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David Cassidy

David Bruce Cassidy was an American actor, singer and guitarist. He was best known for his role as Keith Partridge, the son of Shirley Partridge, in the 1970s musical-sitcom The Partridge Family; this role catapulted Cassidy to teen idol status as a superstar pop singer of the 1970s. Cassidy was born at Flower Fifth Avenue Hospital in New York City, the son of singer and actor Jack Cassidy and actress Evelyn Ward, his father was of half Irish and half German ancestry, his mother was descended from Colonial Americans, along with some Irish and Swiss roots. His mother's ancestors were among the founders of New Jersey; as his parents were touring on the road, he spent his early years being raised by his maternal grandparents in a middle-class neighborhood in West Orange, New Jersey. In 1956, he found out from neighbors' children that his parents had been divorced for over two years and had not told him. In 1956, Cassidy's father married actress Shirley Jones, they had three children: David's half-brothers, Shaun and Ryan.

In 1968, after completing one final session of summer school to obtain credits necessary to get a high-school diploma, David moved into the rental home of Jack Cassidy and Shirley Jones in Irvington, New York, where his half-brothers lived. David remained there, seeking fame as an actor/musician, while working half-days in the mailroom of a textile firm, he moved out. Cassidy's father, Jack, is credited with setting his son up with his first manager. After signing with Universal Studios in 1969, Jack introduced him to former table tennis champion and close friend Ruth Aarons, who found her niche as a talent manager, given her theater background. Aarons had represented Jack and Shirley Jones for several years, represented Cassidy's half-brother, Shaun. Aarons became an authority figure and close friend to Cassidy, was the driving force behind his on-screen success. After Cassidy made small wages from Screen Gems for his work on The Partridge Family during season one, Aarons discovered that he had been underage when he signed his contract.

On January 2, 1969, Cassidy made his professional debut in the Broadway musical The Fig Leaves Are Falling. It closed after four performances, but a casting director saw the show and asked Cassidy to make a screen test. In 1969, he moved to Los Angeles. After signing with Universal Studios in 1969, Cassidy was featured in episodes of the television series Ironside, Marcus Welby, M. D. Adam-12, Medical Center and Bonanza. In 1970, Cassidy took the role of Keith Partridge on the musical television show The Partridge Family. After demonstrating his singing talent, Cassidy was allowed to join the studio ensemble as the lead singer; the show proved popular. In the midst of his rise to fame, Cassidy felt stifled by the show and trapped by the mass hysteria surrounding his every move. In May 1972, to alter his public image, he appeared nude on the cover of Rolling Stone in a cropped Annie Leibovitz photo. Once "I Think I Love You"—the first single released by The Partridge Family pop group—became a hit, Cassidy began work on solo albums.

Within the first year, he had produced his own single, a cover of The Association's "Cherish". He began tours that featured his own hits. Cassidy achieved far greater solo chart success in the UK than in his native America, including a cover of The Young Rascals' "How Can I Be Sure" and the double A-side single "Daydreamer" / "The Puppy Song" – two UK number ones which failed to chart in the States. In Britain, Cassidy the solo star remains best known for "Daydreamer", "How Can I Be Sure" and "Could It Be Forever", all released during his 1972–73 solo chart peak. Though he wanted to become a respected rock musician along the lines of Mick Jagger, his channel to stardom launched him into the ranks of teen idol, a brand he loathed until much in life, when he managed to come to terms with his bubblegum pop beginnings. Ten albums by The Partridge Family and five solo albums by Cassidy were produced during the series, with most selling more than a million copies each. Internationally, Cassidy's solo career eclipsed the phenomenal success of The Partridge Family.

He became an instant drawing card, with sellout concert successes in major arenas around the world. These concerts produced mass hysteria, resulting in the media coining the term "Cassidymania". For example, he played to two sellout crowds of 56,000 each at the Houston Astrodome in Texas over one weekend in 1972, his concert in New York's Madison Square Garden sold out in one day and resulted in riots after the show. His concert tours of the United Kingdom included sellout concerts at Wembley Stadium in 1973. In Australia in 1974, the mass hysteria was such that calls were made to have him deported from the country after the madness at his 33,000-person audience concert at Melbourne Cricket Ground. A turning point in Cassidy's live concerts was a gate stampede. At a show in London's White City Stadium on May 26, 1974, nearly 800 were injured in a crush at the front of the stage. Thirty were taken to

Optimum currency area

In economics, an optimum currency area known as an optimal currency region, is a geographical region in which it would maximize economic efficiency to have the entire region share a single currency. The underlying theory describes the optimal characteristics for the merger of currencies or the creation of a new currency; the theory is used to argue whether or not a certain region is ready to become a currency union, one of the final stages in economic integration. An optimal currency area is larger than a country. For instance, part of the rationale behind the creation of the euro is that the individual countries of Europe do not each form an optimal currency area, but that Europe as a whole does; the creation of the euro is cited because it provides the most modern and largest-scale case study of an attempt to identify an optimum currency area, provides a comparative before-and-after model by which to test the principles of the theory. In theory, an optimal currency area could be smaller than a country.

