, besides England and Ireland.' The Royal High School was used as a model for the first public high school in the United States, the English High School of Boston, in 1821. Learning Greek ceased to be compulsory in 1836, the time allotted to its study was reduced in 1839 as mathematics became recognised; the curriculum was broadened to include French, after-hours fencing and gymnastics, science, military drill, gymnastics as a formal subject and swimming and history. In 1866 classical masters were confined to teaching Greek.
A modern and commercial course was introduced in 1873. A school choir was instituted in 1895. Through the centuries, the school has been located at many sites throughout the city, including the Vennel of the Church of St. Mary in the Fields; the Jock's Lodge site is now the Royal High Primary, is no longer associated with the secondary school. For many years the school maintained a boarding facility for pupils from outside Edinburgh; the boarders ranged in age from six to eighteen. The House, as it was known, was located at 24 Royal Terrace and in years moved to 13 Royal Terrace; when the boarding house was closed the records of all boarders, the artefacts such as the board with the names of head boys, the memorial to boarders killed in the 1939–1945 war, were lost. The Royal High School moved to its current site at Barnton in 1968, vacating the Old Royal High School buildings. In 1973 it became a co-educational state comprehensive; the school's premises underwent extensive refurbishment between 2001 and 2003, funded by a £10 million public-private partnership project with Amey plc.
The most recent report was April 2007. HM Inspectors found "very high levels of attainment at all stages", "motivated pupils who took a pride in their school", "a positive school ethos". Pupils scored in national examinations outperforming those in comparator schools as well as the Edinburgh and national averages.130 university entrants from the Royal High School or 30.1% went to one of the ‘Sutton 13’ top UK universities in the five years between 2002 and 2006, second among Scottish state schools and colleges. In 2006 the Royal High School’s ranking for Higher grades was joint third in the Edinburgh state school league tables; the school has dropped down 11 places, out of the top 20, in the Scottish schools rankings since 2009 since the new rector took over. The school uniform is white, derived from the municipal colours of Edinburgh. Girls wear a plain white blouse, school tie, black blazer with crest, black skirt or
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi