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David Crombie

David Edward Crombie is a Canadian politician and consultant. Crombie served as mayor of Toronto from 1972 to 1978. In federal politics, he served as a Progressive Conservative Member of Parliament from 1978 to 1988 serving in several cabinet positions. Crombie was born in Swansea, the son of Vera Edith and Norman Davis Crombie, he was a lecturer in politics and urban affairs at Ryerson in the 1960s when he became involved in Toronto's urban reform movement. At the time, the city had a pro-development city council that allowed a great deal of demolition of older buildings, including houses, to make way for the construction of apartment blocks, office towers, highways. Crombie, along with John Sewell and other urban reformers, became a leader in a grassroots movement that favoured curtailing development in favour of improving social services and prioritizing community interests. Crombie was elected to Toronto's city council in 1970, became Mayor of Toronto in 1972, ushering in an era of responsible urban development inspired by thinkers such as Jane Jacobs.

Crombie was the first mayor who represented the reform movement of Toronto politics, his policies differed from those of the Old Guard who preceded him. Much of Crombie's time as mayor was spent trying to rein in the development industry, he imposed a 45-foot limit on all new constructions, but this was overturned by the Ontario Municipal Board. Crombie put forward a new official plan that imposed varying height restrictions across the city, this was upheld by the board; the Spadina Expressway had been halted by premier Bill Davis in 1971, but Davis continued to support the construction of the Allen Expressway in the north. Crombie failed to have it halted, he was more successful in countering plans for the Scarborough Expressway. Crombie opposed the traditional pattern of demolishing poorer neighbourhoods and replacing them with housing projects; the plans to redevelop areas such as Trefann Court, Kensington Market, Cabbagetown ended under Crombie. Instead, he oversaw the creation of the St. Lawrence neighbourhood, an area of mid-rise, mixed-use, mixed-income buildings that followed Jane Jacobs's vision of urban planning.

Crombie was enormously popular as mayor, being re-elected in 1976 with large majorities. Because of his great public appeal and small stature, he was described in the media as the city's "tiny, perfect mayor", he left City Hall in 1978 to move to federal politics, winning a by-election as a Progressive Conservative candidate that gave him a seat in the House of Commons of Canada. Crombie served as Minister of Health and Welfare in the short-lived minority government of Prime Minister Joe Clark, elected in 1979 but lost power the next year. Crombie stood as a candidate at the 1983 Progressive Conservative leadership convention, he urged his supporters to vote for John Crosbie, rather than Brian Mulroney. After Mulroney led Conservatives to power in the 1984 election, Crombie became Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs, Secretary of State and Minister of Multiculturalism. Frustrated in Ottawa, as a Red Tory in an conservative government, Crombie decided not to run in the 1988 election, returned to urban affairs as head of the royal commission on the Future of Toronto's waterfront.

He authored ground-breaking reports including Watershed' and Regeneration, which described new integrated approaches to sustainable planning. The Provincial Government appointed Crombie as head of a provincial agency, the Waterfront Regeneration Trust Agency to implement the 83 recommendations made in the final report, Regeneration. Among these recommendations was the creation of a waterfront trail. Today the Great Lakes Waterfront Trail extends from Quebec to Sault Ste Marie along Canada's Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River. In 1999, Crombie founded the Waterfront Regeneration Trust, as a charity, to continue the work of the provincial agency, serves on the Board. In addition to leading work on the creation of the Great Lakes Waterfront Trail, the charity manages a fund for the protection and restoration of the Rouge Valley, now part of the Rouge National Urban Park. Crombie tried to find an alternative to Red Hill Creek Expressway but the Hamilton city council dismissed his compromise proposal out of hand as being insufficient.

In September, 1979, Crombie, a liberal-minded reformer, as Minister of Health and Welfare under the Conservative government Prime Minister Joe Clark, issued a statement representing "current Federal Government practice and policy in the field of Indian health." Crombie declared that the "Federal Government is committed to joining with Indian representatives in a fundamental review of issues involved in Indian health when Indian representatives have developed their position, the policy emerging from that review could supersede this policy". In the previous year, Indian bands and organizations such as the Union of B. C. Chiefs, the Native Brotherhood and United Native Nations engaged in intense lobbying for Indians to control delivery of health services in their own communities and for the repeal of restrictive service "guidelines introduced in September 1978, to correct abuses in health delivery, to deal with the environmental health hazards of mercury and fluoride pollution affecting particular communities."

