The Metropolitan Opera is an opera company based in New York City, resident at the Metropolitan Opera House at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. The company is operated by the non-profit Metropolitan Opera Association, with Peter Gelb as general manager; as of 2018, the company's current music director is Yannick Nézet-Séguin. The Met was founded in 1880 as an alternative to the established Academy of Music opera house, debuted in 1883 in a new building on 39th and Broadway, it moved to the new Lincoln Center location in 1966. The Metropolitan Opera is the largest classical music organization in North America, it presents about 27 different operas each year from late September through May. The operas are presented in a rotating repertory schedule, with up to seven performances of four different works staged each week. Performances are given in the evening Monday through Saturday with a matinée on Saturday. Several operas are presented in new productions each season. Sometimes these are shared with other opera companies.
The rest of the year's operas are given in revivals of productions from previous seasons. The 2015–16 season comprised 227 performances of 25 operas; the operas in the Met's repertoire consist of a wide range of works, from 18th-century Baroque and 19th-century Bel canto to the Minimalism of the late 20th century. These operas are presented in staged productions that range in style from those with elaborate traditional decors to others that feature modern conceptual designs; the Met's performing company consists of a large symphony-sized orchestra, a chorus, children's choir, many supporting and leading solo singers. The company employs numerous free-lance dancers, actors and other performers throughout the season; the Met's roster of singers includes both international and American artists, some of whose careers have been developed through the Met's young artists programs. While many singers appear periodically as guests with the company, such as Renée Fleming and Plácido Domingo, long maintained a close association with the Met, appearing many times each season until they retired.
The Metropolitan Opera Company was founded in 1880 to create an alternative to New York's old established Academy of Music opera house. The subscribers to the Academy's limited number of private boxes represented the highest stratum in New York society. By 1880, these "old money" families were loath to admit New York's newly wealthy industrialists into their long-established social circle. Frustrated with being excluded, the Metropolitan Opera's founding subscribers determined to build a new opera house that would outshine the old Academy in every way. A group of 22 men assembled at Delmonico's restaurant on April 28, 1880, they established subscriptions for ownership in the new company. The new theater, built at 39th and Broadway, would include three tiers of private boxes in which the scions of New York's powerful new industrial families could display their wealth and establish their social prominence; the first Met subscribers included members of the Morgan and Vanderbilt families, all of whom had been excluded from the Academy.
The new Metropolitan Opera House opened on October 22, 1883, was an immediate success and artistically. The Academy of Music's opera season folded. In its early decades the Met did not produce the opera performances itself but hired prominent manager/impresarios to stage a season of opera at the new Metropolitan Opera House. Henry Abbey served as manager for the inaugural season, 1883–84, which opened with a performance of Charles Gounod's Faust starring the brilliant Swedish soprano Christina Nilsson. Abbey's company that first season featured an ensemble of artists led by sopranos Nilsson and Marcella Sembrich, they gave 150 performances of 20 different operas by Gounod, Bellini, Verdi, Mozart, Bizet and Ponchielli. All performances were sung in Italian and were conducted either by music director Auguste Vianesi or Cleofonte Campanini; the company performed not only in the new Manhattan opera house, but started a long tradition of touring throughout the country. In the winter and spring of 1884 the Met presented opera in theaters in Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, Washington D.
C. and Baltimore. Back in New York, the last night of the season featured a long gala performance to benefit Mr. Abbey; the special program consisted not only of various scenes from opera, but offered Mme. Sembrich playing the violin and the piano, as well as the famed stage actors Henry Irving and Ellen Terry in a scene from Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice; the Metropolitan Opera began a long history of performing in Philadelphia during its first season, presenting its entire repertoire in the city during January and April 1884. The company's first Philadelphia performance was of Faust on January 14, 1884, at the Chestnut Street Opera House; the Met continued to perform annually in Philadelphia for nearly eighty years, taking the entire company to the city on selected Tuesday nights throughout the opera season. Performances were held at Philadelphia's Academy of Music, with the company presenting close to 900 performances in the city by 1961 when the Met's regular visits ceased. On April 26, 1910, the Met purchased the Philadelphia Opera House from Oscar Hammerstein I.