Some economists have argued that the United States, for example, has some regions that do not fit into an optimal currency area with the rest of the country. The theory of the optimal currency area was pioneered in the 1960s by economist Robert Mundell. Credit goes to Mundell as the originator of the idea, but others point to earlier work done in the area by Abba Lerner. Kenen and McKinnon were further developers of this idea. Published by Mundell in 1961, this is the most cited by economists. Here asymmetric shocks are considered to undermine the real economy, so if they are too important and cannot be controlled, a regime with floating exchange rates is considered better, because the global monetary policy will not be fine tuned for the particular situation of each constituent region; the four cited criteria for a successful currency union are: Labor mobility across the region. What if we suppose instead that Home and Foreign have an integrated labor market, so that labor is free to move between them: What effect will this have on the decision to form an optimum currency area?

This includes physical ability to travel, lack of cultural barriers to free movement and institutional arrangements. For example, suppose Home and Foreign have equal output and unemployment. Suppose further that a negative shock hits Home, but not Foreign. If output falls and unemployment rises in Home labor will start to migrate to Foreign, where unemployment is lower. If this migration can occur with ease, the impact of the negative shock on Home will be less painful. Furthermore, there will be less need for Home to implement an independent monetary policy response for stabilization purposes. With an excess supply of labor in one region, adjustment can occur through migration. Openness with capital mobility and price and wage flexibility across the region; this is so that the market forces of supply and demand automatically distribute money and goods to where they are needed. In practice this does not work as there is no true wage flexibility; the Eurozone members trade with each other, early empirical analyses of the'euro effect' suggested that the single currency had increased trade by 5 to 15 percent in the euro-zone when compared to trade between non-euro countries.

A risk sharing system such as an automatic fiscal transfer mechanism to redistribute money to areas/sectors which have been adversely affected by the first two characteristics. This takes the form of taxation redistribution to less developed areas of a country/region; this policy, though theoretically accepted, is politically difficult to implement as the better-off regions give up their revenue easily. Theoretically, Europe has a no-bailout clause in the Stability and Growth Pact, meaning that fiscal transfers are not allowed. During the 2010 Eurozone crisis, the no-bailout clause was de facto abandoned in April 2010. Subsequent theoretical analysis suggests. Participant countries have similar business cycles; when one country experiences a boom or recession, other countries in the union are to follow. This allows the shared central bank to promote growth in downturns and to contain inflation in booms. Should countries in a currency union have idiosyncratic business cycles optimal monetary policy may diverge and union participants may be made worse off under a joint central bank.

Additional criteria suggested are: Production diversification Homogeneous preferences Commonality of destiny Here Mundell tries to model how exchange rate uncertainty will interfere with the economy. Supposing that the currency is managed properly, the larger the area, the better. In contrast with the previous model, asymmetric shocks are not considered to undermine the common currency because of the existence of the common currency; this spreads the shocks in the area because all regions share claims on each other in the same currency and can use them for dampening the shock, while in a flexible exchange rate regime, the cost will be concentrated on the individual regions, since the devaluation will reduce its buying power. So despite a less fine tuned monetary policy the real economy should do better. A harvest failure, strikes, or war, in one of the countries causes a loss of real income, but the use of a common currency allows the country to run down its currency holdings and cushion the impact of the loss, drawing on the resources of t

Married Single Other

Married Single Other is a British television drama created and written by Peter Souter. The series is based on the lives of group of people who are either married, single or "other", other being defined as in a relationship, it began airing on Monday 22 February 2010 on ITV. The drama series was screened on STV from February 2012; the series was filmed on location in various areas of Leeds, while Left Bank Pictures television studios annexed to The Leeds Studios were used for interior shooting. The series revolves around three lower middle class couples living in suburban Leeds. Two of the couples have adolescent children, although there is less focus on them than on their parents. While all three couples appear throughout, episodes centre on one of the couples; the series has been compared to Cold Feet. Dickie and Babs "Married". Dickie, self-employed and making income from his ideas, is married to unemployed child psychologist Babs. Babs is unhappy in her marriage, she has one child from her ex, who left her for another woman and whom she now refers to as "the sperm donor".

