David Paul Cronenberg is a Canadian filmmaker. He is one of the principal originators of what is known as the body horror genre, with his films exploring visceral bodily transformation, infection and the intertwining of the psychological with the physical. In the first third of his career he explored these themes through horror and science fiction films such as Scanners and Videodrome, although his work has since expanded beyond these genres. Cronenberg's films have polarized audiences alike; the Village Voice called him "the most audacious and challenging narrative director in the English-speaking world". His films have won numerous awards, for Crash, the Special Jury Prize at the 1996 Cannes Film Festival, a unique award, distinct from the Jury Prize as it is not given annually, but only at the request of the official jury, who in this case gave the award "for originality, for daring and for audacity". Born in Toronto, Cronenberg is the son of Esther, a musician, Milton Cronenberg, a writer and editor.
He was raised in a "middle-class progressive Jewish family". His father was born in Baltimore and his mother was born in Toronto, he wrote constantly. He attended high school at North Toronto Collegiate Institute. A keen interest in science botany and lepidopterology, led him to enter the Honours Science program at the University of Toronto in 1963, but he switched to Honours English Language and Literature in his first year. Cronenberg's fascination with the film Winter Kept Us Warm, by classmate David Secter, sparked his interest in film, he began frequenting film camera rental houses, learning the art of filmmaking, made two 16mm films. Inspired by the New York underground film scene, he founded the Toronto Film Co-op with Iain Ewing and Ivan Reitman. After taking a year off to travel in Europe, he returned to Canada in 1967 and graduated from University College at the top of his class. After two short sketch films and two short art-house features Cronenberg went into partnership with Ivan Reitman.
The Canadian government provided financing for his films throughout the 1970s. He alternated his signature "body horror" films such as Shivers with projects reflecting his interest in car racing and bike gangs. Rabid provided pornographic actress Marilyn Chambers with work in a different genre.. Rabid was a breakthrough with international distributors, his next two horror features gained stronger support. Cronenberg's films follow a definite progression: a movement from the social world to the inner life. In his early films, scientists modify human bodies. In his middle period, the chaos wrought by the scientist. In the middle period, the scientist himself is altered by his experiment; this trajectory culminates in Dead Ringers in which a twin pair of gynecologists spiral into codependency and drug addiction. His films tend more to the psychological contrasting subjective and objective realities. Cronenberg has cited William S. Vladimir Nabokov as influences; the best example of a film that straddles the line between his works of personal chaos and psychological confusion is Cronenberg's 1991 "adaptation" of Naked Lunch, his literary hero William S. Burroughs' most controversial book.
The novel was considered "unfilmable", Cronenberg acknowledged that a straight translation into film would "cost 400 million dollars and be banned in every country in the world". Instead—much like in his earlier film, Videodrome—he blurred the lines between what appeared to be reality and what appeared to be hallucinations brought on by the main character's drug addiction; some of the book's "moments" are presented in this manner within the film. Cronenberg stated that while writing the screenplay for Naked Lunch, he felt a moment of synergy with Burroughs' writing style, he felt the connection between his screenwriting style and Burroughs' prose style was so strong, that he jokingly remarked that should Burroughs pass on, "I'll just write his next book."Cronenberg has said that his films should be seen "from the point of view of the disease", that in Shivers, for example, he identifies with the characters after they become infected with the anarchic parasites. Disease and disaster, in Cronenberg's work, are less problems to be overcome than agents of personal transformation.
Of his characters' transformations, Cronenberg said, "But because of our necessity to impose our own structure of perception on things we look on ourselves as being stable. But, in fact, when I look at a person I see this maelstrom of organic and electron chaos. In Crash, people who have been injured in car crashes attempt to view their ordeal as "a fertilizing rather than a destructive event". In 2005, Cronenberg publicly disagreed with Paul Haggis' choice of the same name for the latter's Oscar-winning film Crash, arguing that it was "very disrespectful" to the "important and seminal" J. G. Ballard novel on which Cronenberg's fi
Ballad of Dog's Beach is a fiction novel by the Portuguese author José Cardoso Pires, relating the investigation into the murder of a political dissident, taking place around 1 one month by 961. The novel is based on contemporary reports of a real murder that took place; the real story is the assassination in early 1961 of Army captain Almeida Santos by Jean Jacques, an Army m. d. They were both dissidents of the political regime who escaped from prison with the help of a prison guard; the three men took refuge in a house in twenty km outside Lisbon. They were joined by Maria José Maldonado Sequeira, a beautiful young woman who had an affair with A. Santos. While waiting for opportunity to leave the country, Maria José started a love affair with the two men, Santos e Jacques, which caused a fight between them and the death of Santos. Jacques buried him in the beach with the help of the guard; the body was discovered one month by a dog whose owner was taking a walk.behind the novel
The Chinon Nuclear Power Plant is near the town of Avoine in the French Indre et Loire département, on the Loire river. The power station has seven reactors; the nuclear power station employs 1,350 full-time workers. The operator is the French company Électricité de France; the site housed three of the first generation of French plants. Since four of the first French PWR series have been built; the site uses four low-profile cooling towers designed to not impede views of the Loire. The plant is on the large side for a French plant, it feeds 6% of the national electricity demand of France. During the unusually cold 1986-87 winter, the water intake from the river, as well as several other important pieces of equipment and machinery, froze. On December 21, 2005, sand accumulated inside the tertiary cooling circuit, threatening to block it; this could have stopped cooling of all the reactors. On September 4, 2008, some industrial oil was accidentally discharged to the river in a maintenance operation.
It was not radioactively contaminated. On April 30, 2009, a bomb alert caused an evacuation of the plant and an intervention by several units of army security forces. Since 1986, the closed Chinon A1 reactor has been redeveloped to hold the French Atom Museum; the INTRA group, a nuclear event emergency intervention group equipped with remotely guided, radiation hardened machinery, has its headquarters on the plant's areal Nuclear decommissioning http://www.geniustour.com/en/pages/detail.php?j=Nuclear-Museum-of-Chinon