The company renamed the house the Metropolitan Opera House and performed all of their Philadelphia performances there unti
Deborah Anne Boone is an American singer and actress. She is best known for her 1977 hit, "You Light Up My Life", which spent ten weeks at No. 1 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart and led to her winning the Grammy Award for Best New Artist the following year. Boone focused her music career on country music resulting in the 1980 No. 1 country hit "Are You on the Road to Lovin' Me Again". In the 1980s, she recorded Christian music which garnered her four top 10 Contemporary Christian albums as well as two more Grammys. Throughout her career, Boone has appeared in several musical theater productions and has co-authored many children's books with husband, Gabriel Ferrer. Debby Boone was born in Hackensack, New Jersey, the third of four daughters born to singer-actor Pat Boone and Shirley Foley Boone, daughter of country music star Red Foley; when Boone was 14 years old, she began touring with her parents and three sisters: Cherry and Laury. The sisters first recorded with their parents as The Pat Boone Family and as the Boones or Boone Girls.
They recorded gospel music, although the sisters released singles for the Motown and Curb labels that were remakes of secular pop music featuring Debby as the lead vocalist. The Boones twice reached Billboard's AC charts with 1975's "When The Lovelight Starts Shining Through His Eyes", a remake of the Supremes' first top 40 hit, 1977's "Hasta Mañana", a cover of a track from ABBA's Waterloo album. With her older sisters married and younger sister Laury in college, Boone was encouraged by producer Mike Curb to launch a solo career. Boone released her first solo effort, "You Light Up My Life" in 1977; the song became the biggest hit of the 1970s lasting ten consecutive weeks at No. 1 on the Billboard Hot 100 — longer than any other song in Hot 100 history to that point. The song earned Boone a Grammy Award for Best New Artist and an American Music Award for Favorite Pop Single of 1977, she received Grammy nominations for Best Pop Vocal Performance – Female and Record of the Year won by Barbra Streisand and the Eagles.
"You Light Up My Life" succeeded on Billboard's Adult Contemporary and Country singles charts. The single and the album of the same name were both certified platinum; the song and produced by Joe Brooks, was from the film of the same name. Brooks earned Song of the Year awards at both Oscars for writing the song. Boone's version was not featured on its soundtrack; the song was lip-synched in the film by its star, Didi Conn, performing to vocals recorded by Kacey Cisyk. It was written as a love song, but Boone interpreted the song as inspirational and stated that she recorded the song for God. Boone's overnight success led to a tour with her father and frequent television appearances, but she was unable to maintain her success in pop music after "You Light Up My Life", her follow-up single, "California", peaked at No. 50 Pop and No. 20 AC. "California" was included on Boone's second album, which faltered at No. 147 Pop. Her next single, the double-sided "God Knows"/"Baby I'm Yours" struggled, peaking at No. 74 Pop, becoming her last entry on the Hot 100.
However, the single charted returned Boone to the country chart. Boone released another movie theme, "When You're Loved", from The Magic of Lassie. Like "You Light Up My Life", the song was nominated for an Academy Award for its composers, the Sherman Brothers, but it failed to replicate the success of her first single charting only No. 48 AC. Boone's wholesome persona contrasted with the image-conscious pop-music industry, leading her career in different musical directions. With the crossover success of "You Light Up My Life" and "God Knows/Baby, I'm Yours", Boone began to focus on country music, her first country single, "In Memory of Your Love", fizzled at No. 61. But, she hit No. 11 in 1979 with a remake of Connie Francis' "My Heart Has a Mind of Its Own". Boone released another Connie Francis cover, "Breakin' in a Brand New Broken Heart", before releasing her 1979 eponymous album. Although the album included the two Francis remakes, her next two singles were not culled from this album – a remake of the Happenings' "See You in September" and yet another Francis cover, "Everybody's Somebody's Fool".