Crombie appointed Gary Goldthorpe, as commissioner of the federal inquiry into "alleged abuses in medical care delivery at Alert Bay, British Columbia." In 1979 Justice Thomas Berger, who headed the royal commission dealin

TietĂȘ Bus Terminal

The Tietê Bus Terminal is the largest bus terminal in Latin America, the second largest in the world, after the Port Authority Bus Terminal in New York City. The terminal is located in the Santana district in the city of Brazil; the official name in Portuguese is Terminal Rodoviário Governador Carvalho Pinto, named after Carlos Alberto Alves de Carvalho Pinto, a former Governor of the State of São Paulo. Comprising an area of 120,000 square metres, the terminal operates 24 hours a day and serves 21 Brazilian states. There are 65 bus companies, 135 ticket counters, 304 bus lines, serving 1,010 cities in five countries. To accommodate this volume, there are 19 platforms for arrivals. On the busiest days, according to need, the platforms can be reversed. Coaches have a "waiting parking lot", which has a capacity of 70 vehicles; the terminal has a daily circulation of 3,000 buses. Around 295 workers are employed by the terminal for administrative, operational and security purposes. In 2002, the terminal began offering "check-in" service like at an airport for long-distance voyages.

Passengers may check their luggage at a baggage counter. Electronic display panels show departures at each platform; the terminal can be accessed via the Portuguesa-Tietê station on Line 1 of the São Paulo Metro. The terminal features a 37,750 square metres garden including more than 40 species of trees; the terminal offers 53 shops, 11 commercial vendor kiosks, 21 food-service vendors, a travel agency, free WiFi connection, free charging stations for laptops and cell phones, a pharmacy, a post office, a vaccination clinic, 9 ATMs. Locations served by the Tietê Bus Terminal are: State of São PauloRegions Ribeirão Preto Araraquara São Carlos Franca Piracicaba Campinas Jundiaí Bragança Paulista Vale do Paraíba Litoral NorteNorth Region Northeast Region Southeast Region Central-West Region South Region Curitiba, Campo Mourão Paraná Argentina Chile Paraguay Uruguay* The remaining locations are served by the Palmeiras-Barra Funda and Jabaquara bus terminals; the following companies operate in the terminal.

Major destinations are shown in parentheses. São Paulo Greater São PauloAnhangüera Imigrantes Internorte Intervias Unileste AirportsAirport Service VB Transportes InteriorAtibaia Bonavita Bragança Caprioli Turismo Cometa Expresso Cristália Empresa Cruz Danúbio Azul Viação Lira Litorânea Nasser Ouro Verde Pássaro Marron Piracicabana Rápido Fênix Viação Rápido Luxo Campinas Rápido Ribeirão Rápido Sumaré Real Expresso Santa Cruz São Pedro VB Transportes CoastalLitorânea Rio de Janeiro 1001 Cometa Expresso Brasileiro Expresso do Sul Itapemirim Reunidas Paulista Salutaris Minas Gerais Bragança Cambuí Campo Belo Cometa Continental Expresso União Gardênia Gontijo Itapemirim (Governador Valadares, Teófilo Otoni, Car

2019 Vodafone Senior League

The 2019 Fiji Senior League was the second-highest division within the Fiji football league system after the Fiji Premier League in Fiji Senior League. It is contested by 12 teams with two groups of 6 teams and is ran and overseen by the Fiji Football Association in Fiji. A total of twelve teams compete in the league in two groups of six teams each Viti Levu Zone Lami Nadroga Navua Northland Tailevu Rakiraki Tailevu NaitasiriVanua Levu Zone Bua Dreketi Nadogo Seaqaqa Savusavu Taveuni Viti Levu Zone Vanua Levu Zone Viti Levu Zone Vanua Levu Zone The play-offs are played between the top two of each group; the winner is promoted to 2020 Fiji Premier League As of match 1 September 2019 2019 Fiji Premier League 2019 Inter-District Championship 2019 Inter-District Championship - Senior Division 2019 Fiji Battle of the Giants 2019 Fiji Football Association Cup Tournament

South Staffordshire

South Staffordshire is a local government district in Staffordshire, England. The district lies to the north and west of the West Midlands county, bordering Shropshire to the west and Worcestershire to the south, it contains the towns of Penkridge and Codsall. Which are of major size, many of the settlements within the district are considered dormitory villages for Stafford and the West Midlands conurbation; the district was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, by the merger of Cannock Rural District and Seisdon Rural District. Its council is based in Codsall, one of the larger settlements in the district, along with Brewood, Cheslyn Hay, Great Wyrley, Landywood, Penkridge and Wombourne. Other villages in the district include Swindon, Essington, Gospel End, Lower Penn, Pattingham and Trysull; the district covers a similar geographic area to South Staffordshire parliamentary constituency, although the north of the district is covered by the Stafford constituency. Sir Patrick Cormack of the Conservative Party held the South Staffordshire seat, its predecessor, Staffordshire South-West, between 1974–2010, when he retired and the seat was won by Gavin Williamson for the Conservative Party.