Clint and Dickie are brothers. Clint and Abbey "Single". Clint has never slept with the same girl twice, he falls in love with Abbey. Clint and Abbey are of the three the upwardly mobile couple. Lillie and Eddie "Other". Lillie, a domestic violence charity worker, has been in a long term relationship with paramedic Eddie. Eddie has asked for 15 years on Lillie's birthday to get married but she has not yet accepted. In the first episode, he asks her and she once again declines, they have two sons and Joe. Harry Harry is the eldest son of Eddie and Lillie and is aged 16, he is a somewhat awkward character, smitten by Gina. Joe Joe is the younger son of Eddie and Lillie and is aged 11, he is clever and displays his knowledge of various subjects, leading him to be bullied at school. Joe displays some autistic tendencies such as an obsession with numbers pi. Gina Gina is the daughter of Babs and is aged 15. Unlike Harry, Gina is confident and although she is friends with Harry, she sees herself as a'cut above' and does not return his romantic interest.

The identity of Gina's father is never revealed. Flo Flo is a colleague of Eddie's, frustrated by false emergency calls, she acts as a source of advice for Eddie, however is irritated by his worrying about his "white middle-class" personal problems. Mr Connolly After breaching the terms of his restraining order and attempting to meet his wife at the women's refuge, Mr Connolly is confronted by Lillie. After attacking Lillie, Mr Connolly feigns injury and attempts to have her sacked for assaulting him. Eros Eros is a 17-year-old petty criminal. After he is caught trying to steal presents from Eddie and Lillie's wedding, Gina relents and has no further contact with him. Fabiana Fabiana is a Brazilian cage dancer whom Clint seduces before changing his mind and rejecting her. In a vengeful act, Fabiana works her way into the circle of friends and seduces Clint's brother and moves into his caravan. After Abbey finds out she leaves Clint; the series has been filmed around several areas of Leeds breaking away from using traditional Yorkshire Television locations such as Chapel Allerton and Yeadon, instead using areas such as Little London, Lincoln Green, Sherburn-in-Elmet and Burmantofts.

Extensive parts of the city centre are used, in particular Clarence Dock. Clint is seen climbing to Abbey's flat, located above the river terrace of Aire Bar on Call Lane. Allerton High School in Alwoodley is used throughout the series. Eddie and Lillie were shown to get married at Leeds Civic Hall and had the wedding reception in a marquee on Blenheim Square, Little London, their house and Clint's flat are in Burley. Shots of Leeds are used in between scenes; the theme tune to this programme is "Find My Way Back Home" by Priscilla Ahn. The programme relies on leitmotifs through the episodes, using music by bands such as The Cure and Goldfrapp. Babs performs The Housemartins' Caravan of Lillie's wedding. Cast member Amanda Abbington announced on Facebook in May 2010 that the series was not being renewed by ITV. ITV formally confirmed the series' cancellation. Executive producer Andy Harries told The Guardian "We had an amazing cast, a devoted following and some strong ideas for series two. It's a horrible feeling to be dumped, we thought there was still life in the relationship, but we're definitely'other' now."

He told the 2010 Edinburgh International Television Festival, "It averaged 4.65 million across the series, the best for an ITV drama to be decommissioned in the last four years The audience didn't stay. I suppose. There were some weaker episodes, it found its strength towards the end, I think a second series would have found its feet and grown its audience. ITV disagreed." Married Single Other received positive reviews. The series has on occasions been compared to Cold Feet, given the aged cast, Northern middle-class setting and similar themes; the series has the same director and producer as Cold Feet, Declan Lowney and Andy Harries respectively. Tim Dowling from The Guardian wrote "Yes, it's predictable. Yes, it's a lot like Cold Feet, and Married Single Other is a pleasure to watch". Dowling drew similarities from the

Trump Tower wiretapping allegations

On March 4, 2017, U. S. President Donald Trump wrote a series of posts on his Twitter account that accused former President Barack Obama of wiretapping his phones at his Trump Tower office late in the 2016 presidential campaign. Trump called for a congressional investigation into the matter, the Trump administration cited news reports to defend these accusations, his initial claims were based on an article in Breitbart News, a website known to publish conspiracy theories. Representative Devin Nunes, the then-chair of the House Intelligence Committee, said he would investigate the claim. At a House Intelligence Committee open hearing on March 20, 2017, Federal Bureau of Investigation Director James Comey stated that neither the FBI nor the Department of Justice possessed any information to support Donald Trump's wiretapping allegations. Nunes stated on March 23 that the Trump administration's communications might have been monitored during the transition period as part of an "incidental collection".