Her next album, 1980's Love Has No Reason, was produced by Larry Butler who helmed many of Kenny Rogers' records during the late 1970s. It resulted in the No. 1 Country and No. 31 AC hit, "Are You on the Road to Lovin' Me Again". Two weeks before Are You on the Road to Lovin' Me Again ascended to No. 1, Boone was part of a historic Top 5 on the Billboard Country chart. For the week ending April 19, 1980, the Top 5 positions were all held by women: Crystal Gayle Dottie West Debby Boone Emmylou Harris Tammy Wynette The album generated two more country singles, "Free to Be Lonely Again" and "Take It Like a
The Sound of Music
The Sound of Music is a musical with music by Richard Rodgers, lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II and a book by Howard Lindsay and Russel Crouse. It is based on the memoir of The Story of the Trapp Family Singers. Set in Austria on the eve of the Anschluss in 1938, the musical tells the story of Maria, who takes a job as governess to a large family while she decides whether to become a nun, she falls in love with the children, their widowed father, Captain von Trapp. He is ordered to accept a commission in the German navy, he and Maria decide on a plan to flee Austria with the children. Many songs from the musical have become standards, such as "Edelweiss", "My Favorite Things", "Climb Ev'ry Mountain", "Do-Re-Mi", the title song "The Sound of Music"; the original Broadway production, starring Mary Martin and Theodore Bikel, opened in 1959 and won five Tony Awards, including Best Musical, out of nine nominations. The first London production opened at the Palace Theatre in 1961; the show has enjoyed numerous revivals since then.
It was adapted as a 1965 film musical starring Julie Andrews and Christopher Plummer, which won five Academy Awards. The Sound of Music was the last musical written by Hammerstein. After viewing The Trapp Family, a 1956 West German film about the von Trapp family, its 1958 sequel, stage director Vincent J. Donehue thought that the project would be perfect for his friend Mary Martin; the producers envisioned a non-musical play that would be written by Lindsay and Crouse and that would feature songs from the repertoire of the Trapp Family Singers. They decided to add an original song or two by Rodgers and Hammerstein, but it was soon agreed that the project should feature all new songs and be a musical rather than a play. Details of the history of the von Trapp family were altered for the musical; the real Georg von Trapp did live with his family in a villa in a suburb of Salzburg. He wrote to the Nonnberg Abbey in 1926 asking for a nun to help tutor his sick daughter, the Mother Abbess sent Maria.
His wife had died in 1922. The real Maria and Georg married at the Nonnberg Abbey in 1927. Lindsay and Crouse altered the story so that Maria was governess to all of the children, whose names and ages were changed, as was Maria's original surname; the von Trapps spent some years in Austria after Maria and the Captain married and was offered a commission in Germany's navy. Since von Trapp opposed the Nazis by that time, the family left Austria after the Anschluss, going by train to Italy and traveling on to London and the United States. To make the story more dramatic and Crouse had the family, soon after Maria's and the Captain's wedding, escape over the mountains to Switzerland on foot. In Salzburg, just before World War II, nuns from Nonnberg Abbey sing the Dixit Dominus. One of the postulants, Maria Rainer, is on the nearby mountainside, regretting leaving the beautiful hills, she returns late to the abbey where the Mother Abbess and the other nuns have been considering what to do about the free-spirit.
Maria explains her lateness, saying she was raised on that mountain, apologizes for singing in the garden without permission. The Mother Abbess joins her in song; the Mother Abbess tells her that she should spend some time outside the abbey to decide whether she is suited for the monastic life. She will act as the governess to the seven children of a widower, Austro-Hungarian Navy submarine Captain Georg von Trapp. Maria arrives at the villa of Captain von Trapp, he summons the children with a boatswain's call. They march in, he teaches her their individual signals on the call, but she disapproves of this militaristic approach. Alone with them, she teaches them the basics of music. Rolf, a young messenger, delivers a telegram and meets with the oldest child, outside the villa, he claims. They kiss, he runs off, leaving her squealing with joy. Meanwhile, the housekeeper, Frau Schmidt, gives Maria material to make new clothes, as Maria had given all her possessions to the poor. Maria sees Liesl slipping in through the window, wet from a sudden thunderstorm, but agrees to keep her secret.