There are many beauty spots within the South Staffordshire district, for example the village of Wombourne has the Wom Brook Walk and the Bratch Locks on the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal in the nearby village of Bratch. Other sites include: South Staffordshire Railway Walk: A 5.5 miles walk along the disused railway line of the Wombourne Branch Line. Baggeridge Country Park: A large and diverse country park located between Wombourne and Sedgley, which has won the national Green Flag Award for 11 years. Bluebell Woods, Perton: An internationally important site for Bluebells. Highgate Common: A large area of heathland near Swindon. Kinver Edge: A National Trust property, located in the south of the district which features the Holy Austin Rock Houses. Shoal Hill Common: A 180-acre site of lowland heaths and woodlands which can be found to the extreme north of the district. Bunkers Tree Wood is in the area and contains a large Corvid roost; as of June 2019, the political make-up of the local council was as follows

Fluvio-thermal erosion

In geomorphology fluvio-thermal erosion is the combined mechanical and thermal erosion of an unfrozen river or stream against ice-rich soils and sediments. The erosional process includes the thawing of ice sediments by a strong water flow and once the surface is unfrozen, mechanical erosion occurs only if hydraulic forces are powerful enough to incise the riverbank material; this kind of erosion sometimes causes the banks to collapse into the river, when this occurs collapses are controlled by ice wedges. Rivers where this process has been observed include the Lena, the Colville River delta, the Yukon River; the Yakutia region in Central Siberia, where the Lena River is located, is an exceptional point of interest to study this type of erosion based on its record low temperatures and extreme thickness of permafrost. During the winter when water level is low, a thick sheet of ice forms on top of the Lena River, sometimes as much as 2m thick. Seasonal floods caused by rapid snowmelt and irregular storms break the ice apart in the summer, exposing the banks of the river to the power of erosion.

There are two stages to this process: the first is the breakup of the ice and the second is the flooding. Over the course of just a few days in May or June, water discharge can increase by 10x its velocity; the force of the water causes the ice sitting on top of the river to break apart, these broken pieces are thrust up onto the riverbanks, sometimes forming an ice barrier that as high as 10m tall that will protect the banks from erosion for a short time. However, as the flood continues, the warmth and mechanical energy from the water melts the ice barrier, giving way for the fluvio-thermal erosion of the frozen riverbanks. For the Lena, the banks are observed to retreat 40m per year. Based on lab models carried out in a cold room, high water temperature, ice temperature, discharge are shown to be the main contributors of thermal erosion, whereas high ice content in the soil is shown to slow down the thermal erosion process. Melting of the ice within a porous material reduces the strength of the material, rendering it breakable and removable.

During the melting period of a periglacial river in the summer, due to a high water discharge, the unfrozen sediments are weathered away. In conclusion, water discharge in permanent contact with permafrost banks creates a combination of thermal and mechanical erosion. Costard, Francois, E. Gautier, A. Fedorov, P. Konstantinov and L. Dupeyrat.. An Assessment of the Erosion Potential of the Fluvial Thermal Process during Ice Breakups of the Lena River. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. p. 162-171. Costard, F. E. Gautier, D. Brunstein, J. Hammadi, A. Fedorov, D. Yang, L. Dupeyat.. Impact of the global warming on the flvial thermal erosion over the Lena River in Central Siberia; the American Geophysical Union. Costard, F. L. Dupeyrat, E. Gautier and E. Carey-Gailhardis.. Fluvial Thermal Erosion Investigations Along a Rapidly Eroding River Bank: Application to the Lena River. Wiley InterScience. Dupeyrat, L. F. Costard, R. Randriamazaoro, E, Gailhardis, E. Gautier, A. Fedorov.. Effects of Ice Content on the Thermal Erosion of Permafrost: Implications of Coastal and Fluvial Erosion.

Wiley Online Library. Randriamazaoro, R. L. Dupeyat, F. Costard and E. Carey Gailhardis.. Fluvial Thermal Erosion: heat balance integral method. Wiley InterScience. Notes

1st Uttarakhand Assembly

The 2002 Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly election were the First Vidhan Sabha elections of the state when the Indian National Congress emerged as the largest party with 36 seats in the 70-seat legislature in the election. The Bharatiya Janata Party became the official opposition. Speaker: Yashpal Arya Deputy Speaker: Vacant Leader of the House: Narayan Datt Tiwari Leader of the Opposition: Bhagat Singh Koshyari Matbar Singh Kandari Chief Secretary: 2002 Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly election Tiwari ministry Politics of Uttarakhand ‡ – Resigned from office