The DOJ declared in a September 1, 2017 court filing that "both the FBI and NSD confirm that they have no records related to wiretaps as described by the March 4, 2017 tweets", confirmed this in another court filing of October 19, 2018. On September 19, 2017 CNN reported that the FBI wiretapped Paul Manafort before and after the presidential election, extending into early 2017, although the report did not make clear whether Manafort was monitored during his tenure with the Trump campaign from March through August 2016; the CNN report stated that the Manafort surveillance began after he became the subject of an FBI investigation in 2014. Some commentators cited this report as vindication for Trump's claims, while others noted that it did not confirm the accuracy of Trump's original tweets, that it is still unknown whether any surveillance of Manafort took place at Trump Tower. Manafort owned a condominium in Trump Tower from 2006 until its seizure by federal authorities following his 2018 convictions.

On April 25, 2019, Trump said that his original allegation of "wires tapped" was not literal, that he meant: "surveillance, spying you can sort of say whatever you want". Trump said that his allegations were made "just on a little bit of a hunch and a little bit of wisdom maybe", that he thought his allegations were "pretty insignificant" when he made them. In a July 2019 interview with C-SPAN, when asked whether he regretted any of his tweets, Trump said "Not much not much... I sent the one about the wiretapping...and that turned out to be true." On November 7, 2016, conspiracy theorist Louise Mensch reported in the right-leaning Heat Street, that the Federal Bureau of Investigation had twice sought Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act warrants in connection with its investigation of the Trump campaign's links to Russia. According to Mensch, the first request for a warrant which "named Trump" was denied in June 2016 and, a second, more "narrowly drawn" request was granted in October 2016.

Mensch wrote that this warrant gave "counter-intelligence permission to examine the activities of'U. S. Persons' in Donald Trump's campaign with ties to Russia", to "look at the full content of emails and other related documents that may concern US persons". Mensch further claimed that the October warrant was granted in "connection with the investigation of suspected activity between the server and two banks, SVB Bank and Alfa Bank", that "it is thought in the intelligence community that the warrant covers any'US person' connected to this investigation, thus covers Donald Trump and at least three further men". Mensch's article cited reports from two anonymous "sources with links to the counter-intelligence community". Mensch's original article only discussed e-mail exchanges and did not use the term "wiretap". On January 19, 2017, The New York Times published an article which used two headlines, with the print headline reading "Wiretapped Data Used in Inquiry of Trump Aides" and the article published online with the title "Intercepted Russian Communications Part of Inquiry Into Trump Associates".

The article stated that "American law enforcement and intelligence agencies are examining intercepted communications and financial transactions as part of a broad investigation into possible links between Russian officials and associates of President-elect Donald J. Trump, including his former campaign chairman Paul Manafort." The article noted the uncertainty regarding the scope of the communications, stating: "It is not clear whether the intercepted communications had anything to do with Mr. Trump's campaign, or Mr. Trump himself."On March 3, Breitbart News, a far-right website known to publish conspiracy theories, ran an article by Joel Pollak headlined "Mark Levin to Congress: Investigate Obama's'Silent Coup' vs. Trump." On the previous day, right-wing radio personality Mark Levin alleged that Obama and his allies were conducting a "silent coup" against Trump, asked: "How many phone calls of Donald Trump, if any, have been intercepted by the administration and recorded by the Obama administration?"

The claims were labeled conspiracy theories by The Los Angeles Times. The Breitbart article alleged that "the Obama administration is now monitoring an opposing presidential campaign using the high-tech surveillance powers of the federal intelligence services". Citing Mensch's November article, Breitbart claimed the existence of a June FISA request "to monitor communications involving Donald Trump and several advisers", of an October FISA warrant "focused on a computer server in Trump Tower". Breitbart cited a January 11 National Review article, which speculated about alleged "wiretaps" of the Trump campaign and their legal ramifications. Like the Breitbart article, the Nati

Karl Miller

Karl Fergus Connor Miller FRSL was a British literary editor and writer. Miller was born in the village of Loanhead and was educated at the Royal High School of Edinburgh and Downing College, where he studied English, he became literary editor of the New Statesman. Miller resigned from the latter over a disagreement with the magazine's editor Paul Johnson, over the extent to which the literary pages treated difficult subjects and Johnson's disapproval of The Beatles and their fans, he was editor of The Listener and subsequently of the London Review of Books, which he founded, from 1979 to 1992. He was Lord Northcliffe Professor of Modern English Literature and head of the English Department at University College London from 1974 to 1992. Miller died on 24 September 2014, at the age of 83. Poetry from Cambridge 1952–4. Oxford, 1955 Writing in England Today: the last fifteen years. London: Penguin, 1968 Memoirs of a Modern Scotland. London: Faber, 1970 Cockburn's Millennium. London: Duckworth, 1975 Doubles: Studies in Literary History.

Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985 Authors. Oxford: Clarendon, 1989 Rebecca's Vest: a memoir. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1993 Boswell and Hyde. London: Syrens, 1995 Dark Horses: an experience of literary journalism. London: Picador, 1998 Seamus Heaney in conversation with Karl Miller. London: BTL, 2000 Electric Shepherd: a likeness of James Hogg. London: Faber, 2003 Tretower to Clyro: essays. London: Quercus, 2011

1947 in Scotland

Events from the year 1947 in Scotland. Monarch – George VI Secretary of State for Scotland and Keeper of the Great SealJoseph Westwood until 7 October. 29 March – Butlin's Ayr holiday camp opened to the public. 6 May – East Kilbride designated as the first New Town in Scotland under powers of the New Towns Act 1946. 28 May – Prohibition ends in Wick, Caithness. 16 June – PS Waverley makes her maiden voyage on the Firth of Clyde. 9 July – Glasgow Zoo opens at Calderpark, Baillieston. 18 July – the first official night horse racing meeting in Britain is held at Hamilton Park Racecourse. 27–28 July – English endurance swimmer Tom Blower becomes the first person to swim the North Channel, from Donaghadee in Northern Ireland to Portpatrick. 31 July – the Local Government Act 1947 receives the Royal Assent. 1 October – local government is reorganised in line with the Local Government Act 1947. 25 October – Walter Donaldson becomes the first Scottish player to win the World Snooker Championship. 30 October – RMS Caronia is launched at John Brown & Company's shipyard on Clydebank as a cruise ship for the Cunard Line.

5 November – the Scottish Aviation Pioneer STOL aircraft, built at Prestwick, first flies. Archaeological excavations at Cairnpapple Hill in West Lothian are begun by Stuart Piggott; the Golden Wonder brand of potato crisp is originated by bakery owner William Alexander of Stockbridge, Edinburgh. Robert Wiseman Dairies founded by Robert Wiseman with a horse and cart used for doorstep deliveries in East Kilbride. Luing cattle first bred on the island of Luing by the Cadzow brothers. 4 February – John Campbell Brown, astronomer 11 February – Derek Shulman, progressive rock musician 11 March – David Stewart, goalkeeper 24 March – Archie Gemmill, footballer April – Alastair Hay, toxicologist 16 April – Gerry Rafferty, singer-songwriter 21 April – Robert Black, serial killer 8 May – John Reid, Labour Party MP, minister and Home Secretary 31 May – Junior Campbell, born William Campbell Jr, pop musician 11 July – Drummond Bone and Byron scholar 10 August – Ian Anderson, rock musician 27 September – Barbara Dickson, singer 20 November – Aneka and folk singer 26 December – Liz Lochhead and dramatist John Muir, footballer 14 March – Archibald Main, ecclesiastical historian 25 April – John Crichton-Stuart, 4th Marquess of Bute, architectural conservationist 28 November – James Miller and artist 1 December – John Fraser and academic 14 December – Will Fyffe, music hall entertainer 30 January – Ena Lamont Stewart's domestic drama Men Should Weep, written in Glasgow patter, is premiered by the Glasgow Unity Theatre at the Athenaeum Theatre.

13 March – the Lerner and Loewe musical Brigadoon opens on Broadway. 24 August – first Edinburgh Festival of the Arts opens. 31 August – the first Edinburgh International Film Festival opens at the Playhouse Cinema, presented by the Edinburgh Film Guild as part of the Edinburgh Festival of the Arts. Specialising in documentaries, it will become the world's oldest continuously running film festival. Compton Mackenzie's comic novel Whisky Galore is published. Naomi Mitchison's historical novel The Bull Calves is published. Sydney Goodsir Smith's comic novel Carotid Cornucopius: caird of the Cannon Gait and voyeur of the Outlook Touer, his splores, wisdoms, houghmagandies and all kinna abstrapulous junketings and ongoings abowt the high toun of Edenberg, capitule of boney Sotland is published in Glasgow. The Makar's Club in Edinburgh issues a Scots Style Sheet setting out a consensus for the spelling of Modern Scots. 1947 in Northern Ireland