The other children are frightened by the storm. Maria sings "The Lonely Goatherd". Captain von Trapp arrives a month from Vienna with Baroness Elsa Schräder and Max Detweiler. Elsa tells Max, he opines. Rolf enters, looking for Liesl, greets them with "Heil"; the Captain orders him away, saying. Maria and the children leapfrog in, wearing play-clothes that she made from the old drapes in her room. Infuriated, the Captain sends them off to change, she tells him that they need him to love them, he angrily orders her back to the abbey. As she apologizes, they hear the children singing "The Sound of Music", which she had taught them, to welcome Elsa Schräder, he embraces them. Alone with Maria, he asks her to stay. Elsa is suspicious of her; the Captain gives a party to introduce Elsa, guests argue over the
The Mirror Theater Ltd
The Mirror Theater was founded by Sabra Jones in 1983, the Founding Artistic Director. The first program of the theater was the Mirror Repertory Company. Founding members of the company included Eva La Gallienne, John Strasberg, Geraldine Page. Sabra Jones reached out to Ellis Rabb, Artistic Director of the APA Phoenix Repertory Company, John Houseman of the Mercury Theater, Eva La Gallienne of the Civic Repertory Theatre Company; the company was intended to be "an alternating repertory company in the classic sense" of actor-manager leadership, which Rabb, La Gallienne pioneered. Alternating repertory refers to when one company performs a variety of plays in the same season with the same actors, a mainstay of theater tradition; this system has been attributed with helping actors grow in their craft through a wide variety of roles. MRC was funded in its inception by philanthropist Laurance S. Rockefeller, with additional donations from philanthropists and actors such as Paul Newman, Al Pacino, Dustin Hoffman, others.
MRC's Founder and Artistic Director, Sabra Jones, produced Eva Le Gallienne’s adaptation of “Alice in Wonderland,” directed by Le Gallienne and co-directed by John Strasberg, with Kate Burton, daughter of Richard Burton, in the title role as her Broadway debut. This production, recommended to Jones by Le Gallienne, was a staple of the Civic Repertory Company and was intended to initiate the Mirror Theater Ltd; the production was on Broadway at the Virginia Theatre, now the August Wilson, in NYC. Famed designer Patricia Zipprodt was nominated for a Tony award and Drama Desk Award for her costume designs on the “Alice in Wonderland” revival, they were exact recreations of the John Tenniel drawings for the original publication of the book Alice in Wonderland. This theme of artistic sensibility to the original art work was carried through in the sets by famed designer John Lee Beatty; the sets and costumes were called “exquisite” by the New York Times. The production attracted great attention at the time for its financing, which marked the highest budget to that date of $2,000,000.00, but, backed by members of “The Four Hundred” who invest in theater productions.
Backers included Anthony D. Marshall, Laurance S. Rockefeller, Brooke Astor, C. Douglas Dillon, among others; this production marked the first time that a public television station invested in a show, WNET13, which produced a version for television as part of PBS’s “Great Performances” series. MRC Founding Producing Artistic Director Sabra Jones brokered this deal and became Creative Consultant for the television production. In the “Great Performances” broadcast, “The White Knight” was played by Richard Burton, father of Kate Burton, the only time the two appeared together on film. Others in the televised production were Colleen Dewhurst, Nathan Lane, Željko Ivanek, Maureen Stapleton, Eve Arden; the “Great Performances” broadcast is still available to view online. Sabra Jones, in her first production, had the innovative idea of asking WNET-13 for an investment in this production of a literary classic. WNET-13 invested in the production and in return received the production rights for television.
This marked the first time that one non profit had invested in a commercial production for the purpose of securing income. As a result, Sabra was named a creative consultant for the film and was responsible for securing through her star, Kate Burton, the services of Kate's famous father, Richard Burton, to play the White Knight for WNET-13; this was the only time. In the credits for the film, Sabra Jones is thanked for her assistance. Many of the original cast in the play were included in the television production; the Mirror Theater formed a board of directors in advance of the first season. In 1984, John Elting Treat, a noted philanthropist and member of the U. S. National Security Council under Presidents Carter and Reagan, became Chair of The Mirror, he followed Esq.. A renowned theatrical attorney on Broadway, John Breglio a New York attorney and producer of the 2006 revival of A Chorus Line; the board at that time included Sam Spiegel—the legendary film producer of On the Waterfront, The Bridge on the River Kwai, Lawrence of Arabia—Archie E. Albright President of the Foreign Policy Association, Patricia Kennedy Lawford, wife of actor Peter Lawford and sister to the late President John F. Kennedy, Anna Sosenko, celebrated producer and songwriter.
All were Board members. Geoffrey Dench, brother of Judi Dench, was Master of Ceremonies. Guests included lauded actors Jeremy Irons, Derek Jacobi, Sinead Cusack. Derek donated his prosthetic nose from the RSC production of Cyrano de Bergerac to be auctioned off at the Benefit, where it was purchased by acclaimed actor Jon Cryer; the Mirror's 3rd Benefit, in 1986, took place at the illustrious Limelight Club with Frank Zappa as Master of Ceremonies. Titled “Rock the Rep,” the Benefit auctioned off such items as an autographed David Bowie tuxedo and a pair of David Lee Roth’s tights. MRC’s first repertory season included productions of Rain by John Colton, Paradise Lost by Clifford Odets, Inheritors by Susan Glaspell, The Hasty Heart by John Patrick. By this time, the company included actors Anthony Hopkins, Maxwell Caulfield, Julie Harris, Juliet Mills, Mason Adams, David Cryer, Matthew Cowles, Tom Waites, as well as director Austin Pendleton; the productions were presented at a small 70 seat Off-Off-Broadway theater at the Real Stage Acting School on West 46th St. (the building was owned by the Local On
Franco Corelli was an Italian tenor who had a major international opera career between 1951 and 1976. Associated in particular with the spinto and dramatic tenor roles of the Italian repertory, he was celebrated universally for his powerhouse voice, electrifying top notes, clear timbre, passionate singing and remarkable performances. Dubbed the "prince of tenors", Corelli possessed handsome features and a charismatic stage presence which endeared him to audiences, he had a long and fruitful partnership with the Metropolitan Opera in New York City between 1961 and 1975. He appeared on the stages of most of the major opera houses in Europe and with opera companies throughout North America. Corelli was born Dario Franco Corelli in Ancona into a family many have thought to have little or no musical background. While his parents were not musical, his paternal grandfather Augusto had quit working at 35 to establish a successful career as an operatic tenor, his older brother Aldo subsequently quit school to become an operatic baritone, two of his uncles sang in the Teatro delle Muse chorus in Ancona.
His father was the family lived along the Adriatic Sea. Corelli loved the sea and decided to follow in the footsteps of his father by pursuing a degree in naval engineering at the University of Bologna. While studying there he entered a music competition under the dare of a friend, an amateur singer. While he did not win the competition, he was encouraged by the judges to pursue a singing career and Corelli entered the Pesaro Conservatory of Music to study opera. At the conservatory, Corelli studied under Rita Pavoni, but was unhappy with the results, saying these lessons destroyed his upper register. After this Corelli decided to become his own teacher, referred to voice teachers as "dangerous people" and a "plague to singers". Corelli stated that he learned part of his technique from a friend, a student of Arturo Melocchi, the voice teacher who taught Mario Del Monaco, who advocated a technique based on singing with the larynx lowered. Corelli studied with Melocchi himself only "sometimes."
Corelli modified the technique to avoid limitations that Corelli perceived in the ability of students of Melocchi to handle mezza-voce and legato singing. He studied the career of Del Monaco, who preceded Corelli into the first rank of Italian tenors using the lowered-larynx technique, and, sometimes criticized for lacking subtlety in his singing. Corelli stated: "I modified the method so that my larynx'floats'—I do not keep it lowered to the maximum at all times." Corelli learned by imitating the style and vocal effects of the recordings of great tenors like Enrico Caruso, Giacomo Lauri-Volpi, Aureliano Pertile, Beniamino Gigli. Opera News stated that Corelli's lowered-larynx technique "resulted in cavernous sound in high-flying passages, where it gained brilliance. Regulating the breath pressure, the tenor was able to reduce this sound while retaining the core of the voice in a diminuendo, or a morendo on a high B-flat, the effect requested by Verdi at the end of'Celeste Aida'." In the summer of 1951, Corelli won the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino in Florence, earning a debut at Spoleto the following fall.
He was scheduled to sing Radames in Verdi's Aïda and spent three months preparing the role with conductor Giuseppe Bertelli. However, Corelli switched to Don José in Bizet's Carmen, feeling that at this point he lacked the technical finesse and legato for the role of Radamès. In May 1952, he made his debut at the Rome Opera as Maurizio in Adriana Lecouvreur opposite Maria Caniglia as Adriana; the same year he appeared in operas with smaller opera houses throughout Italy and on the Italian radio. In 1953 he joined the Rome Opera's roster of principal tenors where he spent much of his time performing through 1958, his first role with the company in 1953 was that of Romeo in Zandonai's heard opera Giulietta e Romeo. That season he sang Pollione in Bellini's Norma opposite Maria Callas in the title role, it was the first time the two sang opposite one another and Callas became an admirer of Corelli. The two performed with each other over the next several years in a partnership that lasted to the end of Callas's career.
While singing at the Rome Opera, Corelli made numerous appearances with other opera houses both in Italy and internationally. He made his first appearance at La Scala in Milan in 1954, as Licinio in Spontini's La vestale opposite Callas's Giulia for the opening of the 1954–1955 season, he returned several more times to that house over the next five years, singing opposite Callas in productions of Fedora, Il pirata and Poliuto. He notably portrayed the role of Dick Johnson in a celebrated performance of La fanciulla del West at La Scala in 1956, opposite Gigliola Frazzoni and Tito Gobbi, broadcast live on Italian radio. Other important debuts for Corelli soon followed, including his first appearances at: the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino in Florence and the Arena di Verona Festival in 1955. Among the many triumphs of the decade for Corelli were two celebrated performances at the Teatro di San Carlo in Naples, a 1958 appearance as Don Alvaro in La forza del destino opposite Renata Tebaldi as Leonora and a 1959 performance of Maurizio in Adriana Lecouvreur opposite Magda Olivero in the title role.
During his early c
Escape from Alcatraz (film)
Escape from Alcatraz is a 1979 American prison thriller film directed by Don Siegel. It is an adaptation of the 1963 non-fiction book of the same name by J. Campbell Bruce and dramatizes the 1962 prisoner escape from the maximum security prison on Alcatraz Island; the film stars Clint Eastwood, Jack Thibeau and Fred Ward as prisoners Frank Morris, Clarence Anglin and John Anglin. Allen West was played by Larry Hankin. Patrick McGoohan portrays the suspicious, vindictive warden and Danny Glover appears in his film debut. Escape from Alcatraz marks the fifth and final collaboration between Siegel and Eastwood, following Coogan's Bluff, Two Mules for Sister Sara, The Beguiled and Dirty Harry. On January 18, 1960, Frank Morris arrives at the maximum security prison Alcatraz. Soon after arriving, he is sent in to meet the warden, who curtly informs him that no inmate has successfully escaped from Alcatraz. Among the inmates, Morris makes acquaintances with the eccentric Litmus, fond of desserts, English, a black inmate serving two life sentences for killing two white men in self-defense and the elderly artist and chrysanthemum grower Doc. Morris makes an enemy of a rapist called Wolf, who harasses him in the showers and attacks him in the prison yard with a knife.
When the warden discovers that Doc has painted an ungainly caricature of him, as well as other policemen on the island itself, he permanently removes Doc's painting privileges. Morris encounters bank robber brothers John and Clarence Anglin, who are his old friends from another prison sentence, he makes the acquaintance of prisoner Charley Butts. During mealtime, Morris places one of Doc's chrysanthemums at the table in honor of Doc, but the warden stops by and crushes it. Litmus is enraged; the warden coldly reminds Morris that "some men are destined never to leave Alcatraz—alive." Morris notices that the concrete around the grille in his cell is weak and can be chipped away, which evolves into an escape plan. Over the next few months Morris, the Anglins and Butts dig through the walls of their cells with spoons, make papier-mâché dummies to act as decoys, construct a raft out of raincoats. On June 11, 1962, the inmates decide to leave. Wolf has been released from solitary confinement and prepares to stab Morris with a knife, but English is able to intercept him.
That night, the Anglins and Butts plan to meet in the passageway and escape. Butts fails to rendezvous with them. Carrying the flotation gear and the Anglins access the roof and avoid the searchlights. From there, they scramble down the side of the building into the prison yard, climb over a barbed-wire fence and make their way to the shoreline of the island where they inflate the raft; the three men enter the water. When their escape is discovered the following morning, a massive manhunt ensues; the warden does not want to blemish his perfect record and insists that the men drowned, despite no bodies being found. On a rock on the shore of Angel Island, he finds a chrysanthemum and throws it in the water after being told that they do not grow there. Alcatraz was closed shortly after the true events. Screenwriter Richard Tuggle spent six months researching and writing a screenplay based on the 1963 non-fiction account by J. Campbell Bruce, he went to the Writers Guild and received a list of literary agents who would accept unsolicited manuscripts.
He submitted a copy to each, to anybody else in the business that he could cajole into reading it. Everyone rejected it, saying it had poor dialogue and characters, lacked a love interest, that the public was not interested in prison stories. Tuggle decided to deal directly with filmmakers, he called the agent for director Don Siegel and lied, saying he had met Siegel at a party and the director had expressed interest in reading his script. The agent forwarded the script to Siegel, who read it, liked it, passed it on to Clint Eastwood. Eastwood was drawn to the role as ringleader Frank Morris and agreed to star, providing Siegel direct under the Malpaso banner. Siegel insisted that it be a Don Siegel film and outmaneuvered Eastwood by purchasing the rights to the film for $100,000; this created a rift between the two friends. Although Siegel agreed for it to be a Malpaso-Siegel production, Siegel went to Paramount Pictures, a rival studio, never directed an Eastwood picture again. Although Alcatraz had its own power plant, it was no longer functional, 15 miles of cable were required to connect the island to San Francisco's electricity.
As Siegel and Tuggle worked on the script, the producers paid $500,000 to restore the decaying prison and recreate the cold atmosphere. Many of the improvements were kept intact; the dangerous escape down the prison wall and into the water was performed without stunt doubles by Eastwood, Fred Ward, Jack Thibeau, who had both been cast for their athleticism. Director Siegel twice thought; the film implied. The character Charlie Butts is fictional. A fourth inmate, Allen West
Juan Domingo Perón was an Argentine Army general and politician. After serving in several government positions, including Minister of Labor and Vice President, he was elected President of Argentina three times, serving from June 1946 to September 1955, when he was overthrown in a coup d'état, from October 1973 until his death in July 1974. During his first presidential term, Perón was supported by his second wife, Eva Duarte, they were immensely popular among many Argentines. Eva died in 1952, Perón was elected to a second term, serving from 1952 until 1955. During the following period of two military dictatorships, interrupted by two civilian governments, the Peronist party was outlawed and Perón was exiled; when the left-wing Peronist Héctor José Cámpora was elected President in 1973, Perón returned to Argentina and was soon after elected President for a third time. His third wife, María Estela Martínez, known as Isabel Perón, was elected as Vice President on his ticket and succeeded him as President upon his death in 1974.
Although they are still controversial figures and Evita Perón are nonetheless considered icons by the Peronists. The Peróns' followers praised their efforts to eliminate poverty and to dignify labour, while their detractors considered them demagogues and dictators; the Peróns gave their name to the political movement known as Peronism, which in present-day Argentina is represented by the Justicialist Party. Peronism is a political phenomenon that draws support from both the political left and political right. Peronism is not considered a traditional party, but a political movement, because of the wide variety of people who call themselves Peronists, there is great controversy surrounding his personality. A number of following Argentinian presidents are considered Peronists, including administrations covering a majority of the democratic era: Héctor Cámpora, Isabel Perón, Adolfo Rodríguez Saá, Eduardo Duhalde, Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Kirchner. Juan Domingo Perón was born in Lobos, Buenos Aires Province, on 8 October 1895.
He was the son of Mario Tomás Perón. The Perón branch of his family was Spanish, but settled in Spanish Sardinia, from which his great-grandfather emigrated in the 1830s, he had Spanish and French Basque ancestry. Perón's great-grandfather became a successful shoe merchant in Buenos Aires, his grandfather was a prosperous physician; the couple had their two sons out of wedlock and married in 1901. His father moved to the Patagonia region that year, where he purchased a sheep ranch. Juan himself was sent away in 1904 to a boarding school in Buenos Aires directed by his paternal grandmother, where he received a strict Catholic upbringing, his father's undertaking failed, he died in Buenos Aires in 1928. The youth entered the National Military College in 1911 at age 16 and graduated in 1913, he excelled less in his studies than in athletics boxing and fencing. Perón began his military career in an Infantry post in Entre Ríos, he went on to command the post, in this capacity mediated a prolonged labor conflict in 1920 at La Forestal a leading firm in forestry in Argentina.
He earned instructor's credentials at the Superior War School, in 1929 was appointed to the Army General Staff Headquarters. Perón married his first wife, Aurelia Tizón, on 5 January 1929. Perón was recruited by supporters of the director of the War Academy, General José Félix Uriburu, to collaborate in the latter's plans for a military coup against President Hipólito Yrigoyen. Perón, who instead supported General Agustín Justo, was banished to a remote post in northwestern Argentina after Uriburu's successful coup in September 1930, he was promoted to the rank of Major the following year and named to the faculty at the Superior War School, where he taught military history and published a number of treatises on the subject. He served as military attaché in the Argentine Embassy in Chile from 1936 to 1938, returned to his teaching post, his wife was diagnosed with uterine cancer that year, died on 10 September at age 30. Perón was assigned by the War Ministry to study mountain warfare in the Italian Alps in 1939.
He attended the University of Turin for a semester and served as a military observer in countries across Europe. He studied Benito Mussolini's Italian Fascism, Nazi Germany, other European governments of the time, concluding in his summary, Apuntes de historia militar, that social democracy could be a viable alternative to liberal democracy or totalitarian regimes, he returned to Argentina in 1941, served as an Army skiing instructor in Mendoza Province. In 1943 a coup d'état was led by General Arturo Rawson against conservative President Ramón Castillo, fraudulently elected to office; the military was opposed to Governor Robustiano Patrón Costas, Castillo's hand-picked successor, the principal landowner in Salta Province, as well as a main stockholder in its sugar industry. As a colonel and his power of premier minister, Perón took a significant part in the military coup by the GOU against the conservative civilian government of Castillo. At first an assistant to Secretary of War General Edelmiro Farrell, under the administration of General Pe